Chile

Student: Hamad Al-Sager

Event: Pearl-MUN 2003




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The Chilean National Anthem: Chile

Dulce Patria recibe los votos
con que Chile en tus aras juroacute;
que, o la tumba sera acutes de los libres,
o el asilo contra la opresioacuten.

1.-Ha cesado, la lucha sangrienta
ya es hermano, el que ayer opresor;
del vasallo borramos la afrenta,
combatiendo en el campo de honor.
El que ayer doblegabase esclavo,
hoy ya libre y triunfante se vé;
Libertad es la herencia del bravo;
la victoria se humilla a su pieacute;.

2.-Alza, Chile, sin mancha la frente;
conquistastes tu nombre en la lid;
Siempre noble, constante, valiente
te encontraron, los hijos del Cid.
Que tus libres, tranquilos coronen
a las artes, la industria, la paz
y de triunfos cantares entonen
que amedrenten al deacute spota audaz.

3.-Vuestros nombres valientes soldados,
que habeis sido de Chile el sosteacute;n,
nuestros pechos los llevan grabados...
Lo sabrán nuestros hijos tambiea cuten.
Sean ellos el grito de muerte
que lancemos marchando a lidiar
y sonando en la boca del fuerte,
hagan siempre al tirano temblar.

4.Si pretende el caentildeon extranjero
nuestros pueblos osados invadir,
desnudemos al punto el acero
y sepamos vencer o morir.
Con su sangre el altivo Araucano,
nos lego acute por herencia el valor,
y no tiembla, la espada en la mano
defendiendo de Chile el honor.

5.-Puro Chile es tu cielo azulado,
puras brisas te cruzan tambie acute;n,
y tu campo de flores bordado,
es la copia feliz del Edea cute;n.
Majestuosa es la blanca montantilde;a
que te dió por baluarte el Señor
y ese mar que tranquilo te bantilde;a,
te promete un futuro esplendor.

6.-Esas galas, oh Patria, esas flores
que tapizan tu suelo feraz,
no las pisen jama acutes invasores;
con sus sombras, las cubra la paz.
Nuestros pechos sera acuten tu baluarte,
con tu nombre sabremos vencer
o tu noble, glorioso estandarte
nos vera acute; combatiendo, caer.



English Translation

Chile, your sky is a pure blue,
Pure breezes blow across you,
And your field, embroidered with flowers,
Is a happy copy of Eden.
Majestic is the snow-covered mountain
That was given to you by the Lord as a bastion,
(repeat)

And the sea that tranquilly washes your shore
Promises future splendour for you.
(repeat previous two lines)

CHORUS

Gentle homeland, accept the vows
Given, Chile, on your altars,
That you be either the tomb of the free
Or a refuge from oppression.
(repeat previous two lines three times)
Or a refuge from oppression.
(repeat four times)




Chile






Country Profile: Chile

 

Political Structure

Chile is a democracy showing a bicameral congress having a senate and a house. The house is called the Chamber of deputies and it is composed of 120 members that are elected for a four-year term with the prospect of getting re-elected.

The senate is composed of 46 members. The president of Chile, like the members of the chamber of Deputies, is elected for a four-year term with the prospect of getting re-elected. In the senate the members are elected for an eight-year term with the possibility of getting re-elected. 38 members of the 46 members in the senate are elected, and the rest, the 8 members, are appointed.

A bicameral congress constitutes two houses, the senate and the house. The house has the power of impeachment and initiating tax and budget acts. The senate has the power to try the impeachments, ratify treaties, and confirm appointments. The senate usually has the most power. It is the house of the senate who usually deals with many problems during the election than the house. And yes the bicameral congress is a democracy because it constitutes a group of people that vote for or against a specific issue.

The political landscape is largely tripartite. The left faction is splintered and it is composed of the socialist party, the communist party, popular unity party, and the party of democracy. The right faction is splintered like the left and it is composed of the National Renewal Party, Union of the Centralist Center, and the Independent Democratic Union. Last, the central faction is mostly composed of Christian democrats who include 2 parties and they are the Christian Democratic Party, and the Radical Party. The three factions that I have mentioned are as follows: The left faction represent the socialists. The right faction represents the capitalists. The central faction is something between these two factions. All in all, Pinochet represented the extreme right faction.



