Event: Pearl-MUN 2003, SC
Student: Amna Al-Sager
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2002-2003 Team page
Country Profile France
The republic of France has been and independent country ever since 486, when it was unified by Clovis. On the 28th of September 1958, France formed a Presidential Democracy. On July the 14th of every year, France celebrates Bastille Day which is considered a national holiday.
Some of the treaties that were established and signed by France are: the EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992, Amsterdam Treaty in 1996, Treaty of Nice in 2000. The legal system of France is that of the civil law system with minor changes and local concepts.
Franceís government is divided into 3 main branches, the Executive branch, the Legislative branch, and the judicial branch. The Executive branch includes the president, who is elected for a period of five years, the Prime Minister, and the Cabinet, which is appointed by the President and the Prime Minister.
The Legislative branch consists of a Senate or Parliament and the National Assembly. The Senate or Parliament has 321 seats. Metropolitan France has 296 of these seats, overseas departments and territories have 13 of these seats, and 12 are for French nationals abroad. On the other hand, the National Assembly is made up of 577 seats for members whom are elected by the public.
The Judicial Branch consists of the Supreme Court of Appeals in which the judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary. It also consists of The Constitutional Council which is made up of three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate. Last but not least the Judicial Branch also consists of the Council of State. France has an enormously large number of political parties and leaders such as MCR, RDES, FRS, PCF, CPNT, MEI, PRG, PRS, MRG, DL, MPF, FN, MNR, RP, RPF, RPR, LCR, PS, and many others. France is also one of the powerful countries, which is one of the five permanent members of the United Nationís Security Council.
Frances has a good supply of natural resources such as: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, potash, timber, and fish. Another source of Franceís income would be its agriculture. Franceís agriculture consists of different products such as: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes, beef, dairy products, and fish.
Franceís has a wide range of products that it exports. These products are: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, and beverages. These products help France gain a export sum of $307.8 billion (est. 2002). Franceís main export partners are: European Union 61.3%, Germany 14.7%, UK 9.8%, Spain 9.6%, Italy 8.8%, and US 8.7% (est. 2001).
Franceís also relies a great deal on its imports. Its main imports are machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, and chemicals. It mainly exports these products from the European Union 58.6%, Germany 16.7%, Benelux 7.0%, Italy 9.1%, UK 7.5%, and US 8.9% (est. 2001).
In July 2002, France had a population of 59,765,983 citizens, with an overall growth rate of 0.35%, with 11.94 births per 1000 people, and 9.04 deaths per 1000 people. Female French citizens are called "French women", and male French citizens are called "Frenchmen". The average French people live until they are 79.05 years of age. Women usually live longer and live until they are approximately 83.14 years of age, while men live until they are 75.17 years.
There are many different ethnic groups in France such as Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities. These different ethnic groups practice different religions such as: Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, and other religions 4%. The different tribes and religious groups get along fine and respect each other, but there always is the occasional problem or misunderstanding, but nothing major.
Obviously, French people speak French. But there are many different dialects like: Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, and Flemish.
France has a very well educated population. 99% of its citizens whom are over the age of 15 years can read and write.
France on the whole has a labor force of 26.6 million people. 71% of who work in services, 25% in industry, and last but not least, 4% of who work in agriculture.
By the end of 1998 France had an average of 34.86 million main phone lines in use, 11.078 million cellular mobiles, 55.3 million radios, 34.8 million televisions, and 16.97 million Internet users.
France has a quite large military, which is divided into 4 main branches: Army which includes marines, Navy which includes naval air, Air Force which includes Air Defense, and National Gendarmerie.
For a male citizen to enter the military he must be at least 18 years old. In the year 2002 France had about 14,534,480 available to serve the army, of whom only 12,092,938 men were fit to serve the military. The males that are annually reaching the age limit to serve the military are 390,064 citizens.
Every year the French government pays an average of 46.5 billion dollars for the military to spend on its needs. Which is about 2.57% of the countryís GDP.
The French military would have been quite capable of taking down Iraq with a little help from the US and Britain.
France is located in Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel. It is between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain. France covers an area of 547,030 sq. km, of which 545,630 sq. km is land and 1,400 sq. km is water. Which makes it the largest European country. It is slightly less than twice the size of Colorado. Its geographic coordinates are 46 00 N, 2 00 E. Its coast line is 3,427 km. It has many neighboring countries with which it shares land boundaries, such as: Andorra (56.6 km), Belgium (620 km), Germany (451 km), Italy (488 km), Luxembourg (73 km), Monaco (4.4 km), Spain (623 km), and Switzerland (573 km).
Franceís capital is Paris. Franceís climate is generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean, it has occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral.
Franceís terrain is mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west. The rest of itís lands are mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, and Alps in east. 33.3% of Franceís land is arable land with 2.11% of permanent crops.
France has many natural hazards like flooding, avalanches, mid-winter storms, drought, and forest fires in south near the Mediterranean. It also has currently suffered from acid rain, air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions, water pollution from urban wastes, and agricultural runoff.
