Country: Nicaragua

Country: Nicaragua

Event: AMMUN 2002

Students: Nasser Al Aujan and Mishal Al Rashoud

 

 


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The Nicaraguan National Anthem





Nicaragua



Nicaragua


 




Country Profile

 

1.Political Structure:

Nicaragua is a republic country divided into 15 administrative divisions and 2 autonomous regions*: Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan,

Rivas, Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*.

Legal System: civil law system

Executive Branch: The chief of state is President Arnoldo Aleman who is also the head of government and Vice President Leopoldo Navarro.

Head of Government: President Arnoldo Aleman who is also the chief of state and Vice President Leopoldo Navarro.

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president.

Elections: The president and vice president are elected together to serve five-year terms.

Judicial Branch: Supreme Court, which is made up of 16 judges, elected by the National Assembly to serve seven-year terms.

Political Parties and Leaders: Conservative Partyof Nicaragua or PCN [Dr. Fernando AGUERO Rocha]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Virgilio GODOY]; Liberal Alliance (ruling alliance including Liberal Constitutional Party or PLC, New

Liberal Party or PALI, Independent Liberal Party for National Unity or PLIUN, and Central American Unionist Party or PUCA) [leader NA]; National Conservative Party or PC [Pedro SOLARZANO, Noel VIDAURRE]; National Project or PRONAL [Benjamin LANZAS]; Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ]; Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Sergio RAMIREZ]; Unity Alliance or AU [Alejandro SERRANO]; Union Nacional Opositora 96 or UNO-96 [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:  National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups .

In a republic, the supreme power is suppose to be in the hands of the elected representatives, but in the case of Nicaragua it seems that the president is the most important and powerful official by far. All tax money goes to the capital, Managua, and the regional governments get no funding and thus have no political power. (Although the Sandinistas implemented an autonomy statute in the two Atlantic regions, their leaders say it is ineffective.) Supposedly, the regional governments administer half of Nicaragua’s territory. They are suppose to have the power to grant concessions for gold minning, logging, and fishing, which are important sources of export products. But since the regional governments’ funds were cut by the President, they are unable to function effectively.

 

2.Natural Resources:

Coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans, beef, veal, pork, poultry, and dairy products are forms of agricultural resources in Nicaragua. The Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea off Nicaragua are rich in shrimp and lobster, which are exported. Gold is the only main mineral resource of Nicaragua and it is also exported.

In July of this year, the Nicaraguan president announced that four oil consortiums will be allowed to bid on oil and gas exploration licenses in Nicaragua. If exploration attempts are successful, Nicaragua will be provided with an important source of income.

 

3.Cultural Factor:

Nicaragua with Spanish as its main language has a population of 4,918,393. Among the population 69% are Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), 17% are white, 9% are black, and 5% are Miskito Indian. 85% of the population is Roman Catholic and the rest is Protestant. English and indigenous languages are spoken around the Atlantic coast (Caribbean Sea). 65.7% of people over 15 in Nicaragua are illiterate.

There are some serious problems between certain ethinic groups. The leaders of the Miskito Indians on the Eastern,Caribbean Coast (called the Miskito Coast) say that the central government doesn’t care about their needs. The Eastern Coast has most of the countries natural resources, but it is the poorest and least developed part of the country, some say it’s the Third World of a Third World country. The Miskito Indians want to have more political power, but the Mestizos (Spanish speaking

population) and the Creoles (black English speaking former slaves) are afraid they’ll be discriminated against if this happens. There are strong feelings of resentment and hostility between the different groups

 

4.Defence:

The Nicaraguan military branches into three branches, which are: Army, Navy, and Air force. The Nicaraguan military age is eighteen years of age. The Nicaraguan military manpower availability is 1,269,322 (2001) males from the age of fifteen to forty-nine years. The military manpower that is fit for military services are 779,267 (2001) males from the age of fifteen to forty-nine years. The number of Nicaraguans reaching the military age is 58,232 (2001) annually. The Nicaraguan military expenditures are twenty six million US dollars annually. The Nicaraguan military expenditures percent of the GDP is 1.2%.

The current relations between the government and the Sandanista are stable. The president invited the Sandanista to talk about the political agenda in the mid 1997’s, before that the relations between the Sandanista were poor. The new anti-sandista government has been reducing the army personal numbers since 1990.

