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The Russian Federation, known as Russia for short, functions under a group of systems in which states unite under a central authority but are independent in internal affairs, they are in charge of every internal affair, the government and the state Duma make all the economic, political, and social decisions.
The Russian Federation’s capital is Moscow. It became and independent state from the Soviet Union on August 24th 1991. The Russian Constitution was adopted on December 12th 1993. Russia’s legal system is based on civil law system, and judicial review of legislative acts.
The chief of state is the President (currently President Vladimir Putin). The head of government is the Premier, or Prime Minister, (currently Premier Mikhail Kasyanov), there are also deputy premiers. Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers and other agency heads which are all appointed by the president, and they all make up the Duma, other wise known as the house of the people.
There is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president.
The president is elected by a popular vote for a four-year term. There is no vice-president, if something were to happen to the president, the premier would take his place.
Some Russian political parties include Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF), Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR), the Union of Right Forces, and many others.
The State Duma presents drafts concerning political, social, and economic issues to the president, who makes the final decision concerning any issue.
Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area (it is slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the United States of America). It is situated in Northern Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean between Europe and the South Pacific Ocean, and stretches over 17,075,200 sq km, (16,995,800 sq km of which is land, and 79,400 sq km of which is water). However a part of Russia (west of the Ural Mountains) is sometimes considered in the continent of Europe. Russia, overall, has a lot of political borders with countries. It borders Azerbaijan (284 km) Belarus (959 km), China (3645 km), Estonia (294 km), Finland (1,313 km), Georgia (723 km), Kazakhstan (6,846 km), North Korea (19 km), Latvia (217 km), Lithuania (227 km), Mongolia (3,485 km), Norway (167 km), Poland (206 km), and Ukraine (1,576 km). Its total land boundaries are 19,961 km. Russia’s climate ranges from the steppes in Southern Russia to the European Russia. It is sub arctic in Siberia but in Northern Russia the climate is arctic with tundra climate.
The winters vary from cool along the black sea coast to frigid in Siberia. Summers also vary from warm in the steppes (Southern Russia) to cool along the arctic coast. The Russia terrain consists of a broad plain with low hills west of the Urals (the mountain ranges that divide or act as a border between European Russia and Asian Russia). The highest peak in these Mountain Ranges is Mount Elbrus, which is also Europe’s tallest peak. Russia has a lot of flora like vast coniferous forests and tundra in Siberia (the North). It also has uplands and mountains along its southern border regions.
Russia, despite its size is unfavorably located in relation to the major sea-lanes of the world and much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (which are either too cold or too dry) for Agriculture. Much of which is frozen wasteland.
Russia has a wide selection of natural resources. It has major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, timber, and many strategic minerals. The country holds as much as one-half of the world’s potential coal reserves and holds larger reserves of petroleum than any other nation. It is not a major petroleum force in the world because of its whimsical government. It has no certain plan worked out on its standing in the world of petroleum exporters. This is due to the many political events, and economic hardships that have shifted Russia’s policy towards certain subjects.
Russia is heavily dependent on exports of natural resources like oil, natural gas, metals, and timber which all account for 80% of the Countries exports. Russia has no significant agriculture. The Russian land consists of 8% arable land (symbol 223 \f "Wingdings" \s 12 note), 46% forests and woodlands, 4% permanent pastures, and 42% of other uses. There are no permanent crops. The total irrigated land in Russia is 40,000 sq km. Agriculture is not a powerful resource due to the lack of proper soils and climates which are either too cold or too dry and not in between.
Russia’s defense and military branches include Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Strategic Rocket Forces. Although Russia used to have one of the most skilled army, defensively and strategically, it no longer possesses that kind of army, rather its army is very weak, unorganized, and ill-disciplined, seeing as it is run by the government, and is often politicized.
The Russian intelligence agency, otherwise known as the FSB, which is the core of the old soviet KGB, empowers the intelligent services to reunite foreign and domestic intelligence and plant informers in government offices.
Russia needs a strong army to fight off rebels and defense groups coming from Chechnya. Russia used to have an army that almost took down Hitler during World War II, but now, it can barely fight off the Chechen rebels. Russia has a very strong space system, including missiles and nukes, but has not used any so far. It has also signed an agreement with France to send up a space shuttle under both the country’s names. Also, Russia is part of the US anti-terrorist program, and is working on improving its Army in order to help in the war against terrorism.
Russia owns numerous defense weapons, including nukes, which is threatening Russian neighbors, such as Georgia. The Russian Navy is currently in possession a number of nukes, which can be set off in forty five minutes. This allows Russia to project power.
Russia since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 has been trying to build a modern market economy and gain strong economic growth. However it did slightly recover in 1997 but the government’s deficits and the country’s unsuitable business climate pulled it down during the global financial crisis1998. The economy did improve during 1999-2000, but there are still flaws.
Russia depends mostly on exports of commodities such as petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures. Russia would be devastated should there be swings in the world’s prices. Land ownership rights affect Russia’s agriculture.
Russia’s imports are machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, grain, sugar, semi-finished metal products.