Geography

Chile is situated in southern South America. Its bordering countries are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. It has a coastline that is 6435 km long. The total land boundaries are 6171 km. Chile also borders the South Atlantic Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean. Its geographic coordinates are 30 00S, and 71 00 W. Chile is slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana. The total area of irrigated land in Chile is 18000 sq. km.

Chile sometimes suffers from severe earthquakes, active volcanoes, and tsunamis. Its lowest point is the Pacific Ocean at 0 m, and its highest point is Nevado Ojos Del Salado at 6,880 m. It has low coastal mountains, fertile central valleys, and rugged Andes in the east. Chile suffers from deforestation, along with the threat of natural resources that is threatened by the widespread of mining. It has a strategic location relative to sea-lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It also includes the Atacama Desert, which is one of world's driest regions.

All in all, Chile is country that is situated in a strategic location with land boundaries keeping it safe from enemies. It also has important natural resources in it that make it a wanted country which explains its history of invasions.

 

Defense

Chile’s military sector includes a variety of blocks. One of these blocks is the army of the Nation. Another block is the National Navy, which includes the naval army, the coast guard, and the marines. Other blocks include the Force of the Nation, The Chilean Carabineros (National Police), and the Investigations Police. The average age of military personnel in Chile is 19 years of age. Military manpower availability ranges from 15-49 years of age as of 2002 estimates. There are 4,104,197 people available in the army, while only 3,034,912 are really fit for the job. In Chile, 136,830 males reach the military age annually. The Chilean Military spends up to 2.1 billion dollars annually, which is 3.1 percent of the total GDP.

Chile used to have enemies like Spain back in the old days, where Spain wanted to take over Chile. At the beginning Chile was able to resist the forces, but at the end it couldn’t. Also the United States was not in close relationship with Chile because it helped in the assassination of its president Pinochet. In these days, Chile can pretty much defend itself thanks to the land boundaries. But it still experiences some difficulties with chasing drug dealers that often damage the relationships with its neighboring countries. The government, in the 1980’s was not under control of the government because of the political crisis that was at hand. When the present president arrived, everything was under control.


 

Natural Resources

Chile has limited energy resources. Crude Oil comes from its close countries like Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Nigeria. The crude oil is then refined through one of Chile’s three refineries. Natural Gas comes from Argentina. Although, the electricity is generated through the hydroelectric generators.

Most of Chile’s export sector depends on the natural resources of Chile. The natural resources that exist in Chile are copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower, and coal. Lastly, Chile has some lack of resources making it not very able to feed itself.



Cultural Factors

The mane language spoken in Chile is Spanish. There are two main ethnic groups, White and White Amerindian 95%, and Amerindian 2%. The main religions that exist in Chile are Roman Catholic which is the religion of 89% of the people, and Protestant which is 11% the religion of the people. Ages 15 and over of the society can read and write which makes 95.2 % of the total population in Chile that can read and write.

Most of Chile’s population is located in the central valley. Some of the population is located in other parts of Chile. Not all of Chile speaks Spanish, for in the north they speak Yamaha, in the South Mapuche, and in the eastern island they speak the Polynesian language of Rapa Nui. Also, there is an ethnic group, very closely related to White Amerindian called Mestizo which is composed of people that their parents come from both the indigenous people of Chile and the Spanish Colonies.

Mestizo, as I have explained before is a very common ethnic group not only in Chile, but all over South America. It is a mix of the people that originally were from Chile and the people that came from Spain. This explains why the main language that exists not only in Chile but also in other countries is Spanish.



Economy

Chile was the economic role model in South America. It had the highest growth rate in South America. Its GDP growth rate at the time was at 8 percent. Chile’s reputation as a role model in South America was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio Aylwin arrived. The GDP growth rate fell after a while because of the tight monetary policies. These policies had to be implemented because of the decrease in export earnings. At the time the GDP growth rate fell, it fell to half the amount it was.

Now let’s look at Chile’s current economy. Chile’s purchasing power parity is 153 billion dollars as of estimates done in 2001. Its growth rate 3.1 percent. The total amount that the GDP has is composed of these sectors. 8 percent comes from agriculture, 38 percent comes from the industries, and the rest, 54 percent, comes from services. Total percentage of population that lives below poverty line is 22 percent. The Inflation rate is 3.5 percent. Chile has a labor force of 5.9 million people. These people are divided into sectors. 14 percent of these people work in the agriculture sector, 27 percent of these people work in the industrial sector, and the rest, 59 percent of the total labor force work in the services sector. Chile’s expenditures are 17 billion, along with its revenues.