 

5.Geography:

Nicaragua is located in the heart of Central America, in the middle. Nicaragua is bounded on the north by Honduras, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, on the south by Costa Rica, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. The geographic coordinates of Nicaragua are 13 00 North, and 85 00 West. Nicaragua\s land area is 120,254 sq km, the water area is 9,240 sq km, and the total area is 129,494 sq km. The length of the Nicaraguan coastline is 910 km, and the Nicaraguan terrain is extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes.

The lowest point in Nicaragua is the Pacific Ocean 0m, and the highest point is Mogoton 2,438 m. Lake Nicaragua, known as the Great Lake, is the region's largest, covering about 8,000 sq km (3,100 sq mi). It is dotted with more than 350 islands. The lake's southeast corner lies only 19 km (12 mi) from the Pacific Ocean, and it is connected to the Caribbean by the San Juan River. The Tipitapa River links Lake Nicaragua to Lake Managua, which covers 1,050 sq km. All of Nicaragua's major rivers run into the Caribbean. The R?o Grande and its tributaries are the most extensive river system. The Coco runs along the border with Honduras, and the San Juan begins in Lake Nicaragua and forms part of the border with Costa Rica.

The Nicaraguan terrain starts from the east and rises towards the west. Nicaragua contains the largest freshwater lake in Central America, Lake Nicaragua. All the four rivers in Nicaragua empty in the Caribbean Sea. The Western part of Nicaragua is filled with active volcanoes, which from frequent eruptions, produces fertilizes soil the most fertile in Central America. Nicaragua is subject to many severe earthquakes. The Nicaraguan landscape ranges from tropical rain forests to snowy mountains. Nicaragua is a country divided by ranges of mountains and volcanoes, which make communication difficult.

 

6.Views of World Problems:

Nicaragua is a member of the UN, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin American Economic System, and the Organization of Central American States (OCAS). Nicaragua has taken a leading role in pressing for regional demilitarization and peaceful settlement of disputes within states in the region. At the 1994 Summit of the Americas, Nicaragua joined six Central American neighbors in signing the Alliance for Sustainable Development, known as the Conjunta Centroamerica-USA or CONCAUSA, to promote sustainable economic development in the region. In Costa Rica in May 1997, President Aleman met with President Clinton, his Central American counterparts, and the president of the Dominican Republic to celebrate the remarkable democratic transformation in the region and reaffirm support for strengthening democracy. U.S. policy is to support the consolidation of the democratic process initiated in Nicaragua with the 1990 election of President Chamorro. . U.S. assistance is focused on strengthening democratic institutions, stimulating sustainable economic growth, and supporting the health and basic education sectors. The US helps and aids Nicaragua because they don’t want another communist country in the region. Key U.S. policy goals for Nicaragua are:

Improving respect for human rights, and resolving outstanding high-profile human rights cases;
Development of a free market economy with respect for property and intellectual property rights;
Ensuring effective civilian control over defense and security policy;
Increased effectiveness of Nicaragua's efforts to combat narcotics trafficking, illegal alien smuggling, international terrorist and criminal organizations; and
Reforming the judicial system.

Nicaragua doesn’t have that much of enemies or any enemies that has the strength to threaten the Nicaraguan way of life, but as all countries it has enemies like Cuba because Cuba is a communist and Nicaragua is US-backed, but Cuba doesn’t have the financial strength to threaten Nicaragua. Nicaragua is also threatened by gorilla militas like the Sandistas.

 

7.Economy:

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, but several modern manufacturing industries have been established, especially in or near Managua. Gold is the country’s main mineral resource. The Nicaraguan GDP is $13.1 billion (2000). The Nicaraguan industries are food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood. 67.26% of Nicaragua’s electricity is from fossil fuel, and 17.71% is from hydroelectricity. Nicaragua’s agriculture products are coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products. Nicaragua’s exports are $631 million (2000), and they consist of coffee, shrimp and lobster, cotton, tobacco, beef, sugar, bananas, and gold. Nicaragua’s export partners are US 37.7%, El Salvador 12.5%, Germany 9.8%, Costa Rica 5.1%, Spain 2.5%, France 2.1% (1999). Nicaragua’s imports cost $1.6 billion (2000), and they consist of machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products, consumer goods. Nicaragua’s import partners are US 34.5%, Costa Rica 11.4%, Guatemala 7.3%, Panama 6.9%, Venezuela 5.9%, El Salvador 5.5% (1999). Nicaragua’s depts. consist of $ 6.4 billion (2000).

