Country: The Republic of Cuba

Event: Pearl-MUN 2003

Student: Saud Al Subaie

 

 

 

Links to other sites on the Web:


Back to the 2002-2003 Team page
Back to the 2003 Pearl-MUN page
Back to the Briefing Book Library
Back to Teams
Back to Fruit Home

The Cuban National Anthem


Cuba
Al combate corred bayameses
que la patria os comtempla orgullosa
no temais una muerte gloriosa
que morir por la patria es vivir

En cadenas vivir es morir
en afrenta y oprobio sumidos
del clarin escuchad el sonido
a las armas valientes corred.

English:

Hasten to battle, men of Bayamo,
For the homeland looks proudly to you.
You do not fear a glorious death,
Because to die for the country is to live.

To live in chains
Is to live in dishonour and ignominy.
Hear the clarion call,
Hasten, brave ones, to battle!

 


The Republic of Cuba

 




COUNTRY PROFILE

 

Political Structure:

Cuba is a communist state, with the PCC (Cuban Communist Party) as the head party. It has 14 administrative divisions, Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara. The legal system is based on Spanish and American law with a mix of communist legal theory. Cuba is run by the National Assembly of People’s Power, keeping in mind that complete power over the country belongs to the President, Fidel Castro. The National Assembly is a great power in Cuba and is prominently the largest authority figure, and is composed of 609 seats, which are elected every 5 years, and voting is entitled to people over the age of 16. Fidel Castro is the head of the two executive and legislative assemblies, and the Counsel of Ministers holds executive power.

The National Assemble holds responsibility for distributing laws, but it has been recently handed off to the executive committee, which has made some important economic changes. Above all, Fidel Castro holds power over everything in Cuba, and then comes the Counsel of Ministers and the National Assembly, all of which Fidel Castro is the head of.

 

Natural Resources

Some of the main natural resources of Cuba are cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, and arable land. Cuba’s soil is very fertile, allowing it to grow a wide variety of crops, one of which is sugar, its main export. Cuba has 870 sq km of irrigated land. The main industries of Cuba are sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services, nickel, steel, cement, and agricultural machinery, biotechnology. It exports these products to Russia, Canada, Spain, and the Netherlands. Cuba’s main imports are machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, fuel, lubricants and oil from Spain, Russia, Mexico, Canada and Venezuela. Although Cuba has these resources, because of the embargo it has little people to trade with, and thus makes little use of it.

 

Culture

Cuba has a very diverse groups from all over the world, this is because is the largest of the countries in the Caribbean, making people pass through it in order to get to their final destination, some settle, some leave, resulting in this diverse group of people. These groups are composed of Whites, Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians (in order from most populated to least). Many of the people in Cuba are Roman Catholics or atheists, a large number of Protestants are in Cuba, and a minority or Jews exists there, a blend of Catholicism and African religions exists in Cuba. In 1962 Fidel Castro ordered over 400 Catholic schools to be shut down, claiming that they spread bad beliefs to people. Recently, the government has allowed freedom of choice of ones religion, and Castro has also recently become of neutral faction with the Catholic church.

With a population of 11,224,321 Cuba’s native language is Spanish, and English is widely spoken, it is the second language of the country and is taught in nearly all schools. There is very little racism or segregation in Cuba, people their get along very well and are friendly. Art and music are a large factor of Cuban culture and are a large part of what makes Cuba what it is today.



Defense

Cuba has several military branches, they are the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) including Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); note - the Border Guard Troops (TGF) are controlled by the Interior Ministry. The legal age for one to be able to join the military is 17. 3,102,312 men serve in the military; wile 3,036,549 women do as well, all between the age of 17 and 49. Cuba’s military only uses 4% of its GDP, proving it Is very efficient, and has no discriminations between males and females. Cuba’s military power has shrunken in potency ever since the Soviet support cut off on 1993.

Cuba is allies with Russia, Korea, and China, and enemies with America. Previously, America would not have invaded Cuba while it had military support from Russia, but now that it has been eliminated, America can easily invade Cuba, with only the fear of Cuban use of biological weapons on it. Cuba does not intend to have war, even though it has an army, which is a sign of its peace. This is partly due to the fact that it also has FEW allies left.

 

Geography

Cuba is the largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles, it is between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida. Cuba has an area of 110,860 sq km, and 3,735 km of coastlines. Cuba also has a tropical climate; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October). The terrain is mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast. Cuba’s environment suffers of air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation. The coastlines of Cuba are jagged, offering it natural harbors.

