Organization: The European Union
Event: AMMUN 2002
Students: Dalia Al Awaadi and Abdullah Al Bourhamah
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2002-2003 Team page
A couple years after World War II many European countries agreed to co-operate and said that the event of the French and German conflicts will never happen again. So they decided to create a union between most European states and this union is now called the European Union (EU). The main power of the EU is in The Council, which makes most of the decisions that are made by the European states. The EU is separated in this order:
The European Council meets three or four times a year and takes decisions that require resolution or impulsion at that political level, sometimes because ministers have been unable to resolve and issue in the council, sometimes because a package deal involving many subjects, such as the Maastricht or Amsterdam Treaty, has to be assembled. The European Council also has to "define general political guideline". Its rotating presidency is an important function, both for the efficient management of current business and for launching new projects. Also the European Parliament consists of the numbers of MEPs from each state: 99 Germany, 87 Italy, 87 France, 87 UK, 64 Spain, 31 Netherlands, 25 Portugal, 25 Greece, 25 Belgium, 22 Sweden, 21 Austria, 16 Denmark, 16 Finland, 15 Ireland, 6 Luxemburg.
The main exports in Europe are machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods.
Europe is dense with many nationalities, and many religions. Total population: 375 million (2000) Population density: (pop/sqkm) average: 115 varying from 15 (FL) to 382 (NL) (1998) Life expectancy: 75 (males) 81 (females) (1998)
The EU as a whole does not have a military but has the support of European countries, the US and the UN
Europe consist of 3 000 square kilometers.
One of the reasons Eastern European countries created the EU is to cooperate with each other and be as one powerful country, one of things they did to be stable, is by creating a stable monetary system called the Euro, however Sweden and England disagree with the idea. The EU is a very independent country, they depend on foodstuffs like; wheat, rice, cocoa beans, sugar, coffee, soybeans, tobacco and coarse grains. And they also depend on agricultures like pasture, forests, arable, and desert waste, and they like to export technology, and England and Norway both have oil, also the EU have many steels, coals, uranium and especially animal products. Since the EU have many rich countries, they donít have many debts to pay. The EU are members in many memberships like the European Economic Community (EEC), the coal and steel industry (ECSC), the Erratum, NATO, European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the United Nation. They also have many countries to trade to like the USA, Japan, Canada, Africa, Latin America, OPEC, former Soviet Union, Europe agreement countries, other OECD, and many Asians countries like China, India, Malaysia.
World War two affected the economy of Europe. Many Europeans tried to solve this problem by uniting with other European countries. Two French stamen proposed an idea to regulate the coal and steel industry (ECSC) in West Germany and France. Six European governments signed Treaty of Paris in 1951; Belgium, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands and West Germany along with France. The coal and steel industry was established in 1952, but the government of Britain refused to join the treaty. IN 1955 the six nations of the ECSC agreed to examine the possibility of keeping the economy stable. It resulted in the two treaties of Rome in 1957, which created two communities : European Economic Community (EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) This treaty was of little importance toward members since each national government kept control of the nuclear power programs.
For the next 12 years following it the EEC began a program that included the development of a common tariff for imports from the rest of the world, and the implementation of a common support and management policy toward agriculture.
IN 1960, as a result of the formation of then EEC, the UK and six other non EEC countries formed the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The following year the UK, seeing the success of the EEC, began negotiating toward membership. This was vetoed in 1963, however , by the president of France, Charles De Gaulle due mainly to Britainís close ties with the US, He again vetoed Britain membership in 1967.
IN July 1967, the three communities: EEC, ECSC and Euratom merged into one institution called the European Community (EC). There wasnít any progress toward enlarging the EC nor adopting new proposals until 1969, after de Gaulle resigned as president of France. The next president George Pompidou was more open to new initiatives within the EC. IN 1969 a meeting of the leaders of each member state was held in Hague. This meeting made way for a permanent financial arrangement for the EC and the development of a policy for cooperation among member nations as well as negotiations allowing new members; UK, Ireland, Denmark and Norway.
Expansion of the EC: in 1972 after two years of negotiation between members, treaties were signed, that admitted UK, Ireland, Denmark and Norway. However Norway voted against membership in a national referendums. In the UK debate4 over membership continued and in 1974 an election was held to renegotiation the UKís membership condition, it resulted in limited changes, but created uncertainly within the EC for a long period of time. IN 1975a divided labor government approved continued membership and called a national referendum on the issue. Despite strong opposition with the British government the people voted for a continuation of membership.
In 1979 and 1980 the British government claimed that its contribution far exceeded the benefits it received. This was solved when several EC members agreed to ay a greater share of the ECís cost. In 1984 t6he EC members agreed to give Britain a partial rebate of its annual payments beginning with 800$ million for that year. In 1981 Greece entered the EC and after eight years of negotiations Spain and Portugal joined in 1986. During the 1970ís and 1980ís many important developments took place which included he expansion of EC aid to under developed countries.