Russia's GDP is $1.12 trillion, and its growth rate is 6.3%. Agriculture counts as 7% of Russia’s economy and industry counts as 34% and the remaining 59% counts as services. Russia has a high poverty line at 40%, and 10.5% of the people are unemployed. In 1998 the Russian debt was estimated at $194 billion and it has been growing ever since. At the same time the Russian government’s budget was only $21 billion. The yearly interest payments on Russia's debt alone came to almost $17.5 billion. If Russia pays back its debt, it will become completely bankrupt.
Russia has a wide variety of ethnic groups 81.5% are Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 3% Ukrainian, 1.2% Chuvash, 0.9% Bashkir, 0.8% Byelorussian, 0.7% Moldavian, other 8.1%.
Major religions in Russia are Russian Orthodox and Muslim. There are others but very uncommon.
Russia’s main language is Russian.
Refugees and forced migrants face discrimination and women are also discriminated against in Russia. Russia's biggest cultural problems are the Muslim Chechens who are at war with Russia to gain their own independent nation.
The population of Muslims in Russia is increasing at a greater rate than the other groups because the Muslims traditionally have larger families. It affects the government because the Muslims support the Chechens.
View on World Problems
Developments and Problems in Recent Years
Russia, although over with communism and is starting a new democratic and free market, still has many conflicts with old enemies. The Russian federation has always opposed the United States in every act it made, especially when it sided with the Serbs because the US was aiding Kosovo in the Kosovo crisis, even on the day of the 11th of September, even though Putin was the first person to call Bush in order to show his sympathy for the attack, this was actually done in order to give Russia the authority to continue its attacks on Chechnya under the title of "Fighting against terrorism". Although this plan did not work, Russia still ignores all calls for peace and continues its fighting against the country.
Russia also watches with caution its closest neighbors. Being the most threat to the country, Russia carefully plans its relations with the countries, preferring no friend or enemy on the Russian interests. It recently has closened its relations with Korea and tries to resolve the Korean peninsula issue, and also calls for a compromise with Iraq in order to bring forth the UN inspectors and try to not confront with war. The reason for that is Russia’s worry about the debt Iraq owes to Russia, which is around $7 billion, and because of the dread that Iraq would not cooperate with the Russian oil companies after replacing the Iraqi government.
International Organization Participation:
APEC, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
In February of 1917, violent strikes had broken out in St. Petersburg, leading to revolution and a civil war. The communists later won the war, as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR.
The fall of the Soviet Union came in 1991, and Russia became an independent republic, with Boris Yeltsin as president. Unease quickly erupted between him and legislature, which was mainly a struggle for power. The USSR was a superpower, but upon its separation it lost much of its power and status among the international community.
By 1994, the only region still demanding independence was the extremely anti-Russian Chechnya, with Dzhokhar Dudayev as their leader. Dudayev drove out all Russian garrisons and rejected any control from Moscow. Chechnya was also a base from which criminals carried out kidnappings and other outrages on Russian Soil. In December of 1994, Yeltsin sent troops to Chechnya in an attempt to reassert control.
The rebels fought back hard. The soviet army had much causality. As it is evident, the effort was disastrous. The poorly trained Russian army was incapable of suppressing violent Chechen opposition. As the years passed, the deaths and humiliation were only increasing. A rocket attack killed Dudayev in April of 1996, and a peace treaty was formally signed by the Russians and the Chechens in May 1997, but the violence continues to this day.
The fall of the Soviet Union spawned a week Russian economy that was impossible to resolve. Yeltsin had tried to implement the shock-treatment program of Prime Minister Yegor Gaydar, which involved freeing prices and removing legal barriers to private trade. The program was a disaster that led only to inflation and the bankruptcy of many industries, further weakening the economy. Many of these firms could not compete anyway and needed to die.
Yeltsin stepped down as president in December 1999, and named Vladimir Putin as acting president. In the March 2000 elections, Putin won a full term in office, taking 53% of the votes. Putin is deeply loved by the Russian public because he restored a humiliated Russia. The death toll of males is high because almost all them are heavy smokers.
Hamad Al_Essa – Disarmament:
1. Effective implementation of the convention on the prohibition of the development, production, and stockpiling of bacteriological, biological, and toxin weapons and on their destruction.
At a time, Russia had one of the worlds largest and most successful biological weapons program. This program is now non-existent upon the ratification of the BTWC treaty, of which Russia is an active member. Russia no longer manufactures such weapons and has no active biological warfare program, nor does it have stockpiles of any bacteriological or biological agents. Russia believes that effective implementation of this convention comes through diplomatic means and negotiations and never through the unnecessary use of force.
2. Prevention of an arms race in outer space.
Russia ratifies the ABM treaty to this very day, and has limited ABM system built exactly to the specifications of the treaty, which states that each nation can develop only one ABM system around the party’s capital, with a radius of 150 Km and consisting of no more than 100 missiles and 100 launchers. Russia is deeply alarmed by the fact that the US has dropped out of the treaty and firmly believes that it is to be ratified.
3. The illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects.
Russia has suffered greatly from such trade, for Chechen rebels benefit from it in organizing terrorist attacks against Russians. Such trade is the plague of our world today, fueling many malicious wars and attacks, from the conflicts of West Africa, to the terrorist attacks in the Philippines and other South-Asian states.
Russia firmly believes that an end to such trade is mandatory. It is necessary for ensuring a just and terror-free world.
4. Compliance with arms limitation and disarmament obligations, including the treaty on the limitation of anti-ballistic missile systems.