Well, the reason Chile was a role model in its economy because it had the highest growth rate among all the other countries in South America which was 8.1%, but after several years, this percentage fell to 3.1. Now we could say that growth rate will increase gradually. Main Trade partners in Chile are Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, and other neighboring countries of Chile.

Chile had the highest growth rate in South America because Pinochet, as a dictator, insisted that people should put their money in an account through the government. This money was then invested in the stock market. As the economy grew better, the stock market increased. That is what caused Chile to have the highest economic growth rate in South America. Also, the United States wanted adopt the same plan, although it didn’t have a dictator, so it couldn’t do it.



Views on World Problems

Chile’s neighboring country Bolivia continues to demand on a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean. The Atacama region was lost from Bolivia during 1844 after Chile took over it. Also, Some of Chile’s territories in Antarctica partially overlap that territory of Britain along with Argentina. The dispute that is going on with Peru over the economic zone is delimited by the maritime boundary.

Chile is suffering from the growing of shipments of illicit drugs that is heading for the United State and Europe. Its economic prosperity and the increasing of trade of illicit drugs have made it a country that attracts many traffickers that seek to launder drug profits. Many of these traffickers centralize in the Queue free zone. The civilians in Chile have increased in consuming cocaine.

In Chile, it is natural to grow drugs because drugs were grown for many years. Also, specific drugs grow naturally in Chile. Chile’s allies are Brazil, Venezuela, and other close countries. Its relationship with Spain is much better than before now that they share families, but Chile’s relationship with the United States is pretty tricky because of the drugs coming from Chile and that is headed to the United Sates. Along with the illegal immigrants that come from Chile. But this percentage of illegal immigrants is pretty low while comparing it to other countries like Mexico and Cuba.

 

History

Chile’s rich central valley remained unknown for a period of time. It was then when the Incas arrived to invade the land they discovered it, but they only were able to invade apart of it before the Napuche resistance arrived at the crossing of Rio Maule River. Then arrived the Spanish army, which continued on the same route the Incas, was in, yet they still lost against the Mapuche. They then colonized some of the regions they were able to retrieve and built strongholds they’re with strong defense forces for the Mapuche had their own weapons ranging from cavalry forces to artillery.

It was not until another fleet of Spanish soldiers arrived and retrieved the Mapuche regions, which then made them capable of occupying a large area of the present Chile. Yet the war continued between the Spanish forces and the resistance forces that originated from the region. It was not until 1817, after 7 years of Warfare, Chile gained its independence from Spain.

In 1970, a Marxist government had formed under the hands of Dr. Salvador Allende. His objective was to radically change the country’s structure and direction brought by the second political crisis. However, Dr. Allende was assassinated under the hands of General Augusta Pinochet, who was assisted by the United States CIA. He was in power of Chile for the next 15 years resorting terror to stifle discontent. It was not until 1990 when Mr. Patricio Azocar had beaten him in the election making him the rightful president of Chile.

Now, the role of the military has decreased rapidly seeing that Pinochet is gone and the political crisis it over. Many people see that the time Pinochet was in control of Chile, it was a disaster because he caused many problems.

 

 

 


Policy Statements


1. The question of rebuilding Iraq.

Chile thinks that rebuilding Iraq is an essential part that must be accomplished as soon as possible. Chile would like to congratulate the United States, along with the coalition forces in enforcing peace back to Iraq. The people of Iraq have suffered a lot in their past and in their future. Now is a time for them to regain their strength. It is a new era for the Iraqi people. We, as members of the mighty United Nations, must act as one, striving alongside, helping the new Iraq.

 

2. The question of reducing tensions on the Korean peninsula.

How can tensions are reduced when nuclear testing is being established. Maybe yesterday, a nuclear missile test has been undergone, that caused the missile to fall in the Sea of Japan. What is next, a missile falling into the shores of Japan? Also, North Korea has violated treaties following the use of nuclear weapons. Chile thinks that tensions cannot be reduced if such acts are happening.

 

3. The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire.

Chile thinks that peace and security in Cote D' Ivoire cannot be guaranteed until a suitable president gets the throne and the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement is accomplished. Then we could say that peace and security can be accomplished. Over the years, violent clashes between two contenders or more have claimed the lives of many people. Even a mass grave has been found. If a suitable president is not elected, along with a suitable plan that will mark the future of Cote D'Ivoire, then Cote D'Ivoire may not return like how it used to be.

