Event: AMMUN 2002
Students: Amna Al Sager and Hessa Al Malallah
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2002-2003 Team page
Argentinaís official is The Argentine Republic. It was nicknamed Argentina by its people since itís a shorter and is easier to pronounce.
Argentinaís government runs a republic system.
Argentina gained its independence from Spain 9th of July 1816. After its independence Argentina experienced a great deal of political conflicts, which were mainly between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. In 1976 (after World War II) democracy was torn away from Argentina by a group of military officers that took power. Democracy returned by 1983 and since then elections have and still are being held all over Argentina.
Today there are many different political parties in Argentina such as: Action for the Republic or AR, Front for a Country in Solidarity or FREPASO, Justicialist Party or PJ, Radical Civic Union or UCR.
Argentina is considered very wealthy in its natural resources, mainly in fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium. Its wide range of agriculturethat mainly consists of: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, and wheat. Agriculture and other natural resources face many natural hazards such as earthquakes (in San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza), and windstorms and heavy flooding (in Pampas and the northeast). Other environmental hazards also affect the natural resources like soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution.
Argentina is considered fortunate compared to the other South American countries for being able to grow ample meat, vegetablesÖetc. and produce manufactured goods. It gained $26.5 billion on exports in year 2000 and its exports mainly evolved aroundedible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles, machinery and equipment, chemicals, metal manufactures, and plastics.
Argentina trades with all countries around the world. Its main export partners are Brazil (24%), EU (21%), and the US (11%). On the other hand its main import partners are Brazil (21%), EU (28%), and the US (22%) as well.
Argentina was estimated in 2001 to have a population of 37,384,816. The population growth rate is average at 1.15% (2001 est.).
Argentina consists of different ethnic groups, which are: 97% white (mostly Spanish and Italian), and the other 3% were mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups. Although English, Italian, German, and French are spoken widely throughout Argentina, the official language spoken in Argentina is Spanish.
Argentina also consists of different religions which are the Roman catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other religions (4%).
The females in Argentina have a life expectancy rate of 78.82 years. While the males have a life expectancy rate of 71.88 years. The average life expectancy of most of the population is about 75.26 years. In 2001 the average birth rate was 18.41 births out of a population of 1000. Meanwhile the death rate was 7.58 deaths out of a population of 1000. In 1995 the literacy rate was 96.2% of the population of Argentina.
In 1998 the number of telephones used in Argentina was 7.5 million. 3 million mobile phones (cellular phones) were being used in 1999. 24.3 million radios and 7.95 million television sets were found throughout Argentina.
The people of Argentina are mostly white (97%) which is an enormous amount compared to other South American countries.
Argentinaís military took power of the country for 7 years (from 1976-1983).
Argentina has a quite large range of military facilities. Its military branches consisted of: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, and National Aeronautical Police Force.
A male has to exceed the age of 20 to be allowed to join the military. The manpower that is available to the military of Argentina is 9,404,434 (2001 est.). Military manpower that are fit for military services are males from ages 15 Ė 49; 7,625,425 (2001 est.). The males that are reaching the military age soon are about 335,085 (2001 est.).
Argentinaís military expedentured are an annual estimate of $4.3 billion.
Argentina does not really have any defense needs. If it wished it is able to take the Falkland Islands from the UK with its standing government.
1. The Question of reforming the current United Nations structure including; possible elimination of veto power, more regional representation and more diverse methods of funding amongst others.
Argentina thinks that the UNís system, in general, is fine the way it is. The structure doesnít need a lot of reforming. Argentina believes that all countries and regions from all over the world should be represented. Especially the regions that are in need of help. Argentina believes that the funding is in a bad situation. The Un is basically relying on one country, as a source for income and that should be changed.
Argentina believes that there should be semi-permanent membership with veto power that includes five rotating seats for two-year terms from among Japan, Germany, Italy, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Canada, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, and Ukraine. Since they are the most powerful countries other than the countries that already practice the veto power. All in all Argentina believes that the UN is doing the best it can possibly do to achieve its goal, which is to achieve world peace.