Nicaragua has a dept of $6.4 billion (2000). Nicaragua's economy depends heavily on agricultural exports and imports of consumer goods and petroleum. The foreign trade after the civil war in the 80’s was wiped out. After the collapse of the USSR and the stopping of the aid, the US-Nicaraguan trade recovered. Since 1990, the U.S. has provided $1.2 billion in assistance to Nicaragua. The levels of assistance have fallen incrementally to reflect the improvements in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan national currency is the gold c?rdobas (12.96 gold c?rdobas equal $1; Nov.2000). The currency is falling, 12.69 gold c?rdobas equal $1; 2000, 10.58 gold c?rdobas equal $1; 1998, 8.44 gold c?rdobas equal $1; 1996. Nicaragua basically makes grain products, which it sells to developed countries, especially the US, on whom it depends for support. Nicaragua is a country divided by mountains and volcanoes so it would make trading difficult.

 

8.History:

Nicaragua gained its independence in 1821, however it was originally settled as a colony of Spain in the 1520s.Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that

brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. The Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990 and again in 1996 led to defeating the Sandinistas. The country has slowly rebuilt its economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. The East Coast, cut off from the populous west of Nicaragua, was for two centuries the British protectorate of the Miskito Coast until it became part of Nicaragua in 1894. However, it is still largely neglected by the central government.

 

 

Policy Statements

 

Assembly A: Naser Al Aujan

1.The Question of reforming the current United Nations structure including; possible elimination of veto power, more regional representation and more diverse methods of funding amongst others

To define the veto power, the veto power is the power to reject something, for example a piece of legislation proposed by somebody else. Nicaragua is not affected greatly by this issue because Nicaragua, itself, does not have the privilege to use this power. The Nicaraguan allay, the US, has this power and it uses this power for Nicaraguan and Latin American Benefit.

Nicragua thinks that this power should not be eliminated due to the benefits the the US offered through the veto power. Nicaragua thinks that more members in the UN should hve this power.

 

2. The Question of global cooperation to solve international water crises, including the role of multilateral agencies as well as UN sub-organs in providing and sustaining sufficient supplies of water to all nations.

Defining water as the clear liquid, essential for all plant and animal life, that occurs as rain, snow, and ice, and forms rivers, lakes,and seas,and defining crisis as a situation or period in which things are very uncertain, difficult, or painful, especially a time when action must be taken to avoid complete disaster or breakdown. Nicaragua does not have any problems with water supply. Plans have been made to insure water supply in Nicaragua, these plans are saving Nicaragua millions from unnecessary construction. A reason for the lack of water shortage in Nicaragua is that Nicacaragua has the largest amount of fresh water lakes in Central America.

 





Assembly B: Mishal Al Rashoud

3. The Role of the United Nations in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts.

Rebuild is to build again, to establish order and security, to create economic opportunity, and foster a stable and peaceful society. Nicaragua has suffered in the aftermath of war and has benefited from the role played by the UN in Nicaragua’s recovery from the conflict. Nicaragua hopes that the UN will be able to help all countries that need post-war aid. However, Nicaragua stresses that the UN should persuade wealthy countries to donate generously to such needy countries for the sake of humanity and global understanding, two causes for which the UN was established.

 

4. The Role of the United Nations in placing a framework that clearly defines women’s rights and sets guidelines that ensure the implementations of these rights.

As Jeanne Kirkpatrick, former US Ambassador to the United Nations said, "Women’s rights are human rights…human rights are women’s rights in any kind of world that takes rights seriously." All women suffer from gender based discrimination, however in Nicaragua and other countries in the Third World it is more severe. It is the role of the United Nations to help women obtain their rights in the following areas: economic, social, healthcare, legal, education, etc. Women also deserve the right to live in dignity and safety. Nicaragua urges the UN and wealthy member countries to provide not just financial aid but also aid in the form of professional expertise and trained manpower to help implement programs that will improve conditions for women.

 





Resolutions

 

Assembly A: Naser Al Aujan

Delegate: Naser Al-Aujan

Assembly: A

Country: Nicaragua

Issue: The Question of global cooperation to solve international water crises, including the role of multilateral agencies as well as UN sub-organs in providing and sustaining sufficient supplies of water to all nations.