One of the important development in the EC during the 1980ís, was the move toward a single European market . The most prominent person in favor of this project was the ex-French finance minister who became president of the European Commission, Jacques Delors. At a summit meeting in Milan, Italy Jacques proposed a seven year timetable for removing nearly all the remaining trade barriers between the member states. The European Council approved of this idea, and the goal of achieving as Single European Market among member states. This eventually led to the formation of the EU. One of the problems that faced the EUís economic integration was the Common Agriculture policy (CAP) During the 1980ís two third of the EU expenses was taken up by CAP. CAP encouraged the production of large surpluses of some goods hat the EC committed to buy, it resulted in financial support being given to some countries at the expense of others. A emergency meeting occurred on a framework to limit the payments. In 1989 Agriculture subsidies comprised less than 60% of total EC spending for the first time since 1960ís.
The issue on achieving the single market highlighted the ECís need for greater power to resolve all the issues regarding the elimination if trade barriers. The Council of ministers had to reach an agreement on every decision hat gave each member the power to veto any decision. The Single European Act was introduced in 1985 that was approved by the 12 members in 1987, which established he major changes of the ECís structure, since the treaties of Rome was established in 1957. Among the changes was the weighted majority system which helped speed upon the process of implementing the single market .. The Single European Act made more important changes. The Single European Council, which had provided the reason for the single market, and given formal statue;
1) The European Parliament was well respected and had a great influence
2) The member states agreed to adopt policies and standards on matters such as taxes and employment to health and the environment
3) A court to hear the appeals of the EC ruling rough by individual organization or corporations. Each member states resolved to align their neighbors using EMS as their model. Supporters of economic and monetary union argued that it is not possible to have a single,market if there are restrictions on money transfers and exchange premiums. A three stage plan of achieving EMU was suggested. Also at the same time, there was a proposal of a social charter of human rights. The UK disagreed with both proposals concerned that their severity would be threatened during the expansion of the EC. However, eventually the UK joined the plan of the EMU as so many changes occurred in Europe, caused the need of united response from the EC. As communism crumbled in ease in Europe, many European countries, asked the EC for economic and political countries, The EC agreed to help the communist countries, but at a emergency meeting in 1990 and exception was made for East Germany to join the EC by reunification with West Germany, and France proposed an intergovernmental conference (IGC) to establish European unity for political reasons. The British prime minister Margaret Thatcher (Iron Lady) purposed calls for increasing unity for EC. In 1990 John Major became prime minister and adopted a more relaxed approach toward the idea of European Unity. The IGC with a similar conference working on a timetable foe the EMU, which began a series of agreement that become the Treaty of the European Union
GA 1: Abdullah Bourhamah
The Question of reforming the current United Nations structure including; possible elimination of veto power, more regional representation and more diverse methods of funding amongst others
The Security Council, made by five permanent members have not been equally allowing other nations around the world to join the session and the EU believes that the reform of the Security Council is needed. Also many countries around the world agree with the EU that the Security Council needs a reform for many reasons. The first reason why the EU believes that the Security Council needs a reform is that the equity of the nations would be more noticeable, and so that the nations would feel more into the session then just a guest at the session. The EU also believes that the Security needs an expansion in the non-permanent seats and an elimination of the veto power.
The Question of global cooperation to solve international water crises, including the role of multilateral agencies as well as UN sub-organs in providing and sustaining sufficient supplies of water to all nations.
The water crisis has been going on since the beginning of time, and the UN was made to stop any conflict between nations. There has been many incidents lately dealing with the water crisis including the event of Iraq and Turkey, and also many other nations with rivers and lakes. There are also many countries that need water but the government cannot provide this water for them. So the EU believes that in solving the issue of the water crisis is a hard but very essential to the General Assembly. The EU would aid any country willing to present a resolution that would help the problem of water involving many nations
GA 2: Dalia Al Awaadi
Issue 3: The Role of the UN in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts.
Defining internal conflicts: conflicts regarding a nations domestic affair.
Defining external conflicts: conflicts relating to a countries foreign affair. Numerous countries have been through many conflicts of which are internal conflicts or external conflicts. When defining internal conflicts, many examples will prove to be useful; like the civil war in Lebanon, which lasted many years. In addition another example would be the civil war, which continues to this day in Somalia. Whereas for External conflicts, a good example would be Kuwait, during the threat of the Iraqi invasion, which consequences until today. United Nations role always been very vital and necessary towards rebuilding countries which have suffered the wrath of wars or conflicts; the role of the United Nation has many faces: political, economic and humanitarian.
United Nations started its activities by a command given by the Security Council, which empowered the United Nation to fulfill its duties by helping these countries. From the political aspects, the United Nation sent peacekeeping missions to stop political and or military conflicts from occurring. From the economic fields to study the needs of countries in need of rebuilding their economy. As for the humanitarian aspect, UN sent it sub organs medical teams to cure and prevent any diseases caused by the occurring conflicts. In addition UN carried its mission further on by providing the people of the region that were victims of the conflicts with food and shelter. Also the UN would always convince other international agencies such as the High Commission for Refugees and many international foundations to help recover and rebuild these countries which are the victims of either internal or external conflicts.