Russia is a country that has complied with all formal forms of arms limitations and disarmament, including the ABM treaty, which states that each nation can develop only one ABM system around the party’s capital, with a radius of 150 Km and consisting of no more than 100 missiles and 100 launchers.
Russia is deeply alarmed by the fact that the US has dropped out of this treaty and believes it is to be immediately re-ratified.
Noufa Al _Sabah – Human Rights:
1. Comprehensive implementation of and the follow-up to the world conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and related intolerance.
The world conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related tolerance was a good but really a loss. It set out to solve the problems of multi-ethnic states and the protection of minority rights, trafficking in persons, migration and discrimination, gender and racial discrimination, and racism against indigenous people. The world conference however did not give a solid plan to solve these many problems. It merely gave opinions and advice on what can be done. The world conference however pointed out a lot of issued that violated national sovereignty and others that were not great in magnitude. The world conference was not a very big success.
Russia was displeased with the world conference that set in Durban in South Africa. It falsely accused Russia of a lot of bad things. It accused Russia of violating the human rights code and the UN charter. The Conference declared that Russia was harming the Chechnya rebels and was falsely accusing RUSSIA. They pointed out a lot of atrocities that Russia had not done like killing innocent people who did not do anything wrong. Russia, opposite of what they declared, did not kill innocent civilians; it imprisoned and detained individuals who were terrorists and planned rebel activities against the nation. These people wanted to harm Russia and kill thousands of lives of innocent civilians. Russia was only protecting the people and itself. It was trying to rid the Russian nation of terrorists just like the USA did with the Qaeda. Russia is not a murderer of innocent human lives and is not doing this out of revenge.
2. Role of the media in highlighting human and civil rights abuses.
The media is the number one factor that portrays what is going on in a nation, or place. The media educates and points out valuable information to civilians, etc. Media is the key force of any nation, because it reflects the nations standing point, work, etc. Media also reflects human opinions, what goes on in people’s minds, and how they feel towards a certain subject, etc. Freedom of media and expressions are in danger in a lot of the UN participating nations. Media in certain nations is limited and has certain boundaries it cannot cross. In a lot of countries severe restrictions and abuse afflict brave journalists who write of sensitive topics, such as abuse of power and corruption. These violations are bad but they deserve serious attention because of the major and bad impact they have on efforts to combat corruption (a major diminishing point to the political and economic development of a country).
Russia believes that freedom of choice and expression should not be limited in all the structures of the nation. They should have freedom in the political, economic, social, etc. aspects but not in the military, international relations and defensive ones. This is because the military and defensive aspects are very gullible and can harm the country a great deal if the media attacks them and secrets are revealed. When Russia says secrets it doesn’t mean corrupt ones but secrets that are needed to insure the nations protection and protection of the people, etc. Media can roam wherever it wants and reveal scandals, etc. to better inform the people. But for all Russia cares the international relations, military, and defensive aspects should be free of nosy media reporters, etc. they only should write about what the Government reveals to them and nothing more. As for the nations that have media strains and boundaries, requests that this be solved in ones country so that it doesn’t trespass on national sovereignty, and clots of problems. Every one is free to rule and govern their country, as they like. Media should be given lots of freedom but not freedom that could harm the country, etc.
3. Treatment of prisoners of conscience and political detainees.
Every country has prisoners or political detainees. These are people who commit crimes and organize rebel activities against the nation as to harm it and danger lot of lives. These people are bad influences on people and need to be locked up so no corruption and chaos is created. These people are considered terrorists because they terrorize the country and the people and pierce people’s hearts with terror and fear. Any person who does that is bad. Countries have the right to do whatever they want to with these people. This is because it’s their country and they know what’s best for it more than others.
Russia believes that the treatment of people of conscience and political detainees is the work of the nations themselves and no one should interfere. This is the same as what’s happening in Chechnya. Russia is trying to combat the Chechnya terrorists and rebels so that it ensures the safety and lives of the other Russian civilians. These rebels are terrorists and they terrorize the lives of millions of other Russians. The UN however always trespasses on this national issue and requests things be done better in terms of human rights, etc. Russia believes that they have no right to do that since it is an issue of national sovereignty and the Russian government knows what’s best for its nation more then the other United Nations. Its Russia’s nation issue and it should be solved nationally in the country not in the United Nation Seminars, meetings, etc. Russia assures the UN that this problem is getting better and life in Chechnya is back to normal. Russia has the right to reject the UN’s orders since they are trespassing national sovereignty.
3. Combating the trafficking in illegal immigrants.
Each year millions of individuals, mostly woman and children, are tricked, sold, or otherwise forced into exploitation of which they can’t escape. They are treated as products in a multi-million dollar global marketing industry, which is run by highly organized criminal groups operating secretly. Trafficking is the new slave trade even though slavery is believed to have ended; this problem has grown in number, magnitude and severity. While trafficking routes are always changing there is a distinction between the countries of origin and destination. The countries of destination are wealthier nations than those of origin or have a more prosperous living, etc. Traffickers are rarely caught and prosecuted and their penalties are relatively light compared to the smuggling of drugs, or weapons, although trafficking of individuals is more dangerous and criminal.