2. The Question of global cooperation to solve international water crises, including the role of multilateral agencies as well as UN sub-organs in providing and sustaining sufficient supplies of water to all nations.
In the present Argentina is a country with many water sources, but the history of Argentina shows things differently. The climate, agriculture, and declining economy have caused many water problems in Argentina. So have the reduced amount of rainfall and the pollution of the rivers, and other technical problems. As time passed the countryís situation changed. Now, a minor percentage of the water in Argentina is polluted, but that is not a major problem since Argentina has other sources. Argentina has suffered from an additional amount of water (such as flooding), but lately it hasnít suffered from a reduced amount of water.
Argentinaís constitution declares water to be "a public good and a function of local, and provisional government"; therefore it agrees that every country deserves to have a good supply of clean, usable water. Argentina has contributed a large amount of money to improve water services in the country. And believes that The UN should do the same. Water crises lead to health hazards, which may cause the death of many human beings. Thatís why Argentina believes that the UN should help the nations that suffer from water crises. And should do all that is in its power to solve this problem.
3. The Role of the United Nations in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts.
Argentina supports this issue. In fact, Argentina emphasizes its importance because of the many wars, conflicts, and civil misunderstandings that the world is going through is an inflating problem. The world as well as Argentina must get together and vote, amend a resolution that will help the countries raise their standard of living after the recover from conflicts as well and give aids on loans because that way, poor countries will be able to repay their debts and still feel grateful!
4. The Role of the United Nations in placing a framework that clearly defines womenís rights and sets guidelines that ensure the implementations of these rights.
Womanís rights are defined in Argentina, but they are rarely recognised! Like all underdeveloped countried and developing countries, womenís right are being ignored. Guidelines and detailed laws are essential in recognising a womanís rights globally. Argentina applauds such resolution and has submitted one! J
Submitted by: Argentina
Delegate: Amna Al-Sager
Issue: The Question of global cooperation to solve international water crises, including the role of multilateral agencies as well as UN sub-organs in providing and sustaining sufficient supplies of water to all nations.
Defining Water crisis " Lack of clean, usable, fresh, un-polluted water; leading to poverty and the emerging of water-borne diseases"
Aware of the importance of water in our social, economic, political and spiritual live,
Bearing in mind that water is the structure of life and itís importance cannot be overestimated,
Deeply concerned that water crises lead to poverty, which leads to the spreading of diseases, which sometimes cause,
Taking into consideration that "every year, more than 5 million people die as a result of poor water quality, more thalf the victims are children" as said by Secretary-General Kofi Annan,
Taking Note that "About one third of the world's population already lives in countries with moderate to high water stress" as quoted by Secretary-General Kofi Annan,
Welcoming the fact that the World Water Council has organized two successful Forums trying to help with the Water crisis issue,
Expressing Its Satisfaction for the World Commission on Water for the Twenty-first Century for guiding the development of the "Long-Term Vision on Water, Life and the Environment in the Twenty-first Century,"
Viewing with Appreciation that some countries have adopted integrated approaches to freshwater management, and created institutions for that purpose,
Supports Argentina for spending a large amount of money to improve water services in the country,
Deeply disappointed that some parts of Argentina receive less than 200mm of rainfall annually,
Alarmed by the water disputes around the world such as the conflict of Tigris,
Deeply concerned That the UN has not come-up with a way to stop water crises,
Proclaims that every nation and its people deserve the proper amount of clean water that they need,
1. Declares the creation of the organization (UNORWC) United Nations Organization of the Reduction of Water Crises, that will be composed of 30 seats for the 30 voted chair members, not including medical aid, technicians and a groups of scientists, the location of its headquarters will be decided by the UN once this resolution is passed,
2. Affirms the scientists and technicians working for them UNORWC will be specialized in transportation, marine biology and treatment of polluted water, and like problems,
3. Encourages any country that is financially capable and has a source of water that has been polluted or ruined in any way, to try its best to sanitize or clean the water and return it to its normal state by using the latest equipment and technology,
4. Further notes that the UNORWC will not treat a polluted water source if it has not showed any signs of harm or danger to any living organism,