 

4. The question of reforming the Security Council.

After a long period of inactivity and reluctance, the efforts started to increase in the 1990’s. The end of the cold war was a major support in reform initiatives. The former secretary general, Mr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, tried to accomplish several reform initiatives. He had accomplished in some field initiatives like the peacekeeping processes, although he did not accomplish the reforming of the UN structure, along its organ.

 

5. The question of the roll of the media in portraying conflicts.

The media today, as you see, is in pursue of money and review points. At the time of the War, you could see the media broadcasting false statements and worrying the people. Some medias especially ones like Al Jazeera acted very biased by always previewing statements against the war, and increasing the tensions of the Arab people. These Medias should be brought to a halt. No media whatsoever should be taking sides. Its job is to preview as many news as possible. Chile means TRUE STORIES.

 

 

 

 

SECURITY COUNCIL CLAUSES



1. The question of rebuilding Iraq.

1. Demands - that sanctions should be lifted from Iraq seeing that the past government and the Baath party have been evicted, there are no other problems that face us today that may stop us from doing this. This will help:
A. The economy of Iraq,
B. It will help transportation throughout Iraq if the sanctions on the fly zone of Iraq is to be lifted,
C. Flights can now come over Iraq to the gulf regions that may save more money for the Commercial Airlines and the travelers;

2. Further Emphasizes - that water and gas stations are to be established in order to provide water and gas to the people of Iraq:
A. It will provide these essential items to the people of Iraq throughout the regions,
B. Water and gas will be transported to these stations via truck,
C. These essential products will be bought from the neighboring countries;

3. Accentuates - that purifiers are to be established in both the Furat and Dijla rivers to purify the rivers from pollution:
A. New fish breeding sites are also to be established to retrieve the wildlife that was lost,
B. No civilian in any case is to be in the river, nor will he/she is to be fishing,

 

2. The question of reducing tensions on the Korean peninsula.

1. Requests that additional forces are to be reported to the neighboring countries of the Korean peninsula just in case North Korea decides to attack in order to provide safety and insurance to the neighboring countries of North Korea;

2. Urges - that media should not be covering any thing about this topic, in order to reduce the tensions in the Korean peninsula, to show the world that everything is under control;

 

3. The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire.

1. Proclaims that a temporary government, like the one established in Iraq, is to be established as soon as possible to retrieve peace and security in the country;

2. Further Proclaims that the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement is to be adopted by the new temporary government mentioned above;

3 Urges that the new temporary government will be in charge of the elections for the new president to ensure that neither clashes, nor cheating will ensue;

 

4. The question of reforming the Security Council.

1. Requests that new seat should be added to the Security Council. All country members in the Security Council will have a rotating seat with a 2 year period every try;

2. Requires - that new people are to be assigned to the organizations that are dealing with the renovation of the current United Nations organs;

 

5. The question of the roll of the media in portraying conflicts.


1. Proclaims – that a new organization in the UN should be established:
A. It will be called the World Media Organization (WMO),
B. All media companies should register to this organization under the orders of the United Nations,
C. This Organization will be located in Washington, United States,
D. It will only deal with issues regarding media broadcasting,
E. It will establish a broadcasting station of its own,
F. Instead of banning a specific media company, it will broadcast news condemning a certain news agency,
G. The WMO’s agency will have a channel free of charge that will be broadcast around the World,
H. The United Nations will be funding it,
I. English will be its main language;

2. Further Proclaims - that news agencies are to be restricted in what they will cover
A. they will be restricted in covering issues resolving a country that is being opposed to war,
B. media will be banned from covering issues regarding specific people who do not want to be viewed,

3. Resolved - that a fine from the United Nations is to be given out to those news agencies that will contravene the issues mentioned above;

 

 

Opening Speech


Hola Amigos.

Fellow delegates, honorable Chair, Deputy Chair. Greetings from the land of great eccentric beauty, a land of culture, and history. A land of greenery and hospitality. Come visit the many lakes that lie between mountains and hills. Enjoy the many meals that were made by the indigenous people of Chile.

Chile is honored to participate in this honorable conference. It stands hear today ready to face new conflicts, and challenges. Chile stands here today side by side, hand in hand together to ride the path that will sever all the obstacles in the way. This is a new era delegates. We are in charge of it.