Russia believes that trafficking is a phenomenon that affects the lives of people, nations, and all regions of the world. It is a dangerous criminal smuggle and should be more observed and noticed in all parts of the world. Russia believes that trafficking is also part of gender, race, and ethnic discrimination. It is part of gender discrimination since most of the trafficked individuals are women who are trafficked into the global sex industry and etc. There are no easy solutions to this horrendous problem but its size requires quick action. Reliable figures estimate that 45,000 to 50,000 women and children are trafficked annually to the United States of America alone. If a leading country like the USA, which prides itself in being a modern, reliable country, has this problem what other conclusions can the world make that this problem is not great in magnitude. Russia has faced this problem when it broke out of the Soviet Union; a lot of women were trafficked from central and eastern Europe due to the economic and political dislocation. Russia requests that the United Nations better educate the people on the troubles, etc of trafficking. It also urges the UN to create a universal set of laws on Trafficking so that we can abolish this problem.
Mishal Rashood – Environmental:
1. Protection of the global climate for present and future generations of mankind, including ratification and implementation of the Kyoto protocol.
Defining the Kyoto Protocol as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Russia is in serious need of the protection of the global climate and the ratification and implementation of the Kyoto protocol. Russia suffers from lack of money for heat and this affects many issues. Russia's stand on the Kyoto Protocol is that it supports it however it can not afford it especially since the United States refused the ratification of it so more of the financial burden falls on the other countries. Russia would like to encourage all countries that do not support this issue to rethink it since it would help the global environment, which is a major issue for us all.
2. The impacts of roads, mining, cities and other infrastructure development on land degradation and the loss of wildlife habitats.
Degradation is a decline to a low, destitute, or demoralized state. Russia's forests are 22 % of the world’s forests and they are home to many animals. Natural causes of distress such as climate, aging of stands, fires, and pests affect a lot of the forest so it can not afford other non-natural causes of distress. However a large part of the forests are under the influence of atmospheric pollution and large areas are being cut down for timber or made into cities. So Russia hopes that we can set up protective barriers around forests so that they can not be violated or polluted or cut down.
3. The provision of, and access to, safe water drinking, especially in the developing world.
Safe drinking water is water that is free from pollution and health hazards. Russia thinks that this issue is a major issue worldwide. Russia suffers from this problem and is making a major effort to deal with it. So Russia thinks that all countries should do everything within their power to help with this problem. Russia encourages all countries to protect water supplies from pollution by not allowing hazardous materials to contaminate drinking water sources.
4. Measure to gain necessary compensation for victims of chemical agents.
Compensation is to get back something after a loss. Russia needs this since it has a high poverty rate and can not afford the treatment. Russia has had a history of toxic wastes being dumped in populated areas. For example thirteen nuclear reactors from submarines have been dumped in the Kara Sea. Six of the reactors have been dumped with used fuel aboard. There has also been some radioactivity at certain sites however no one is sure since the government never let out the test results, and civilian scientists have not been allowed to perform tests closer than 50-100 kilometers to the sites. Russia is trying to compensate all victims however funding from the UN would be greatly appreciated since Russia is heavily in debt. Much of Russia's debt and its problems from pollution stem from the acts of the former Soviet government. Russia needs help in its struggle to recover from the mistakes of the past so that it can build a strong future.
Yousef Dashti - Security Council:
1. The restoration of peace and normalcy in Afghanistan.
The Taliban former regime in Afghanistan, along with Osama Bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda Terrorist Network, had been a constant threat to Russia. With the conflict of Chechnya, Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda have been a primary source of aid to the Islamic Fundamentalists in Chechnya, providing them with financial support, as well as weaponry and arms. The main stronghold of Taliban in Afghanistan sheltered the Al-Qaeda network which in consequence has provided them with a strong and dangerous presence in Asia that would destabilize political issues in the region, also giving Bin Laden a strong threshold into the world of terrorism.
With the fall of the Taliban rule over Afghanistan, Bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda network have been weakened, giving Bin Laden little to do with the Chechnya rebels and eventually decreasing his aid to the fundamentalists. This advantage would allow Russia to overcome terrorist acts in Chechnya and overcome the rebel attacks.
This fall also gives Afghanistan the advantage of strengthening its ties with the Asian countries, allowing for future political, economical, and environmental improvement and to allow for peace and prosperity.
2. Peace, security, and reunification of the Korean peninsula.
As the relations of the two Korea’s still are on a neutral charge, military conflict is still possible on the Korean Peninsula. Russia’s policy towards the peninsula is that of a very delicate one, and in order to prevent a deterioration of the political and security situation near the Russian Far East, Russia believes that the development of economic cooperation with North Korea is necessary in order to maintain peaceful coexistence on the Korean Peninsula.
Russia, however, has few opportunities to develop two-sided relations with the Korean states in the near future because of its own financial crisis and the non-market economic system of North Korea. It will be very important, therefore, for Russia to support North Korean economic cooperation with neighboring countries, including South Korea. With this regional cooperation, energy, transport, food and environmental situations in North-East Asia could be improved and that would strengthen shared trust and political stability on the Korean Peninsula.
On the other hand, and on a more delicate topic, it is impossible for Russia to ignore the danger of North Korea’s nuclear and missile blackmail. Russia, therefore, has to direct its policy on North Korea with other regional powers in order to oppose any attempts by North Korea at blackmail.
