Delegate: Ahmad Al-Qamlas
Event: Pearl-MUN 2003
Australia runs a democratic form of government, which is the Commonwealth government. Queen Elizabeth is the queen of Australia since the 1973; and there have been elections assign an Australia President which has been disapproved by the Australian Residents, after they voted. The Bicameral Federal Parliament and the House of Representative are the 2 important parliamentary systems in Australia; the Bicameral Federal Parliament contains 76 seats. Half of the members are elected every 3 years by the popular vote to serve 6 years and after 3 years the other half then is voted by the popular vote to serve six years; from the six states in Australia they choose 12 from each state to assign a chair in parliament; and 2 from the 2 mainland territories. While in the House of Representative it contains 150 seats which are increased after the election in 2001 to 148 seats. .
Since the Australian government is a democratic government it has a number of parties. First is the "Australian Democrats" which is leaded by Andrew Bartlett and has 8 senates in the Bicameral Federal Parliament and 0 seats in the House of Representative. Also, the "Australian Labor Party" which is leaded by Simon Creen which has 28 senates in the Bicameral Federal Parliament and 65 seats in the House of Representative. In addition, "Country Labor Party" which has no leader and has 1 senate in the Bicameral Federal Parliament, and no seats in the House of Representative. There is also the "National Party" which is leaded by John Anderson and has 35 seats in the Bicameral Federal Parliament and 82 seats in the House of Representative. Then comes the "One Nation Party", which is leaded by Pauline Hanson, also has 1 senate in the Bicameral Federal Parliament and 0 seats in the House of Representative. Finally comes the "Australian Greens Party" which is leaded by Bob Brown and the "Liberal party" which is leaded by John Winston, these two parties have 0 senates and 0 seats in either the Bicameral Federal Parliament and the House of Representative.
Australia has a number of natural resources like Iron, ore (a rock that contains a group of metals and other economically useful elements), Gold, Silver, Nickel, Uranium (used in bombs), tungsten(A hard corrosion resistant, grey to white element, taken from minerals, used in high temperature objects), mineral sand, diamonds, and natural gases. There are other natural resources found in South Australia, like, nutrient; carbon.
Australia also exports these natural resource like coal, gold, wool, alumina, ore, and wheat. Australia supplies it self with meet, wool, gold, and transportation machinery.
Australia supplies it self with clean water from the river in the lands of Australia.
The population of Australia is mostly concentrated near the eastern and the southern eastern coast. Australia’s largest city Canberra has 310,100 residents; other major cities in Australia have a population of 10.3 million residents.
Australia has 3 Ethnic Groups (Groups of people with the same distinctive racial, nation, religious, linguistic, or culture.) first, is the Caucasian which make 92% of the countries population, it is also the highest; the are originally European. Secondly, there are the Asians, which make 7%, and the second largest amount of population. Lastly, comes the aboriginals and other ethnic groups and they make 1%.
Australia has 5 different religions. First, the Anglicans which is the most religion adopted by the Australians. Then, we have the Roman Catholic which has 26% of the Australians practicing it. In addition, there is other Christianity since the Anglicans and Roman Catholics are parts of Christianity; which is 24.3%. Then we have left the Non-Christians 11% and other religions which make 12.6%.
Australia’s culture is mostly taken from the European roots; but their culture evolved from their environment and from the aborigine’s culture and from the influence of their neighbors (New Zealand, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea
Australia spends on the military units 9.3% of the hole budget; which is distributed by the Royal Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, and the Royal Australian Air force. Australia military accepts volunteers from the ages 17 and above. The Australian military contains both men and women; 5,013,416 of the countries men are available for the Australian military if it was on need, they are from the ages of 15 to 49; yearly 142,686 Australian males enter the military.
There are also many countries that do not have any military force, that need the defense of other countries; Australia is a country that helps countries like these; for example, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Islands, Cocos (keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, and Norfolk Island, these are countries that are the responsibility of Australia to defend them against any danger or war.