France has a GDP of $1.3 trillion, and is the fourth largest industrial country in Western Europe.
It has substantial agricultural resources (3%), a large industrial base (26%), and a highly skilled work force. A dynamic services sector accounts for an increasingly large share of economic activity (71%) and is responsible for nearly all job creation in recent years. GDP growth was 1.1% in 2002.
Franceís industrial products are thing like machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, textiles, food processing, and it has a good case of tourism. While itís agricultural products are: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes, beef, dairy products, and fish.
The government has partially or fully taken over many large companies, banks, and insurers, but still keeps large stakes in several leading firms, including Air France, France Telecom, and Renault, and remains dominant in some sectors, particularly the power, public transport, and defense industries. The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition because more telecommunication companies are being allowed.
Franceís government has lowered income taxes and introduced measures to boost employment but has done little to reform an overly expensive pension system, rigid labor market, and restrictive system of government which discourages hiring and makes the tax burden one of the highest in Europe. The French government is in debt but its economy is quite stable.
The two currencies that are used in France are the Euro (EUR) and French franc (FRF). But the French Franc is not used widely any more. France resisted "Anglo-Saxon global capitalism." Because France did not want globalization and wanted to protect it uniqueness and that is called as the "French exception".
Views on World Problems:
France is the leader of Western Europe. It has always tries extremely hard to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the EU and its role in common European defense. France believes that the Franco-German relations and the European Security and Defense Identity are what is securing and increasing European security. France supports the Middle East peace process, and has always backed Palestine and believed that Israel should withdraw from all Palestinian grounds. France supports the involvement of all Arab parties and Israel in a multilateral peace process. France also plays a role in Africa since it contributes to political, military, and social stability. France supports strengthening democratic institutions in Latin America. It supports the ongoing efforts to restore democracy to Haiti and seeks to expand its trade relations with all of Latin America.
France has a US embassy in Paris, and the US has a French embassy in Washington DC.
France and the US have similar policies, and all differences are discussed frankly. But with the ongoing issue with Iraq, there has been many difference and problems between France and the US that are not being discussed. The US does not support Franceís decision to veto any resolution that permits military action against Iraq. France believes that this problem can be solved in peace.
France is trying all that is in its power to help its ex-colonies in Africa and to reduce tensions in them and between them. It is also providing these countries with AIDs and is trying to increase positive relations with them.
France and Russia have always been known to get along fine. But when Russia was a communist country France did not have good relations with them and did not like dealing with Russia. But ever since all that has changed the Franco-Russian relations are as good as can be.
During the reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715), France was the dominant power in Europe. But in the 18th century France faced many financial problems. Failing economic conditions and popular resentment against the complicated system of privileges granted the nobility and clerics were among the principal causes of the French Revolution (1789-94). Although the revolutionaries supported republican and egalitarian principles of government, France returned to forms of absolute rule four times: the Empire of Napoleon, the Restoration of Louis XVIII, the reign of Louis-Philippe, and the Second Empire of Napoleon III. After the Franco-Prussian War (1870), the Third Republic was established and lasted until the military defeat of 1940.
France was defeated during World War II and was occupied by Germany. After that, on July 10, 1940, the Vichy government was established. After 4 years of occupation, Allied forces liberated France in 1944. Charles de Gaulle, the Fourth Republic was then set up by a new constitution and established as a parliamentary form of government controlled by a series of coalitions. The mixed nature of the coalitions and a lack of agreement on measures for dealing with Indochina and Algeria caused successive cabinet crises and changes of government.
On May 13, 1958, the government structure collapsed as a result of the opposing pressures created in the troublesome Algerian issue. A threatened coup led the Parliament to call on General de Gaulle to head the government and prevent civil war. He became prime minister in June 1958 (at the beginning of the Fifth Republic) and was elected president in December of that year.
There was an election seven years later which was the first election in which the French public may elect a president by direct ballot. President de Gaulle won the re-election. In April 1969, President de Gaulle's government conducted a national referendum on the creation of 21 regions with limited political powers. The government's proposals were rejected, and de Gaulle resigned. Following him as president of France have been Gaullist Georges Pompidou (1969-74), Independent Republican Valery Giscard d'Estaing (1974-81), Socialist François Mitterrand (1981-95), and neo-Gaullist Jacques Chirac (first elected in spring 1995 and reelected in 2002).
1-The question of rebuilding Iraq.
France was against the intrusion on Iraq from the first place. France regrets that it made such a quick decision without pondering it for a longer time, but is still against the intrusions against Iraq. It still believes that the problem could have been solved in a much peaceful matter without violence, and a peaceful UN resolution could have been formed.
Now that the US has caused what it has caused in Iraq, they have also freed the Iraqi people from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein. They also damaged and ruined many historical sites. So the UN owes it to the Iraqi people to rebuild and fix all that they have lost. France believes that the reconstruction on Iraq should be completely under the hands of the UN. The US should also contribute to the reconstruction as well as all countries that would like to volunteer.
2-The question of reducing tensions on the Korean peninsula.