3. Necessity of ending the economic, commercial, and financial embargo imposed by the US against Cuba.
The necessity of ending the economic, commercial, and financial embargo imposed by the US against Cuba has become a very vital issue that threatens the very peace of the Caribbean and the US relations with the Caribbean and South America. The US has become the prisoner of its own doing, destroying possible trade and future relations with Cuba.
Cuba has long suffered the wrath of the US embargo and with that, increased its hate towards the US policies and has grown to be ANTI-American. This issue, although hard to resolve, has to reach a compromise from both Cuba and the US to give the Cuban people a chance to live in harmony.
4. Measures to expedite the establishment of the international criminal court.
The idea of an international criminal court being present before world countries would help to solve many conflicts between nations. As tissue of terrorism becomes more inevitable everyday, an international court would help in prosecuting those who have committed countless acts of terror against countries or people. This court would further stabilize countries and the way each country accounts for prosecuting its criminals on an international basis.
Saja FakhralDeen – Social:
1. Implementation of the declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS.
The first official case of HIV in the USSR was recorded in the end of 1986, in a Russian. Between 1987 and 1989 a system of regional AIDS centers throughout Russia were set up to carry out testing and limited prevention activities. Also, between 1987 and 1991, over 142 million people were tested. 0.004% of these tests were done anonymously. The primary prevention campaign consisted of a discriminatory, fear-based mass media campaign which often led to heavy prosecution of people with HIV/AIDS.
The political and economic instability of the late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in a general lack of attention to the issue of HIV/AIDS. Information campaigns ceased to exist. The public gave little consideration to the threat of HIV. Today, both the public’s and the government’s perception of the risk of HIV are much d. In 1995, according to official governmental statistics, there were over 10 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases including 1150 cases of HIV infection reported among Russian citizens.
As of May, 1995, 30 NGOs that work directly with issues related to HIV/AIDS have been registered in Russia. Institutions of the central government have showed increasing interest in the HIV/AIDS situation as seen by the passing of a new law in 1995 which specifically addresses issues connected with HIV/AIDS and by the fact that in 1995 the Presidential Committee for Internal Safety met twice to specifically discuss the issue of HIV/AIDS. Both governmental and non-governmental organizations are beginning to actively carry out more activities related to HIV/AIDS. This has generated a strong increase in the demand for accurate information about various subjects related to HIV/AIDS.
Topics most frequently requested concerning the issue include those on different aspects of prevention, treatment, human rights, and organizational development. In Russia, one of the world’s most educated nations, information of all types has great potential to impact the course of the country’s HIV/AIDS epidemic at this early stage of relatively low prevalence.
Russia is for the implementation of commitment on HIV/AIDS, because Russia believes that it is in desperate need of access to information concerning the issue, advice on methods to help increase public awareness, ways of prevention, and supply of antibodies and treatments. All those things would be provided if the commitment to HIV/AIDS was implemented.
2. Strengthening the coordination of the UN humanitarian assistance in cases of natural disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies, with particular attention to reaching the vulnerable and the transition from relief to development.
The International Federation report exposes another disturbing trend. As the number of natural disasters increases and losses escalate, the amount of aid is dropping. Over the last five years, emergency funds have dropped by 40%.
Heavy rains in several regions of the Russian Federation resulted in severe floods on the 24 June, 2002. At least 60,000 people have been affected, 24 people have perished and more than 55,000 have been evacuated due to the flooding. Damage to infrastructure, residences and other private property is expected to require a fairly considerable reconstruction effort later on.
The government of the Russian Federation did no request any international assistance. The amount of aid that has been distributed by EMERCOM of Russia since the flood struck includes: 2,056 pieces of equipment, such as airplanes, helicopters, boats, tents, blankets, plastic sheets, pillow cases, canned meat, and canned milk and sugar.
In Russia, extreme winter weather could turn into a disaster, for example, when it struck a society where 44 million people are living in poverty, one million children are homeless, and tuberculosis rate are skyrocketing.
On the occasion of the NATO Secretary General’s visit to Moscow, a Memorandum of Understanding on Civil Emergency Planning and Disaster Preparedness was signed between NATO and the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM of Russia). The agreement notes the commitment of the Russian Federation to develop cooperation in improving its natural disaster preparedness and to develop cooperation in this field with NATO Member States. Both EMERCOM and NATO agree to increase their efforts in support of the UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 and, in particular, their continued active support for the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UNDHA) Project on the Use of Military and Civil Defense Assets in Disaster Relief. In this field, NATO and EMERCOM continue to have active military and civil cooperation in various disaster relief exercises organized within the framework of Partnership for Peace and under the agencies of the UN.
Worldwide, donor governments provide humanitarian assistance directly (bilaterally) or through the UN and other international agencies (unilaterally). Russia was one of the donor nations that contributed to humanitarian assistance in three or more receiving countries in 1993.
3. Security issues o the internet in relation to personal privacy and international terrorism.
The internet and its surrounding technologies are developing rapidly across Russia. The country is at considerable crossroads as policy makers contemplate how to regulate this powerful medium. While there are vast commercial, educational, and societal benefits to the Internet, there are legitimate concerns regarding the privacy and security of Russia’s government and its citizens. A conference was held regarding this issue, the Moscow Internet Conference "Russia in the Internet Age: Balancing Freedom and Regulation" on February 18-19 2002, in partnership with the State Duma of the Russian Federation and Russia’s Union of Internet Operators. Russia is now more limited by cost considerations than by political or security controls.
