Country: Democratic Republic
of The Congo

Event: Pearl-MUN 2003

Student: Maha Sartawi




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The Congolese National Anthem



Democratic Republic of the Congo




Country Profile

Political Structure:

DRC was settled by a Portuguese navigator Diego Coa and later explored by English journalist Henry Morton Stanley. Belgian King Leopold 2 as the Congo Free State officially colonized Congo in 1885. In 1907, it was renamed as the Belgian Congo. Belgian Congo caused a lot of turbulent disturbance to Belgium to get their freedom. So, on June 30, 1960 they granted their independence. Parliamentary elections in 1960 produced Pratice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavuvu president of the renamed Democratic Republic of Congo.

The democratic republic of Congo is a dictatorship type of government. The people to a five-year term elect the president. Its capitalís Kinshasa, itís been independent country since June 30, 1960. The main holiday they have is 30 June. The present president is Joseph Kabala since January 26, 2001, his father Laurent Desire Kabila was assassinated on January 16, 2001. Laurent Desire Kabila overtook power by the popular vote for a seven-year term. He has also overthrown Marshal Mobutu Sese Soko Kuku Ngebndu wa Za Banga on May 1997. The judicial branch is Supreme Court, in the legislative branch there are 300 members Transitional Constituent Assembly established in August 2000 chosen by Laurent Desire Kabila. The fundamental laws of DRC were made on 24 June 1967, amended on August 24 1974, revised February 15 1978, amended April 1990.

 

Natural Resources:

The Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the wealthiest countries in Africa. They have lots of kinds of natural resources such as cobalt, copper, diamond, rubber, zinc, silver, gold, petroleum, tin, uranium, iron, and tin. Copper is the most important mineral. The country ranks among the world's leading copper producing nations. The DRC leads the world in production of industrial diamonds, its second most important mineral.

The Democratic Republic of Congo is not a very self-sufficient country since its imports are much higher than its exports. Its imports are $1.04 billion while its exports are $750 million according to the 2001 establishment There exports partners are Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, South Africa, U.K and U.S.A.

 

Cultural Factors:

The population of DRC is 52 million. There are over 200 African ethnic groups, the main one is Bantu; the four largest tribes are Mongo, Luba, Kongo, and the Mangbetu-Azande, they make up almost 45% of the population. There are 4 religions in DRC: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, and the rest are syncretism sects and indigenous beliefs 10%.There are 700 languages spoken but the most spoken languages are French, Lingala, Kingwana, Kikongo and Tshiluba. It doesnít seem that there are problems within the countryís religion and tribes.

 

Geography:

The DRC is the third largest country in Africa after Sudan and Algeria. The DRC belongs in central Africa, northeast of Angola. DRC has is a big country its 2,345,410 sq. km, the land boundaries are 10,730 sq. km. Their neighbors are Angola, Burundi, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and the south Atlantic. The highest point in DRC is the Margherita Peak its 16,762 ft, and the lowest point is sea level. Forests cover most of the land. They have the Congo River, which is 4,374 km; the Congo River is the second longest river in Africa and the seventh longest in the world.

They have a very hot and humid climate in equatorial tier basin. Cooler, and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands. In the north of the equator they have wet season from April to October and dry season from December to February. As for the south of the equator it has also a wet season November to March and dry season from April to October.

 

Defense:

In 1996 military forces consisted of a total of 28,100 personnel. The army forces have a member of 25,000. There is also an air force of 1,800 members, and a navy of 1,300 members 600 of them is marines. Paramilitary forces and civil guard totaled more than 3,100 members. Military service is voluntary. The military expenditure is $ 250 million. At least five nations are helping Kabila in fighting Rwanda, Uganda, and Burundi. The five countries are Chad, Sudan, Angola, Zimbabwe, and Namibia

 

Economy:

Its imports are $1.04 billion while its exports are $750 million according to the CIA. The imports commodities are foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment and fuels. They export diamonds, cobalt, coffee and petroleum. There imports partners are Belgium, China, France, Germany, Italy, South Africa, UK and US. AS for there exports partners are Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, South Africa, UK and U.S.A. They have a debt of $12.9 mainly owed to the US and France.

The DRC was unstable after independence 1960; the economy grew only about 1% a year until mid-1980s. The country dropped from having one of Africa's highest standards of living to one of its lowest because of Mobutu's 32 years regime. Laurent Kabila rebuild the economy of the country but continued unrest the DRC hampered economic progress. Mineral processing is the primary manufacturing activity in DRC, followed by petroleum and cement production. Other manufactured products include tires, shoes, textiles, beer, soap, cigarettes, and processed food. The currency is Congolese Franc. The land use of DRC 3% of it is occupied by agriculture, 7% by pasture, forest/ woodland 77%, and 13% by other uses.