France is hoping to build a stronger political relationship with countries of Southeast Asia. It has been trying to be more involved in the problems they are facing and has been contributing and aiding the countries in need. France has already donated humanitarian and technical assistance to many countries in Asia including the NGOs.
France believes that internal problems should be solved peacefully within the country and should not interfere except if asked to. Since Franceís decisions are concerned with the European Union, France will not make a decision without consulting the European Union.
3-The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire.
France believes that peace should be spread throughout Cote D'Ivoire. France has tries several times to stop the violence by sending military troops to keep the government and rebel forces apart, but that still didnít help. The tensions are still extremely high.
France believes that there can't be any lasting military solution. The solution can be only political. It's the case throughout Africa, as elsewhere, for example in the Middle East and Iraq. France firmly believes that it can act effectively in Africa only by acting in cooperation with its African partners. France will do all that it can to reduce the tension and to enhance peace in Cote D'Ivoire.
4-The question of reforming the Security Council.
France has been a permanent member of the Security Council ever sense the Security Council was formed. Along with China, Great Britain, The USA, and Russia. It has always tried its best to do what is the logical and reasonable for the United Nations and the world. It has not used its Veto Power except when France felt that it was really necessary.
Concerning the issue of reforming the Security Council France has a great deal to say. In order to maintain its full authority, France believes that the Council must be more representative of the real world. The last time the Security Council was reformed and enlarged, in 1963, the United Nations had only 110 members countries. Today, it has 189. Many Powerful countries have emerged and France is in favor of enlarging both the permanent and non-permanent membership, and giving greater representation to countries of the South.
5-The question of the roll of the media in portraying conflicts.
France has a free media that has all of its rights. Its citizens are well educated and make sure that they have all their rights and know about all that is happening in their country and outside. The media in France plays an immense role in the French citizens both locally and internationally. The French people really on many sources of information including the Internet, radio broadcasts, and satellite broadcast stations.
France believes that all countries should have a free media that ensures that their citizens know about all the situations and crisis that are occurring in all corners of the world. France also believes that both sides of a situation should be equally represented so people can see what is happening in both sides and decide which side they support.
A. The question of rebuilding Iraq.
1. Requests the formation of the United Nations Organization for the Rebuilding of Iraq (UNORI) which will have its head quarters in Baghdad and will consist of: A. A chair member who will be appointed by the Secretary General, B. 2 Representatives from each countries who decides to participate in the rebuilding of Iraq, C. 2 Iraqi government representatives,2. Resolves that the UNORI will do the following: A. Form a meeting every 3 months to discuss uprising issues threatening Iraq including political, social, economical problems, B. Hold an emergency meeting whenever it is necessary, C. Discuss any trades or bargains (such as the Oil-for-Food program), D. Discuss different incentives a country may receive in return for their aid towards Iraq, E. Discuss the lifting of certain sanction or the reduction of sanctions, F. Observe how the new Iraqi government is proceeding without any violation of the national sovereignty, G. Provide the new Government with any technical help as required, H. Insuring the education of the citizens of Iraq I. Ask different organizations (such as UNICEF) to provide humanitarian aid and other needs to the underprivileged citizens, 3. Further resolves that the UN holds an immediate meeting to discuss the formation of the UNORI and amend all that is needed to make this Organization succeed;
B. The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire.
1. Requests The formation of an arbitration committee consisting of one representative of each side of the conflict in addition to a UN representative who will be assigned by the Secretary General, that will discuss all political, economical, and other problems in a peaceful manner,
2. Resolved that for an Cote D'Ivoirian ID card to be issued to a person, the person must be born in Cote d'Ivoire or the personís father must have a Cote d'Ivoirian citizenship, or the person must live in Cote D'Ivoire for at least 3 years under a visitors visa and then apply for citizenship;
3. Confirms that if any act of violence is apparent that the Security Council accompanied by the French troops, which are already allocated in Cote D'Ivoire, take appropriate action.
Welcome all to the Pearl MUN Security Council meeting. Warm greetings descend upon you from the land where many wonders of the world were derived from. The land of art and beauty and power. The land of elegance and culture. The land where you can smell the best bread fresh from the ovens of our many boulangeries. The land of fashion and style. It is from this very soil that Napoleon came to power. And it is upon this very soil that the "Mona Lisa" hangs, smiling in one of our many historic museums. In case you still donít know what country Iím talking about, I am talking of the wonderful republic of France.
My fellow delegates France would like to take a moment to show its sympathy towards the Iraqi citizens who have lost their loved ones and many of their valuable possessions because of an extremely fast course of action that has been taken. On the other hand, France would like to congratulate the same country for freeing the Iraqi people from the evil dictatorship of Saddam Hussein. Although France believes that there could have been a better and more peaceful way of freeing them, with the support of the United Nations. Nevertheless, what has happened is in the past, and now we have to think of the future. Let us put our hands together and make the future of Iraq one that is full of peace and happiness, the people of Iraq deserve it after all that they have been through.
Thank You Very Much