After several years of political pressuring, the Russian FSB (the core of the old Soviet KGB) has succeeded in passing a law giving it power to snoop in all Russian Internet traffic, instead of snooping around without legal permission, as they were doing before. The law went into effect on January 6, 2000, seeing as terrorism had increased by a significant amount world wide during that period of time. The Russian law creates a System for Operational Investigative Activities (SORM). It lets seven Russian agencies, no just the FSB; intercept Internet transmissions- including tax police, the customs agency and the Kremlin security service. Russia’s ISPs have to pay for the snooping equipment and the bandwidth that is lost in sending data to monitoring agencies. While the FSB requires search warrants to tap phone lines, its Net monitoring activities do not require permission. For ordinary Russian citizens, this does not mean much; far fewer than 10% of Russians are online. Still, the growing importance of the Net in Russian news and politics makes this system important. According to Russian activists, "the network is already being abused for profit, theft, blackmail, and terrorism."
4. Measures to combat racism and aid reconciliation in former African colonies, including South Africa and Zimbabwe.
Former African colonies such as South Africa and Zimbabwe are dearly suffering from racism and discrimination, not only from the world, but also amongst the citizens themselves. Racism and discrimination in all its aspects, including discrimination against religion, color, background, etc. Also, the problem of aid reconciliation is growing greatly, and at unmanageable rates.
Russia believes that extreme measures should be taken straight away, and that they should be taken by world wide organizations, governmental or non governmental in order to solve this issue. This issue should not be approached unilaterally, otherwise, it would be impossible to solve. All nations around the world should pitch in to help stop all forms of discrimination, racism, and aid reconciliation.
Delegate: Hamad Al_Essa
Delegation: The Russian Federation
Alarmed by the fact that many countries are acquiring ABM technology,
Noting with great concern the fact that acquiring such technology is "the road to another major world war," according to Ben Kessler, from European Space Agency,
Deeply disturbed by the tension that has been caused by the US Missile Defense Program,
Deeply concerned by the fact that the ABM treaty is no longer ratified and breeched by certain member states,
Expressing its appreciation towards the European Space Agency, which has done countless efforts in reducing the effects of the arms race in space and greatly contributed to the disarmament of European ABM systems,
1. Declares the formation of the High Committee of International Space Affairs (HCISA), which will consist of countries with a potent space program, which includes but is not necessarily limited to the five permanent members of the Security Council,
2. Affirms that all countries and only countries whose space program is worth $ 2.5 billion or more and has the capability of developing ABM systems is to have a seat in the HCISA,
3. Resolves that this committee is to draft a modernized version of the ABM treaty, which will have a similar effect to the current one,
4. Further resolves that when the treaty is complete all countries are to sign and ratify it or be dismissed from the disarmament committee.
Delegate: Mishal Rashood
Issue: Protection of the global climate for present and future generations of mankind, including ratification and implementation of the Kyoto protocol.
Defining the Kyoto Protocol as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
Notes with deep regret that Russia wishes to sign the Kyoto protocol however can not afford it,
Hopes that other countries that did not sign it would rethink their decision, because the more the countries the less the prices,
Notes with deep concern that many countries, not only Russia, are in need of protecting the climate however couldn’t sign the Kyoto Protocol because of the rise in prices,
Notes that if the United States would sign this protocol Russia would be able to sign it, this is not a selfish reason that would only serve Russia, the United States needs this protocol as well,
Realizes that many countries are in need of the protection of the global climate, and that some able countries are not doing as much as they could do to help in this cause,
1- Notes its appreciation to any organizations that are making an effort to help with the problems of the global climate;
2-Urges all countries, especially the United States, to sign the Kyoto Protocol;
3- Calls upon all countries to reduce pollution, which will help the global climate, by the following means:
a) Proper waste disposal,
b) Properly enforce laws that prohibit pollution;
4- Strongly Condemns people or organizations that are causing problems with the global climate in any way;
5- Resolves that the United Nations form an organization PGL (Protection of the Global Climate) made up of trained and equipped personal to serve the following purposes:
a) Carry out check ups on countries known to have problems with the climate,
b) Determining whether a country has a problem with the global climate and needs help,
c) If the country were in need of help the PGL would aid and advise the country of the most efficient method of treating the problem,
d) If a country were financially incapable of obtaining the needed equipment for the job, the PGL would supply the country with equipment until the country is no longer in need;
6- Further Resolves that the UN convince all financially capable countries to donate financially towards projects that help the global climate, such as the Kyoto Protocol, by lowering interest 15% on any loan that the country makes in order to help the climate;
Submitter: Noufah Al Sabah
Commission: Human Rights
Defining Media as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books, and films (together with the people involved in their production) that provide us with information and are powerful enough to greatly persuade us into believing things, behaving in certain ways, and influences our life,
Pointing Out that Media in many nations has been responsible for the diminishment and accusations triggered to a lot of countries like:-
Falsely accusing Russia of terrorism and violating human rights in Chechnya, when it’s only combating terrorism (rebels and their activities) and ensuring local safety,
Portraying the Iraqi president "Sadam Hussein" as an evil tyrant even though he is not one, cares for his country and people, and has set the prisoners free thereby granting them another chance,
Falsely denouncing Israel as a bad nation which has murdered Palestinians and stolen their country from them, while it has not done all this but merely combated terrorism,
Taking Into Consideration that a lot of Media TV channels are bias towards certain issues,
A. CNN is bias towards the US,
B. A lot of Arab channels agree that Israel is the enemy,
C. A lot of Islamic Fundamentalists TV and Press all agree that non-Muslims are sinners,
Taken The Concept from the G8’s last summit that states "Efforts to prevent a conflict must be based upon observance of international laws, including the UN charter, democracy, respect for human rights, the rule of law, good governance, sustainable development, and other fundamental values which constitute the foundation of international peace and security",
Noting that a lot of problems have started from the Media.