 

Views of Problems:

In July 1994 refugees from Rwanda began streaming into Zaire because of the ethnic conflict between Hutu and Tutsi in that country. More than 103 million Rwandans gathered in camps along the DRC's eastern border. The Zairian government and the UN struggled to find a way of safely returning the refugees to Rwanda. In February 1995 the UN sent Zairian troops to maintain order in the campus. In August the Zairian government ordered that refugees be forcibly expelled from the camps. After about 15,000 refugees had been forced back into Rwanda, the government halted the operation in response to international pressure.

The DRC is a member of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and the International Monetary Fund. DRC I s also a member of various blocs and groupings such as ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAD, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAOT, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, APCW, PCA, SADC, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNH, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WIPO, WNO, WToO, and WTrO. Their main enemies are Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi. DRC is concerned with the world problems such as diseases, and starvation, because they have and it is killing thousands of people each year.

 

History:

DRC was settled by a Portuguese navigator Diego Coa and later explored by English journalist Henry Morton Stanley. Belgian King Leopold 2 as the Congo Free State officially colonized Congo in 1885. In 1907, it was renamed as the Belgian Congo. Belgian Congo caused a lot of turbulent disturbance to Belgium to get their freedom. So, on June 30, 1960 they granted their independence. Parliamentary elections in 1960 produced Pratice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavuvu president of the renamed Democratic Republic of Congo.

In 1971, the countryís name was changed to the Republic of Zaire. In 1972, the president changed his name into a more African name Mobute Sese Soko, and asked the people to change their name to an African name too. World copper prices fell sharply in mid-1970s: so, their exports dropped, and countryís foreign debt rose up to $ 4 billion, they were a lot of Zairians staying at home unemployed. The government was forced to embrace economic reform again in 1989. In 1990, the US cut direct military and economic assistance to Zaire because of the regime corruption and human rights abuses.

In July 1994 refugees from Rwanda began streaming into Zaire because of the ethnic conflict between Hutu and Tutsi. In February 1995 the UN send Zairians troops to maintain order in camps, in August the Zairian ordered that refugees be forcibly expelled from the camps. In November 1995 Mobutu attended a summit in Cairo, Egypt with the presidents of Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania to discuss the situation. The leaders agreed on a plan to encourage the exiles to return to Rwanda, but most refugees resisted being repatriated. The Hutu, who feared reprisals from Rwandaís Tutsi regime, were particularly resistant. Recent legislation had established new criteria for Zairian citizens, and locals decided to expel Banyamugenle had live their for 200 years. The Banyamulenge trained by the Tutsi Rwandan government in preparation for such an attack, retaliated and reinforced Rwandan Tutsi successfully fought of the Zairian army in October. Laurent Kabila grew in power with the help of AFDL.

On May 16,1997 with the rebels nearing Kinshasa, Mobutu relinquished power and left the capital. In September, Mobutu died in Morocco, the AFDL renamed the country to Democratic Republic of Congo. Kabila declared himself president, and promised to establish democratic system of government. The DRC government sought to strip the eastern Banyamulenge Tutsi of Congolese citizenship, and the Banyamulenge rose-up in armed revolt with the help of Rwandan soldiers expelled by Kabila. Kabila accused Rwanda and Uganda of supporting the rebels, who began capturing towns in eastern DRC with the stated aim of overthrowing Kabila. Kabila was successful in rallying military from a number of regional allies, including Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Sudan, and Namibia.

 

 

POLICY STATEMENTS

 

A. The question of controlling the spread of SARS virus and finding a cure for it.

Sars is a very dangerous virus that is spreading out easily around the world with out knowing what is the cause of it and where did it come from. Itís causing a lot of killing around the world. We just canít be safe when we are scared of this virus that can hit you easily without knowing how. The UN should put a stop to this virus. DRC wouldnít want it to be apart of it because they have already lots of diseases that is killing the people in it like malaria. Malaria is a big disease that is spreading out easily too in Africa just by mosquito bites and they canít find for it a medicine or vaccine, they canít afford the money to pay for it even though they found the cure for it, they will ask for money from US, Belgium and its will still not be enough and after that they can't pay the debts for it. So, if they canít find a cure for there own problem and a way to pay for it how come they help the others they have no money.

 

B. The question of rising water due to the effects of global warming.

Global warming is caused by the increase of carbon dioxide in the air. The sun sends visible radiation that passes through the clear atmosphere and hits the earth. A portion of it is absorbed and re-radiated back to space as IR. Carbon dioxide traps this IR and reflects it back to earthís surface, causing further warming. This warming causes the temperature of the water to rise while becoming less dense, the will spread, occupying more surface area on the planet. Increases temperature will accelerate the rate of sea level rise. Democratic Republic of Congo has a coastline of 37 km and has high mountains and has a land of 2,345,410 sq km. The global warming in effect of rising water wonít affect DRC because it is a vast country. We would like to have some technology from rich countries to solve pollution problems.