Australia is the worlds 6th continent; it is also the world’s smallest continent. It is also the world’s 6th largest country. Australia is 3 million sq. miles (7 .7 sq. km). The capital of Australia is Canberra. There other major cities in Australia. For example, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Perth.
Australia has a fairly dry climate in the south and a tropical climate in the north; in the north most of the tropical rain forests are found. Australia has the world’s 18th longest river. Australia’s landscape is a fairly low lying and Wide-ranging. Australia has sea borders with New Zealand, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea.
6.88% of the land in Australia is Arable land; which is land that is yearly planted depending on the season. 0.03% is Permanent Corps; Plants which are planted around the year. 93.09% of the land is used for other uses other than planting.
For every country in the world they have a special count of the total value of all the goods and service provided in this nation in a specific period of time; the is called the General Growth Domestic or in other words the GDP. Australia has a GDP of $528 billion. The GDP has grown in 2002 3.6% from 2001. The average GDP for each capital in Australia is $27,000. Australia’s budget with revenue is $86.8 billion; spending $84.1 billion. $9.2 million is spent on the laborers. 6.33% of the population in Australia is unemployed. Australia has a couple of industries (ex. mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, and chemicals steel.)
Australia spends $68 billion on importing machinery and transporting equipment, computers and office machinery, telecommunication equipment and parts, and crude oil and petroleum products. Australia import goods from Japan 13.0%, developing countries 31.7% (Korea) , ASEAN 14.8% ( Association of south east Asian nations; members : Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.), EU 21.6% (European Union), and the US 18.9 (United States) .
Australia also exports goods getting an income of $66.3 billion. It exports goods like coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron, ore, wheat, and machinery and transportation equipment. From Developing countries 45.6%, Japan 19.7%, ASEAN 13.3%, EU 11.7%, US 9.7%.
Views on World Problems:
Australia is now in a war, since it is one of the countries contributing military force with the Coalition Army, for the freedom of Iraq, against the regime of Saddam Hussein. Australia has now many enemies, since there are many countries not supporting the war; Australia has enemies like Syria, Jordan, and Algeria, many of which Arabian countries. Australia has many allies too, like U.S.A, the United Kingdom, and recently France since she was standing against the war.
The first Australian’s are believed to be the Aboriginal people, migrated from Indonesia 40,000 to 60,000 years ago by boat. About 10,000 years ago Torres Strait Islander are thought to be occupying the islands around Australia; they traded with the aborigines. In 1606, the Spanish navigator Luis Vaez Do Torres sailed through the Torres Strait. Then came the first Dutch sailor Willem Janszon, he sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria. The first English explorer was Called William Dampier, he reached Australia in 1688; then came Captain James Cook in 1770, he sailed to Botany Bay, which he called because of the variety of sea life in the bay, the bay know is the place of a major city called Sydney.
The European Settlement began in 1788, when the British panel colony was established; from their Australia started to grow rapidly; their was so many reason contributed to Britain’s decision to colonize Australia; one of the reasons was the over load of prisoner in England, To this affect, on May 13, 1787, Captain Arthur Phillip, commanding eleven ships full of convicts, left Britain for Australia. He successfully landed a full fleet at Botany Bay on January 18, 1788. However, they left the bay eight days later because of its openness and poor soil, and settled instead at Port Jackson, a few kilometers north.
The ships landed 1,373 people, including 732 convicts, and the settlement became Sydney. Australia Day is now celebrated on 26 January each year, to commemorate this first fleet landing. The gold rush began when gold was first discovered in 1851 at Bathurst, New South Wales, then later at Ballarat and Bendigo, Victoria. At first the authorities tried to keep the news as quiet as possible, for fear that it would seriously damage the agricultural economy by aggravating the chronic labor shortage. However, after a succession of lean years, and the news of the wealth that the California gold rush had brought there in 1848, the government decided to publicize the discovery. Prospectors from all over the world rushed to New South Wales and Victoria in the hope of making their fortune. Tent cities dotted the Australian countryside, some as large as 40,000 people. They would be ad hoc and ready to move, often disappearing over night to the next gold field. Violence was not uncommon.