Issue 4: The role of the UN in placing a framework that clearly defines "womenís rights" and sets guild lines that ensure the implementation of these rightsÖ
The United Nations created the most comprehensive treaty regarding womenís rights called: The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which provides the equality between men and women in the enjoyment of their civil, political, economical, social and cultural rights. The Discrimination against women is to eliminate through legal policy and programmatic measures and through temporary special measure to accelerate womenís equality to men. State parties are required to end all the discriminations against women and to ensure their equality with men in their political and public life providing their nationality education, employment, health, economic and social benefits. All the states that are members and signed the convention have the obligations to help women overcome the problem that they are facing in this rural area. This convention is the only human rights treaty to affirm the right of womenís rights.
The EU always want to be assure that everyone lives in a peaceful environment, receive good education, have medical and health insurance and can earn money to support their lives. Regarding the issue about conflicts the EU looks forward to keep peace all over the world, and to stop destructive weapons, that can destroy and kill innocents lives.
Delegation: European Union
Delegate: Abdullah Bourahmah
Issue: The Question of reforming the current United Nations structure including; possible elimination of veto power, more regional representation and more diverse methods of funding amongst others
Defining veto as the power to reject any that has been proposed in a resolution,
Affirming the role of the United Nations Security Council, in maintaining peace and stability in the world within and between regions,
Emphasizing that the EU would need a more active role in the Security Council or any country in the European area, especially Germany,
Pointing out that Africa, Latin America and the Islamic World have no permanent voice that they can genuinely speak for the international community,
Fully alarmed by the constant deliberate desecration of justice in the Security Council,
Pointing out that the ambassador of Pakistan has stated "An increase in the non-permanent category would help remove the major grievance of the general membership at the lack of opportunity to participate in and contribute to the work of the Council", and many nations around the world agree with him according to official UN document,
Recognizing and applauding the work of the Security Council; yet
Noting with concern the lack of Democratic Decision making and the fundamental contradiction of Article 24 of the Charter which assumes that the Security Council acts on behalf of all the members of the United Nations,
Bearing in mind that equity in the Security Council should be achieved and promoted through the removal of the veto power,
1. Resolves that an additional membership of the Security Council in which it will consist of 18 non-permanent states that rotate every 2 years in which the seating would be divided as follow:
A.) The Middle East would have two seats due to regional conflicts (i.e. Kuwait/Iraq and Palestine/Israel),
B) Asia three seats due the massive size of the continent and the economic affairs between many countries,
C.) North America one seats due to the fact that the U.S. is a permanent member and also that there is no conflicts in that region,
D.) South America three seats due to the economis problems and poverty of that region,
E.) Australia and Oceanic two seats since there are only two countries on that region there is no need for more that two,
F.) Europe four seats since there has been conflicts between many nations in Europe and is needed to have more members,
G.) Africa three seats due to the fact thatr there is many conflicts between nations in this region and the high level of poverty and malnutrition,
2. Requests the elimination of the veto power is needed to for the equity of the Security Council and will commence in a slow and organized approach:
a. The permanent 5 members would have the full veto right until 2005, which should only be allowed in peacekeeping missions,
b. Starting from the year 2005 until 2015, when 3 permanent SC members go against a resolution it will be considered as one veto,
c. Starting from the year 2015 until 2025, the veto power of one permanent member will be an equivalent of 5 non-permanent members,
d. Starting from 2025 until 2030, the vote of all five permanent members of the Security Council will the equivalent of eight non-permanent members,
e. the veto power should be eliminated by the year 2030;
3. Urges all member states to support an increase in the membership of the Security Council since this will:
a. Introduce diverse points of view in each topic, which will result in more thoughtful and rightful decisions.
b. Give a chance for nations to express their policies towards issues.
4. Encourages all of the permanent 5 members of the Security Council to vote for this resolution since it solves the question of equity slowly and in a civilized manner;
5. Further encourages all non-permanent member states to vote for this resolution since it promotes equity within the Security Council further more;
From the leaning tower of Pisa to the mysterious smile of the Mona Lisa in the French Lovre, from the ancient heritage of Greek culture and the distinguish quality of the English to the graceful flamingos dance of Spain and the delicious Danish pastry of Denmark. I present to you the European Union. The European Union believes that all people should be given their rights under no circumstances should they be different because of gender. Illiteracy is a virus spread among the population, especially among women, and the EU believes that it should be demolish, for education is a vital part of todayís modern world. Without education the people cannot produce and will then decline the economy and the government, which will lead to a failing community. The EU would like to call upon all countries to cooperate within this issue and hopefully will establish a new international community where women and men, both stand equal on the terms of rights.
As representing the European Union, Abdullah B and I have discovered many amazing things about the EU, In the begining i didnt quite knew what was an EU, but in the end i found out the power the EU can gain and have.
Such as during our trip to AMMAN the EU has debated and talked several times and was always needed by other countries for help since the EU is a big and strong community. However the only problem of being the EU is that you cannot vote, but if you come to think of it, you would see a lot of advantage for not voting such as you wont hurt any countries feeling and you can enjoy people glaring and shouting at one another.
In breaking things down, the EU have enjoyed the whole trip and Dalia and I experienced a very strong big and trustful community like the EU.