1. Resolves the UN to create a UN Charter and Declaration of Media Rights and boundaries that will be a universal set of laws that each nations media will follow and not break, this will be made by a committee called the "United Nations Media Rights Committee" which will consist of a representitive from each nations goverment preferebly the Ministry of Information and they will meet 2 times a year, the commitees headquarters will be decided as soon as this resolotion is passed, some examples of laws are:-
A. Media cannot trespass into national sovereignty;
B. Media cannot trespass into sensitive aspects of a nation’s property like military, international relations, etc.;
C. Media cannot trespass into the lives of national leaders, and political figures;
2. Resolves the formation of an International Court of Media (ICM), that will be in charge of implementing the UN charter and declaration of Media rights and boundaries, the court will meet sporadically every 3 months and whenever there is an emergency , the court will be created and its headquarters decided as soon as this resolution is passed, the ICM will consist of ;
A. Trust worthy judges that will represent each nation ad will be chosen by their nation;
B. A Head Judge that will be elected from the above and will serve for 2 years;
Authorizes that the ICM to oversee and discuss the issues brought up to them, ensure that people who break the laws made in clause 1 get punished and those that don’t get their lawful rights;
Affirms that the ICM will cooperate with the International Police (Interpol) and the police from the country that has the problem, to ensure the validity of information given by the media and the arrest and punishment of people who break the rules of the UN Charter and declaration of media rights;
Further Affirms that the ICM will set punishments and consequences for law breakers by:
A. Negotiating with the nation that the law breaker is from;
B. Discussions between the panel of judges in the ICM;
C. Negotiations and discussions with the Interpol;
D. Concluding the consequence with the head judge (that will make the final sentence);
Demands the amendment to the Declaration of Human Rights which affirms the right to freedom of speech, opinion, and expression and therefore canceling it;
Urges all nations to sign this resolution so that we can create borders and therefore control media that has created chaos and corruption in our lives.
The Russian Federation
Security Council Clauses
Issue # 1: The restoration of peace and normalcy in Afghanistan1. Calls upon Afghanistan to build up its military in the region and provide most recent weaponry to protect the land and its people, 2. Resolves the all countries providing military assistance in the region will help in training the Afghan military, 3. Resolves the immediate call for trade between Afghanistan and the surrounding countries in order to replenish the Afghan economy,
Issue # 2: Peace, security, and reunification of the Korean peninsula1. Calls upon both countries of North and South Korea to tighten their relations to one another in order to unify the two countries, 2. Resolves the ban of all nuclear missiles in both regions to lessen the tension between both countries, 3. Resolves the establishment of the Convention of North East Asia that a. includes Russia, USA, North Korea, South Korea, Japan;
b. would meet on an annual basis for talks of lesser tension in the region and a possible unified Korea,
Issue # 3: Necessity of ending the economic, commercial, and financial embargo imposed by the US against Cuba1. Encourages the US to end its current embargo on Cuba that has crumbled the country and its economy for about half a century, 2. Calls upon all nations to recognize the acts of the US as being inhuman and stress on an end to the embargo, 3. Resolves that the US should take measures to resolve its internal conflicts that prevent the country from opening up and talks with Cuba for a possible lifting of the embargo,
Isue # 4: Measures to expedite the establishment of the International Criminal Court1. Resolves all countries in the UN to recognize the ICC in order to quicken its establishment to resolve world criminal issues, 2. Encourages all countries in the UN to bring forth criminal issues to the ICC in order to enhance its performance in the UN, 3. Encourages the Secretary General to prioritize the establishment of the ICC and make its courts provide-able to all needing countries,
Country: The Russian Federation
Delegate: Saja Fakhral-Deen
Issue: security issues on the internet regarding personal privacy and international terrorism.