The need to protect and promote common interests led to a series of inter-colonial conferences of premiers held at irregular intervals from 1863. A draft federal constitution was drawn up in 1891, and after intense debate at a colonial conference in 1898, it was submitted to the British Parliament for approval. The British Parliament ratified the constitution, and after the Australian People had shown their support for federation and the mini state-wide referendums, the Commonwealth of Australia came into being on January 1, 1901.
1) The Question of rising water level due to the effect of global warming:-
Many islands around the world are being threatened to drown as a result of the rising water levels due to the global warming, the global warming is a result of rising toxic wastes into the air and oil gases, making a large hole above Australia, This issue is one of the most issues that Australia is concentrated in.
Australia asks the world’s scientists to put their hands together and to combine their forces and their discovery Centers or Laboratory to help find a solution for this horrific problem. A solution that my lead the savior of many innocent lives, and the survival o many historical treasures.
Many islands are threatened to drown and are facing a serious problem in transferring their residents; even though some country islands have small island that have no people living in them sink since they are very tiny in space.
2) The question of controlling the speed of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it:-
SARS is a respiratory illness that has recently been reported in Asia, North America, and Europe. SARS has leaded to the loss of more than 150 innocent of lives in China, Thailand, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Philippines, and India; but the most regions that have this virus is China with 1512 cases and 81 deaths and Hong Kong with 1358 cases and 81 deaths. This is one of the other most important issue cause it can cause the extinction of the human race if it is still infecting people at this rate.
Australia asks the countries in favor of finding solutions to help raise funds for this issue, so scientist can work around the clock devoted for this issue. If and only if scientist find a solution for this issue many lives would be saved and many new generation of healthy humans shall be
3) The Question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine:-
Wars can be between nations which are called an International War; or it could also be between 2 tribes that could be because of a different way of philosophy or because of the racial; this kind of war is called Civil War. Wars can have serious effects on the number of victims that are is produced by the war like the number of deaths and the number of injured people, these injured people need food and water to help them in the heeling process; war can also cause for the food and water shortage that would make them in a famine situation. Because of that the countries in the United Nations should act together to find a solution to this serious issue.
Australia things that the FAO should have a branch in every reagent, especially the regents at which war and the shortage of food and water is common. Like the middle east in Palestine and know in Iraq since there is shortage in water and since water can not be found except from the pipe lines from Kuwait.
This specific issue is not one of the issue’s Australia is much interested in it because Australia is not in a state, but it is also one of the countries that seek to the help of other poor defenseless countries highest. There are many other African countries which have lands that have a dry and poor of water and good soil for the plants to grow in. For example, Somalia which is a poor country that is in constant famine state, and was always in need of other countries.
4) The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East:-
A nuclear free zone is a certain amount land that has no nuclear weapon in it and no nuclear arsenal. Australia is supporting that idea because it may lead for peace in the Middle East. Since many Arab countries are now in the terrorist countries list and are looking for a way to obtain nuclear weapons. It is also because nearly most of the continents and regions of the world have a nuclear free zone except the Middle East. Australia supports this idea because it is the most issue that could lead to world peace.
Australia thinks that this project will not complete except when each country signs an agreement stating that at this area the county shall buy or sell or own any nuclear weapon or machinery. After this agreement is signed Australia thing an organization should be assigned to manage the zone and to be sure that none of the countries is deceiving the agreement.
5) The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba:-
Because of that the economical state at which Cuba is reflecting on the kind of regime ruling in Cuba. This also reflected on the kind of way the treated the residents; they tortured them and caused many kinds of physical pain for them; they tortured them and caused many kinds of physical pain for the Cubans.
Since Australia was one of the countries that voted in favor of removing the Economical Embargo on Cuba, since every country in the world was Australia allies except for America, Israel, and the Marshal Islands; and because of that the economical state at which Cuba is reflecting on the kind of regime ruling in Cuba. This also reflected on the kind of way the treated the residents; they tortured them and caused many kinds of physical pain for them.