5. Designates that for any polluted water source to be treated the UNORWC will have to carry out the following steps:
a. Whenever a country is having problems with its water sources it informs the UNORWC, the chair members will decide if the problem is serious enough to take action,
b. If the chair members are not sure they will send the technicians and scientists to check the water sources of the country that has issued a complaint and will inform the UNORWC how serious the condition is,
c. The scientists and technicians will thoroughly check the water sources with their latest information before reporting what is to be done,
d. Check if the country is financially capable of paying for the costs of the treatment of the water source,
e. If the country isnít financially capable of paying for the treatment, the UNORWC will provide the country with the latest equipment as needed (depending on the scientistís and technicianís reports),
f. Provide temporary clean water for the people of the country for a specific period of time set by the members of the UNORWC is essential,
g. Provide medical aid (if needed) is essential,
6. Confirms that the UNORWC will hire sources of transportation to transport water from country to country (such as: ships, underground pipes), whenever needed,
7. Resolves the UNORWC will do the following for the countries that do not have the slightest source of water, or not enough water:
a. Check if the country can afford to buy clean water,
b. If it can not afford it the UNORWC will buy water from the closest country and transport it to the country in need,
c. Offer free medical assistance to the countries in need,
8. Further Resolves The UNORWC will do the following for a group of countries that are having problems sharing one water source:
a. Get the countries with the conflict to sign a contract that allows the UNORWC to take action and try to help them,
b. Compose an arbitration committee that will consist of a representative of each country with the conflict and another representative that will be chosen by the UN,
c. Divide the water source according to the amount of land each country consists of and the number of citizens in each country,
d. The UNORWC and the arbitration committee will make sure that once the water source is divided none of the countries violate each-others water source,
9. Confirms that if anyone is caught violating, or discarding toxic wastes, or polluting in anyway, its countries or another countryís water sources, the security council will take action.
Hessah Bader Saleh
Kuwait Ė Al Bayan Bilingual School
3. The Role of the United Nations in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts.
Applauding the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council for the twelfth meeting of the Group of Experts on Public Administration and Finance which resumed itís fiftieth session;
Noting Further the General Assembly resolution 49/136, the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (DDSMS) that convened the twelfth meeting of the Group of Experts on Public Administration and Finance, held at the United Nations Headquarters July 31 to August 11 of 1995. This meeting was preparatory to examination by the General Assembly of the question of public development;
Approving the report of the Group of Experts that has been submitted to the Economic and Social Council at its resumed session and the input of preparation of the Secretary Generalís compiled report that has been discussed by the General Assembly;
Expressing Its Appreciation of the efforts of the preparatory committee composed of country representatives, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the contribution of the World Bank, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the International Institute of Administrative Sciences and Harvard School of Government, with DDSMS chairing the committee as well as its recommendations in the areas of:
A) strengthening capacity in public administration,
B) the role of public administration in promoting social development,
C) development of infrastructure facilities and protecting the environment,
D) management of development programs for countries recovering from conflict;
Expressing Its Satisfaction that the Technical Committee (TC) further developed specific topics within the fore-stated themes including:
A) sustained economical growth,
B) promoting social development,
C) facilitating infrastructure development and protecting the environment,
D) promoting partnerships,
D) managing development and,
E) enhancing policy development capacity,
F) organizational strengthening,
G) improving civil service systems
H) strengthening financial management for development,
I) developing human resources for the public sectors of recovering countries,
J) improving efficiency and performance in the restoration, including crisis management and rehabilitation of governments;
Having Studied the Economic and Social Council as very active UN organ in assisting developing countries and countries with economies in transition;
Noting the substantial increase in the United Nations role in The Role of the United Nations in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts;
Noting that this wide variety of public administration activities in institutional strengthening and capacity building is important aspects of peace building;