Defining terrorism as the use of violence and intimidation according to the Oxford dictionary and thesaurus,
Defining the white pages as resources that index information regarding millions of individuals, information indexed includes residential address, personal phone number, personal history (high school/college), and employer/profession/ vocation,
Defining freedom as the ability to live within a country in security and physical safety,
Taking into consideration the fact that nobody can live in security and physical safety unless order is set in all aspects of their environment,
Pointing out that the number of internet users for the cause of terrorism has drastically increased since the September 11th attacks on New York and Washington,
Bearing in mind that 1,500 people log on to terrorist websites daily according to CNN.com,
Alarmed by the fact that 53% of internet users world wide log on to terrorist websites weekly according to BBC.com,
1) Resolves the formation of the UNOMIA (United Nations Organization for the
monitoring of All Internet Actions) which would have headquarters in Moscow, and branches in all technologically advanced nations as well as any nations suffering from terrorism and that have access to the internet, UNOMIA would be supplied with all forms of technological devices in order to help it implement everything asked of it, such as
a) Monitoring all actions on the internet (mail, sales services, etc…),
b) Tabbing any suspected phone lines, credit cards, etc…,
c) Shutting down any websites that may have reference to or that may trigger terrorism in any way;
2) Requests that UNOMIA holds an annual meeting, as well as whenever there is an emergency situation, all countries willing to attend are invited, and the meeting will be held in the headquarters in Moscow, the meeting would be held for
a) Any suggestions for any solutions regarding any problem related to terrorism on the internet,
b) Any country willing will present its difficulties with terrorism on the internet,
c) Negotiations and discussions regarding the issue and possible elimination and/or reduction of it;
3) Further requests that UNOMIA work in close contact with INTERPOL
(International Police) UNOMIA would keep INTERPOL updated on any suspicious actions, and in return, INTERPOL will provide professional personnel that would help track down any suspects via the white pages, as well as the database formed in the next clause and arrest them as well as helping in any other way possible
4) Urges the formation of an international database that would follow the same format as the white pages, except that this database would be international, all information regarding internet users would be obtained from internet service providers, which would then present the information to the branch of UNOMIA in their nation, which would then send it to the headquarters in Moscow, which would insert it into the database;
5) Further resolves that anyone that is caught
a) doing any suspicious actions,
b) online while he/she is not registered on the database,
would instantly be arrested by INTERPOL, and would be taken to the ICJ, where their sentence would be determined as follows:
a) the decision for the person caught online illegally would be based on the reason he/ she presents,
b) for the person doing any suspicious actions, their sentence would be based on how involved the suspect was in the subject, how often he mentioned it, and if he seems serious about it,
this would be determined after an interrogation with the subject by trained personnel also provided by INTERPOL, as well as a number of psychologists that would be hired to work with UNOMIA from different areas around the world;
6) Further urges all nations to transmit any information regarding any problem with terrorism on the internet going on in their country, the information would be loaded onto a central server monitored only by UNOMIA, but the INTERPOL could have access to it after a procedure ensuring that the access is necessary, the procedure would be as follows:
a) INTERPOL would write a proposal stating why and when they want to have access to it as well as stating the names of the countries involved with a clear explanation of how/why they are involved,
b) the UNOMIA branch officials of the countries involved will convene at the headquarters in Moscow, debate the proposal and come up with a decision amongst themselves,
c) after a consensus is reached, only then will INTERPOL officials have access to the database,
d) if a consensus cannot be reached among the nations straight away, then INTERPOL will have a right to attend a meeting with the UNOMIA branch officials in order to present their reason verbally, which might help explain the proposal further,
e) if after that a consensus still can’t be reached then INTERPOL’s proposal will be rejected and they would not have access to the database;
7) Encourages all nations to attend the annual meeting, seeing as not only will it broaden their perspective on problems of terrorism on the internet, it would also provide them with solutions, and means of preventing this problem from taking place in their nation.
Honorable President, Fellow delegates, Zdravstvuite (ZzDRAST-vet-yah):
There’s an old saying… "Size does not matter." The Russian Federation OBJECTS! Size is everything, it is the foundation of how people look at you, it is the first impression a person gets. The Russian Federation, the largest nation in the world, covering two continents, is the most widely known country in the world, so he who says "Size does not matter" is so very wrong.
The Russian Federation is proud of its continuous support to the Security Council. It has, since the founding of the United Nations, been on an active basis in helping maintain the security of the world and prevent a disastrous World War as had happened in the past.
Unfortunately, this security is being threatened, as we look on to the world today, we notice many wars, we notice many conflicts. Just take a glimpse of the past year and decide for yourselves; the devastating incident of 9/11, the conflicts in the Middle-East, the wars in Europe, the spread of many murderous diseases, the endangerment of the environment, it just goes on and on…
We! The human race of this Earth, We! The citizens of all nations, we! This world’s last hope, have the power to make a change. We hold in our hands the possibility of a better future, for other generations to live on. The Russian federation does not concentrate on one issue, but on all issues, and joins hands with all other nations to restore peace and prosperity, to reach a better world for everyone to live in.
Ambassador (Saja FakhralDeen):
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, most attentive audience… previat
Welcome ladies and gentlemen to Russia… to the land where the sun never sets, where there are grasslands, mountainous areas, and a vast variety of terrains… welcome to the largest nation amongst all, not only in size, but in power! But lately, Russia’s power is being seized, stolen by unworthy, hands… hands that turn truth to lies, hands that twist the tale and improvise their own version… their own false, untrue version! Ladies and gentlemen, does Chechnya not belong to Russia? Is Chechnya not between Russian borders? Does that not make Chechnya a part of Russia?
Chechens have bought the suffering unto themselves trying to break away from the grasp of the Russians… the rightful grasp! Russia has in no way used any kind of force towards the Chechens; it is the media ladies and gentlemen, the media that needs to be controlled and supervised in order to ensure the correctness of information, the validity of information.