 

C. The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Mid-East.

Nuclear free zone is a land where there are no nuclear weapons. The US wants to a place in the Mid-East to be a nuclear free zone to avoid wars in the future. The Democratic Republic of Congo is with America of course! Because DRC owns America a lot of debt and wouldn't want to cause another problem with that and America exports some foodstuff, transports equipment, etc. So, if they go against them they will have a big problem in that. The idea of the Democratic Republic of Congo to stand with US is for the safety of their country.

 

D. The question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine.

Starvation is a big disaster to most countries because of the heat or civil war. People die easily without food and get sick easily thousands of people can die in a month, mostly its a worldwide problem that we can't solve easily even by helping each other in the exports. The heat can cause starvation by not letting nature grow into useful products that help people survive only by that, civil war cause a devastating problem by killing other and destroying the country.

The DRC has a huge issue with starvation. The people in DRC are starving because the war between the rebels. After rebel action, which has blocked the main road, and rail corridor to Kinshasa from the seaport of Matadi. International agencies and western embassies, including those of Belgium and the Netherlands, are planning food drops by air, and are awaiting authorization and guarantees of safety. But the food that's left to store is maybe for 4 days and water for a week, which won't keep people alive. The UN sent a group of military advisors to a meeting in Addis Ababa, which is aimed seeking an end to the rebellion in the Congo (latest news from CNN.) the rebels even tried to block the corridor from Kinshasa but failed. DRC canít afford for this to happen again because it is causing diseases, starvation, and death. All because of Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda.

 

E. The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.

Human right in Cuba is almost the same as the one that use to be in Iraq, which you all heard about. People can't stand up for themselves or say what's in their mind. They have to speak and act from what the government tells them. No choice! No Right! In this situation DRC hasn't voted against or with, because they believe in human right. America is one of the countries that exports and imports stuff with DRC. America is against human right in Cuba. So, DRC is neutral to not loose anything they have. The DRC states that the US should stop the embargo, because it is causing a lot of suffering to humans, such as starvation, diseases, and death mostly.

 

 

 

RESOLUTION


FORUM: General Assembly

COUNTRY: Democratic Republic of the Congo

QUESTION OF: securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine

Defining starvation is to suffer or die from extreme or prolonged lack of food mostly caused by heat and civil war,

Noting that almost 22 million people worldwide have died from starvation,

Thanking the FAO for helping with the transportation of food to Southern African countries by distributing seeds, tools, fertilizers and veterinary drugs and the provision of basic technical assistance,

Emphasizing that starvation can only be faced with the aid of technology from rich countries,

1. Resolves the UN should form an organization named the Food Security Organization (FSO) with its head office based in South Africa, after the approval of the host country:

2. Strongly urges that this organization should work to build investment projects:
A. After approval of the country investing in,
B. Hiring natives from all ethnic groups in the nation,
C. Using countries natural resources for its needs if possible,
D. Study the investment project would best be good for the nation environment with the help of economists, engineers, and architects;
E. Encouraging investors to comes to these countries and to build more industries;

3. Further resolves that the UN Food Security Organization should try to cooperate and solve any problem that is causing starvation:,
A. Meeting twice a year in South Africa which has all sides of the conflict;
B. Allowing that if the leader of one of the ethnic groups doesnít come, the deputy-leader can participate in the meeting,
C. Making decision by majority and implementation by all sides;

4. Proclaims countries that wish for the investment to give free land and incentive packages to investors from the FSO;

5. Concludes that the benefits of the FSO investors will go to securing food;

 

 

Opening Speech



A beautiful white diamond has been touched and scratched by an enemy that would never leave them freely leave them in peace. Now, it is lost between black rocks that would never let her free and is dusty with nothing to go on with.

Honorable chairman, and honorable delegates; Bonjour! Comment ca va?

The Democratic Republic of Congo's citizens had been through a disaster for years, by there close neighbor that wonít leave them alone. Even though we are rich by some natural resource, but these natural resources have been abused by the enemy. Due to those countries, the DRC has seen starvation, death, disease, and war. It is affecting the country a lot; people are dying easily by starvation and diseases. Because DRC is a poor country and most of the people that live there have no jobs and no education.

Iím pleased to be here and hope to change the problem of starvation worldwide. Thank you; Merci.

Je suis contente díetre la aujourdíjui, et jíespere de changer se probleme.