Viewing With Appreciation the contribution of Member States, the UN agencies, IGOs, NGOs, research institutes as well as the private sector in rebuilding countries that are recovering from crisis;
1. Takes Note of all efforts of the UN and Member States stated above;
2. Congratulates the General Assemblyís wide and massive contribution to the Role of the United Nations in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts;
3. Expresses Its Hope that such contribution will not cease or weaken at any cost and emphasizes the importance of eliminating socio-economic factors leading to instability;
4. Resolved the inclusion of the Committee of Records to the UN research department. Its purpose would be:
A) to secure all documents submitted in this field and act as an administration office for legible information and records concerning the countries recovering from conflicts that will be accessible to the General Secretariat and the Security Council and the General Assembly, or other committees, by request through the General Secretary;
B) to margin cases to their severity factor according to the nature and strength of the disaster (local or international conflict);
5. Further Notes that the Committee of Records will:
A) consist of an administration appointed by the General Secretariat according to efficiency and profession;
B) have a headquarter office residing in the United Nations Headquarters (New York);
6. Further Requests that the records (and proposals) dealt with by the Committee of Records be scanned classified according to the following criteria:
A) which conflict concerns them,
B) which region of the world are they concerning,
C) are they a new topic? (If so, then they are submitted to the General Secretariat for approval of case filing as efficiently substantial or not),
D) who are the parties involved, whether there is a plan of remedy or not. If so then the plan is identified and forwarded to the General Secretary with the proposal or research or record submitted for revision and/or allocation of assembly discussion on the table;
7. Emphasizes the importance the role of this committee as a major source of information in the area of rebuilding countries recovering from crises.
Assembly A: Amna Al Sager
A warm, welcoming greeting comes to you from the land of the most amazing culture. The Land where the natural wonders attract people from all corners of the world. Where you can always hear the clatter of seashells in our many beaches. From the northern deserts to the southern Andean Cordillera, from Iguazu Falls to the magnificent desolation of Patagonia, Argentina Welcomes you all.
My fellow delegates Argentina would like to draw attention to all the water crises that the world is suffering from. People are dieing, children are starving, and wars are being started. The reason for all of this is the need of water. People die every day because they are drinking polluted water. Countries fight, and kill innocent people, just to own a source of clean water. Water is everything. Water is life.
Sadly, not all nations have a efficient supply of clean, fresh, drinkable water. That causes many problems for the citizens and thee economy.
No resolution can completely end water crises all around the world. But Argentina believes that this resolution is a big step in the right direction. Since all the countries present today have signed The Declaration Of Human Rights, then Argentina hopes that this issue would be resolved in this meeting.
As well, Argentina applauds highlight on all other issues, as they are similarly important to other countries with different crisees.
Gracias Por Todo,
Thanks to all.Assembly B Hessa Al Malallah: Hola! A warm, welcoming greeting comes to you from the land of the most amazing culture where the natural wonders attracts people from all corners of the world. This is the land where you can always hear the clatter of seashells upon our many beaches. From the northern deserts to the southern Andean Cordillera, from Iguazu Falls to the magnificent desolation of Patagonia, Argentina would like to warmly welcome everyone to AMMUN. Our world is fraught with problems, ranging from political disputes in the Center to illicit trafficking in the East and West. The Argentine would like to highlight the issue of rehabilitation after crises. Over the past fifty years, Argentina has witnessed the turmoil that swept the world, ranging from local revolutions, to the by-long-standing conflicts. Historically, Argentina has not taken a stance on these issues, but remained neutral. We believe that international co-operation is needed to mediate the countries in conflict and recovery. We believe that the international community should take necessary steps in assisting the build after crises to promote peace and stability. Grazia!
During Argentinaís stay in Jordan, Argentina accomplished the following: Merged its resolution with various other delegates and got 20 other countries to co-sign its resolution. The resolution was then passed through the approval panel and debated in the general assembly "A". Unfortunately, the resolution did not pass due to the close vote of 30 votes against the resolution and 27 votes for the resolution. In conclusion, The Delegate of Argentina learned numerous things during the AMMUN event, and represented the citizens of Argentina in a admirable way.