Defining water as "the clear liquid, essential for all plant and animal life, that occurs as rain, snow, and ice, and forms rivers, lakes, and seas,"

Defining crisis as "a situation or period in which things are very uncertain, difficult, or painful, especially a time when action must be taken to avoid complete disaster or breakdown,"

Aware of according to BBC, that one person out of five people does not have access to a fresh water supply,

Believing that according to UN officials that there will be wars in 25 years in the African Content because of lack of fresh water and the control of shared of lakes and rivers,

Bearing in mind according to BBC that Mexico City, one of the largest cities in the world, is sinking because of the large amounts of water that was and is pumping out of the ground,

Recognizing according to the International Forum on Globalization (IFG) that half of the water on earth is fresh, and the global water consumption is doubling every 20 years,

Aware of the swaping of threats between Isreal and Islamic Movment Hizb Allah about the use of the Litani river for the distripution of water to ten villages and the use of ten feet of water, bearing in mind that the Litani boures in Lake Tiberia the most important fresh water resource in Isreal,

Appluding the effort of the United Nations Environment Programm (UNEP) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) for all of there actions towards this issue,

1. Resolves that the United Nations will form an organization that control water problemds called The United Nations Water Control Organization (UNWCO) and the goal is to stop or dicrease water problems;

2. Further Resolves that UN members can become members of UNWCO, and the headquarters of UNWCO would be Geneva, Switzerland, and UNWCO’s meetings should be held every year and during any crisis, and UNWCO needs a minimum of 100 agents from different member countries of the world who are appointed by the UNWCO;

3. Declares that any member sate of the UN wishing to become a member should agree on all the rule and regulations proposed by the UNWCO which are:

A. Not pollouting the water and not miss using it,

B. Protecting the water environment,

C. Allowing UNWCO agents to go in and out of their country,

D. Any additional rules should be added in the UNWCO meetings;

4. Confirms that UNWCO will help member countries that just suffered from a flood, and member countries that lack water, and member countries with a dispute about water, and give members necessary loans, and try to stop water pollution, the details are explained in the following clauses;

5. Emphasizes that UNWCO will give member countries that have been affect by floods the necessary aid through:

A. Sending UNWCO agents, by the authority of the country, to the damaged area and estimated the damages,

B. The UNWCO agents will send reports the UNWCO about the damages and the estimate,

C. The UNWCO assembly will vote for or against giving that country aid or not;

6. Affirms that UNWCO will give low interest loans that will last long to member countries to be used for buying fresh water, rebuilding dams, and constructing projects that will preserve the fresh water in the country, the UNWCO should get the money from the World Bank because it supports reconstruction and benefiting projects through:

A. Member country who needs the loan file for the loan in the amount that they want and the reason for that loan,

B. The UNWCO will authorizes this loan,

C. The UNWCO will send agents to the country with loan to make sure that the money is going to the cause of the loan,

D. Violators of the rules put out by the UNWCO will face consequences decided by the UNWCO;

7. Declares that the UNWCO will try to solve any dispute or conflict that relates to water between any member country and any other country by:

A. Sending agents to negotiate with each country separately about resolving the conflict,

B. Asking for the help of neighboring countries,

C. Arranging joint meetings with the countries of dispute, the UNWCO, and the neighboring countries,

D. Signing a treaty between the countries of dispute,

E. Ensuring the safety of the water sources and ensure that they will not be shot by any country;

8. Notes that the UNWCO will try to give member countries that lack fresh water enough water by:

A. Sending agents to inspect the lack of fresh water,

B. Trying to send water from the nearest source,

C. Trying to arrange business treaty of exchanging water for another resource,

D. Trying to give financial aid;

9. Emphasizes that the UNWCO will press severe consequences on any country that pollutes the water by:

A. Sending agents, with the approval of the country, to estimate the damage done to the water,

B. The UNWCO’s agents will send a report to the UNWCO,

C. The UNWCO will draw the attention of the polluting country by sending letters and agents,

D. The polluting country will be issued a warning and fine to reaper the damage that has been done,

E. After five warnings the polluting country will be thrown out of the UNWCO and will be issued a greater fine decided later by the UNWCO,

F. If the polluting object is a ship, the ship will be confiscated and sold in an auction and use that money to recover the damaged area,

G. Any country, member or non-member can be charged with the pollution consequences because of the importance of this issue;

10. Declares that a treaty should be signed between all member countries to stop pollouting water;

11. Confirms that a list should be made in it a list of countries that have contributed to the water pollution problem and the fresh water problem and every other water crisis through:

A. Making seprate lists, one for water pollution and one for the fresh water problem etc.,

B. Countries will be added due to great contributes,

C. Countries add to the water problem more problem will be removed from the list and will be added to another list,

D. The UNWCO assembley will decide on adding and removing the countries from and to the list;

12. Notes that a yearly award ceremony will be held at the UNWCO headquarters to award the least water pollouting country member, and the most helpful member country towards water crisis, the award will contain a certain amount of money.