Australia thinks that the UN. should send inspectors to Cuba with the invitation of the country or the country surrounding it, or with major vote at the United Nations, which had provide right since every country in the world voted in favor of Cuba except 3 countries.
Forum: General Assembly
Issue: The question of rising water level due to global warming.
Defining global warming as known as an increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, especially a persistent increase sufficient to cause climate changes,
Realizing that the cause of rising water level may cause to the loss of many agricultural areas in addition to the loss of many of the residents dwellings and may also cause to the loss of many lives if one of the islands in the oceans and seas drown,
Further realizing that it was also cause to the loss of many tiny island which may lead then to larger islands,
Noting Further that this may also lead to the loss of many civilizations and knowledge which has been passed through out centuries like the aboriginals’ civilization and the remains of the English settlement in Australia and the knowledge of the High Tech Laboratories in Australia,
Taking into account that this problem will also lead to the loss of many endangered species only found in islands around the world,
Having devoted attention that their were be a rising number of homeless people and people in need of a shelter if this issue is not resolved since their houses would be lost if an island sinks,
Having Adopted this issue by many of the best high-tech laboratories non of which has found a solution to this problem,
Taking into account that the Papua New Guinea islands are facing a serious problem in transporting 1500 resident because these islands are threatened too drown in the coming year;
1. Declares that Australia shall appoint her best scientists to find a solution that my help in the survival of many innocent lives that lives in these islands that are threatened, and as soon as they find a solution they shall put it into act immediately,
2. Express it’s appreciation to the Green Peace organization for helping the small islands that lack technology into finding a solution for this issue.
3. Notes that Australia shall create an organization that shall help these helpless islands and Australia in many ways: A) Finds a solution for this problem, B) Helps secure a safe place for the islands residents, C) Raise funds for this project from wealthy countries and islands, D) Assign scientist to see the effect of rising the level of water on the nature, E) Assign divers to see the effect of rising water levels on the carols in the seas and on the living creatures;
4. Emphasizes that many islands have and are pleading for help while no country are helping them, ignoring the fact that by ignoring these helpless islands the world could be the main reason for the loss of these islands, while only some island which are capable of raising funds have helped these weak islands;
5. Worries that not as many countries are taking this issue seriously except these whom are endanger of drowning;
6. Proclaims it’s gratitude to NASA which developed a program to find a solution to the global warming which by then help resolve the issue of rising water levels and asks them to organize a project which: A) Send space shuttles into spaces using the raised funds as financier, B) Send scientist to check the atmosphere and the average toxic gases in them, C) Perform tests on the atmosphere to find a answer to this issue;
7. Further regrets that a large size of Tuvalu and Kiribati has been swept away and know is under water which lead to the loss of many of those two islands beautiful natural lands, while no country is sending help to transport the rare natural creatures which are being lost;
8. Calls Upon the technology countries in the world to save islands that could be lost in many years that will cause the loose of many natural resources with them (ex. Gold, silver, uranium, sulfur.)
9. Invites the world top scientist to come and help find a solution or a long term plan that could lead to the decrease of rising water;
10. Regrets its disappointment of the countries which claim world peace and happiness when hearing the scream of help coming from the islands drowning in the ocean and not acting;
11. Proclaims it’s expectation in which the other nations and the organizations located in those nation to assisting Australia and a few other islands in finding a resolution for this issue.
Welcome from the land of climbing Koalas and freely jumping kangaroos the home and country of the Aboriginals. Welcome from the past and the future, and from the land and the oceans. The land of the amazing Carol Seas; the home of the Opera House in Sydney. Lastly welcome from the land of the rain forests and the hot deadly desert.
In the same time Australia grieves to some of these islands that are endangered in drowning because of the rising water levels due to the global warming, Australia also warns the world of the loss of thousands of years of civilizations, and also the loss many endangered species that are only found in Australia and some other islands.
This tragedy will cause not only the loss of large numbers of human but it will also cause the loss of some history treasures that are found in a number of Australian Museums throughout the country.
So honorable chair and fellow delegates, if the world did not act and help us to find a solution to this hideous problem it could mean the end of being for some countries