 

Economy

The government continues to balance the need for economic loosening against a concern for firm political control. It has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase enterprise efficiency, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services, but is unlikely to implement extensive changes. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the severe economic depression of the early 1990s, which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. High oil prices, recessions in key export markets, and damage from Hurricane Michelle hampered growth in 2001. Cuba paid high prices for oil imports in the face of slumping prices in the key sugar and nickel industries and suffered a slowdown in tourist arrivals following September 11. The government aimed for 3% growth in 2002, but growth was held back by hurricanes, depressed tourism, and faltering world economic conditions, including low world sugar prices and a shortage of external financing.

Cuba has a GPD of $25.9 billion, and a real growth rate of 0%. 8% of the GDP is agriculture, 35% is industry, and 58% is services. Cuba has an inflation rate of 7.1% and a labor force of 4.3 million (agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51%) and an unemployment rate of 4.1% and its currency is the Cuban peso (CUP)

Cuba exports sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee to Netherlands (22.4%), Russia (13.3%), Canada (13.3%), Spain (7.3%), China (6.2%), and imports petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals from Spain (12.7%), France (6.5%), Canada (5.7%0, China 95.3%), Italy (5.0%). It has a debt of $12.3 billion. With this in mind, things are getting slightly better, but not much, because of the embargo.

 

Views on World Problems

Cuba participates in many international organizations, which are CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WtrO

There exist to Cuba some allies such as Russia, China, Iran, Iraq, and Korea. Cuba’s greatest despised enemy is America, this was caused by several things. Cubans were tired of the U.S.'s intervention in Cuban affairs, Cuba also grew to hate the US because of the embargo. The embargo affected the Cuban people so much that in the Bay of Pig’s Invasion the 1,200 solders captured by Cuba were given to the US in return for food and medicine and after the discovery of Soviet Missile installations in Cuba things got very hostile, US. President John Kennedy even imposed a naval blockade to prevent further Soviet arms shipments reaching the island. In 1992 president George Bush approved the Cuban Democracy Act, which strengthened the trade embargo by making it even more strict and tight. This brought opposition from Canada and many European countries and the UN General Assembly voted in favor of a resolution calling for an end to the embargo.

In 1962 Cuba was expelled from the Organization of American States (OAS). It was accused of attempting to foment rebellions in Venezuela, Guatemala, Bolivia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Grenada.

 

History

The Spanish were the first to settle in Cuba rising of cattle, sugarcane, and tobacco as Cuba's primary economic pursuits, as the native Indian population died out, African slaves were imported to work the ranches and plantations. During 1885 the people of Cuba started to be rebellious due to the inadequate treatment they received and 1886 slavery was abolished. A Spanish- American war arose in 1898 and Cuba is independent (20 May 1902 officially).

After the many dictators ruled Cuba, their rule enraged the people and then brought on the Castro revolution, Fidel Castro led his rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has held the country together ever since.

The confiscation of U.S. (landholdings, banks, and industrial concerns) led to breaking of diplomatic relations in January 1961 by the U.S. government. That same year Castro declared his allegiance with the eastern bloc. Hostility to Cuba’s alignment was strong in the United States, which responded with a trade embargo and was the reason of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Which was an unsuccessful US-military sponsored invasion. Cuba’s importance in the cold war was subsequently amplified the following year when the USSR began to reinforce Cuba’s military power and to build missile bases on the islands. In 1962 the Cuban missile crisis took place and the Soviets agreed to withdraw their missiles from Cuba. 1989 the Soviet Union collapsed and that led to market losses in Cuban sugar and subsided oil.

Cuba's current situation is very strange. Nearly everyone who can works for tourism (most women as prostitutes) or receives checks from overseas. It's an interesting parallel to that of the PLO.




 

Policy Statements

 

1) The question of rising water levels due to the effects of global warming.

The question of raising water levels has deeply concerned Cuba. As a country and an island at the same time, this harm could greatly affect Cuba, and is working its way up the priority ladder each year. Raising water levels would flood the beautiful rich lands of Cuba making it useless for agriculture. Future more, global warming would make living in Cuba very uncomfortable, as it already has a very warm weather.

Cuba is trying to lower pollution rates, which will cause in less global warming. The UN should apply policies that forbid ANY product that causes in pollution wile being produced, if this cannot be done, then the pollution should be controlled at all costs.

 

 

2) The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.

Cuba is a small country, with a half dance population, that could be considered crowded. If SARS were to be let loose on Cuba, Cuba would perish. Cuba shall not tolerate SARS and the spread of it. People in Cuba would easily spread the disease among them selves, this is arguable one of the worst diseases that has come up next to AIDS.

The UN should help all countries control the spread on SARS with in them, and help cure it. If the disease can be controlled and held off, it will go away. That is what Cuba is trying to do, we try to keep the disease away from us. We are not saying please give us free medicine, but what we are trying to say is solve the problem!