 





 

Assembly B: Mishal Al Rashoud


Delegation: Republic of Nicaragua
Question of: The role of the United Nations in rebuilding countries recovering from conflicts.


Defining conflict as to contend in warfare,

Acknowledges that many countries have been victims of conflict,

Supports all peace loving countries that are for giving these countries the aid they need,

Deeply concerned by the large number of children and adults who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition that can disrupt their daily lives,

Hoping that all countries suffering from conflicts will receive the help they need,

Notes with deep concern that many civilians are being severely wounded and killed by weapons and mines from former conflicts,

Alarmed by the fact that people are still being wounded and killed by mines and unexploded ordnance that are from years ago,

1-Draws the attention of the international community to this problem, its severity, and the importance of solving it.

2-Notes with appreciation the efforts of the UN and the War Torn Societies project.

3-Appeals to the UN to form an organization of specialized personnel called PWAP (Post War Aid Program) which will have the following functions:
A) Providing technical advice.
B) Correlating and organizing the work and cooperation between UN organization and other non-UN NMDs (non-member delegations).
C) Providing assistance in establishing income-generating programs in order to encourage economic opportunity and self-reliance.
D) Provide counseling for those suffering from PTSD.

4-Resolves that a special sub-comity of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) be created to serve the following functions:
A) Accepting and reviewing requests from conflict stricken countries for reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure.
B) Sending construction teams to those countries that have been deemed in need of such aid by word of the comity in order to aid in the rebuilding process.

5-Urges that refugee camps be created by the UNHCR in all countries and regions with refugee problems that have a lack or absence of these camps.

6-Requests that the UN carry out studies of dangerous and potentially dangerous zones within countries and regions and to give to and review these with the local authorities so that they may use them for the safety of the civilian population.

7-Strongly urges that all wealthy neighboring countries to help with the problem through:
A) monetary donations
B) food donations
C) medical donations
D) other necessary commodities

8-Strongly urges that mine clearance be a first priority so that people can return to their everyday lives without the threat of landmines and to do so by:
A) Manual clearance using metal detectors
B) Mine detection dogs
C) Armored bulldozers

 





Opening Speeches

 

Assembly A: Naser Al Aujan

HOLA (ola), Good Morning/Evening,

From the land of lakes and volcanoes, to the land of thick rain forests and rugged highlands. From the land of earthquakes and floods to the land of rich and vibrant history. Nicaragua, the largest Central American Country, welcomes all the fellow delegates here attending today/tonight’s meeting.

Water is now starting wars and conflicts between countries. The lack of water is what we call a water crisis. According to the BBC that one person out of five people around the world has no fresh water to drink. People around the world are dieing from the lack of water.

Although Nicaragua is rich in fresh water, but we are thinking of the other less fortuned countries. Nicaragua invites all of the fellow countries here today to it stop, or at least decrease, the water shortage around our world.



Assembly B: Mishal Al Rashoud

Hola buenas dias, hello and good day all delegates and welcome to this event.
Imagine you’re in a land, surrounded by lakes, rainforests, and volcanoes; imagine a land of sandy beaches and lagoons, plains and mountains. Well then you’ll have a picture of Nicaragua, the largest country in Central America which is home to the largest Central American lake.
Nicaragua would like to draw your attention to helping countries recovering from conflicts. Nicaragua is so concerned with this issue because we too are recovering from a long, harsh civil war in which over 30,000 Nicaraguans lost their lives. So Nicaragua hopes that we will be able to solve the problem of rebuilding the lives of all people in all countries which have suffered from conflict.

Thank you.

 

 

 

 

Ambassador's Statements

 

In Jordan NICARAGUA did many things. In lobbying and merging NICARAGUA got 5 signers but couldn’t get any more so NICARAGUA was forced to be a co-submitter on a resolution that was debated but failed. NICARAGUA was also a main co-submitter on a resolution that passed. After that every resolution NICARAGUA talked for passed. That is what NICARAGUA did from the MUN work side. The resolutions that were passed helped because Nicaragua is a third world country and has problems with women’s rights.

In Jordan, I, Nicaragua, influenced the assembly quite much. First at the Lobbying and merging, Nicaragua tried for 2 hours to sign its resolution, but sadly enough Nicaragua didn’t get enough signatures. At the assembly Nicaragua brought up to the floor very important issues and problems. Nicaragua represented the Central American view because it is the largest and the only country there. Nicaragua tried to talk and show its view whenever it could. None of the resolutions passed and none helped Nicaragua because the issues were irrelevant because Nicaragua has access to many fresh water sources, and it does not care about the UN reform.