 

 

3) The question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine.

Cuba is in favor of saving food and water for times of war for other countries, but that would be difficult, because of the current famine situation in Africa. If we do this, we would be technically donating food and water to Africa, which is all right.

Cuba is trying to this by lifting the embargo that the US has put upon it, Cuba has very little to work with. Having no trade partners, it cannot give countries food and water in its current state. The trade embargo on Cuba should be lifted, because the embargo itself is causing famine.

 

 

4) The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East.

Cuba has some, but little, friends in the Middle East, so having a nuclear free zone in it is of some concern to Cuba. If some countries are given the right of nuclear weapons, all countries should be given nuclear weapons, it’s either all countries or none.

As stated before, either everyone has nuclear weapons or none have. Cuba prefers that no one have nuclear weapons. Having them will lead to people having access to weapons of mass destruction and this will cause war.

 

 

5) The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.

Cuba would like to see equality and equity within it. People are suffering because no one is his or her right to food, water, or the things that they need. Why? Because of the US trade embargo on Cuba. Cuba should trade, Cuba wants to trade, but it cannot, because of the US trade embargo. The US does offer more things than Cuba and by having this it has more trade partners. By having more trade partners, more countries are forced NOT to trade with Cuba, even though Cuba can offer things that the US cannot.

 

 

 

Resolution

Submitted by: Cuba

Delegate: Saud Al-Subaie

Forum: General Assembly

Issue: The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.

Defining human rights as the articles stated in the UN Charter for Human Rights, and the Universal Declaration for Human Rights,

Knowing this the US is blatantly violating the two documents,

Defining suffering as pain caused by others due to actions done by them causing a person to have mental or physical pain,

Realizing that the US embargo on Cuba prevents it from trading with the US and other countries that trade with the US,

Knowing that the US has maintained an economic embargo against Cuba since 1960, totally prohibiting the sale of all goods originating in the US, including medicines and food,

Further Acknowledging that this embargo causes not only serious difficulties in Cuba’s commercial and industrial development, but also enormous suffering to the people of Cuba, especially to the children, elderly, and those that are ill,

Keeping in mind that according the WHO and CSA, numerous Cubans have died due to poor nutrition, mainly caused by the embargo, especially in the 1990’s and 70’s

Noting that as a last method of survival, people resort to stealing and killing other people, because they have no food, because of the embargo,

Further Noting that countries that trade with the US are not allowed to trade with Cuba, further limiting Cuba’s few trade partners,

Further Noting that Cuban exiles in the US continue to suffer PURELY on the embargo’s existence because of their rejection from Cuba causing misery,

1) Requests the right to trade with other trade partners of the US by dropping the embargo;

2) Recommends that all countries give funding for Cuba, for the losses that it has lost over the years for the embargo, in return:
A) Cuba will aid those countries in their times of need,
B) Cuba will offer them more "bang for the buck" when trading;

3) Reminds countries that with trade comes benefit all sides allowing them to expand their economy;

4) Applauds former president Carter for his wishes to drop the embargo;

5) Further Requests that the expression of friendship and solidarity with the nation of Cuba and the US continues wile the US gives Cuba it’s freedom to choose its own political leaders, system of economy, and way of operation without intervention of the US or any other country;

6) Notes that the current US policy violates important provisions of the Charter of the Organization of American States, the United Nations Charter and a number of other international agreements to which the US is a signatory;

7) Points out that on July 20th 2000, the House of Representatives approved two amendments aimed at easing the embargo severely;

8) Resolves the formation of the OTR, The Organization of Trade Regulation, which will be located in Switzerland, and will do the following:
A. Regulate international trade among countries,
B. Provide the freedom to all countries and organizations to trade with any other countries or organizations that they wish to trade with,
C. Issue a warning to courtiers that explicitly exclude a country or them selves from trade with another country or themselves
D. If that county continues to do this, they shall be issued a fine, and monitored so that they allow the free trade to other counties.

 

 

 

Opening Speech


Good evening ladies and gentlemen! Welcome to Cuba, land of the great Cuban cigar, land of great foods, and land of the great leader, Fidel Castro. Welcome to all nations and delegates present here from Cuba. Prosperity, drugs, disease, war, and human rights are all on people’s agendas, but has anyone thought of Cuba’s problem? (3-second pause)

It inevitable that you have! It is one of the issues. All countries are encouraged to trade, and all countries need to trade to get all they need, no country is complete of all resources as-is. US is holding and embargo upon us, and we cannot trade with nearly all counties because they all trade with the US. Are we going to let this keep on going? And let Cuba suffer and die?! Pero No!

DOWN WITH THE EMBARGO!