Country: Georgia

Event: Pearl-MUN 2003

Student: Sarah Faklral-Deen

 

Links to other sites on the Web:

Back to the 2002-2003 Team page
Back to the Pearl-MUN 2003 page
Back to the Briefing Book Library
Back to Teams
Back to Fruit Home

 


 


The Georgian National Anthem



Georgia


 

 

Country Profile

 

Political Structure:

Georgia is a republican nation; Georgia's capital is Tbilisi. The Government's origin and foundation was in Russia when Georgia was part of the Union of Social Soviet Republic (USSR). The Republic of Georgia's Independence Day is on the 9th of April, the year 1991. The form of parliament runs the Republic of Georgia. The Parliament of Georgia plays a very big role in the power of making laws, and it is considered the representative of Georgia in the world.

The parliament is made up of many members: 150 members, however, only 85 of the 150 are major members that debate in actual meetings of the parliament. Also, the chairman of the parliament is Zurab Zhvania, and the deputy chairman is Eldar Shengelaia. The responsibility, undertaking, and liability of making a final decision for any matter of the country lies in the hands of the members and chairmen of the parliament. Even though the final decisions are up to the parliament, the laws made by the parliament have to be read by the president, but if the president offers that they alternate the law a little, they don't have to necessarily do that. Moreover, the parliament consists of women, too, and they represent 7% of the parliament. Plus, 50% of the parliament's members are 45 years old or younger. In The Republic of Georgia a new president is elected every five years, but the same president can be re-elected, but not for more than two chronological terms.

The current president of The Republic of Georgia, who is now serving his second five years of presidency, is President Eduard Shevardnadze. Not only does the president symbolize and epitomize Georgia in foreign relations, but he also forms the Government of Georgia, secures the combination and coalition of Georgia, and represents the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

There are many ministries in The Republic of Georgia, and they are: Agriculture and Food, Communications and Posts, Culture, Defense, Economy, Education, Energy, Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Finance, Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Health, Justice, Refugees and Resettlement, Security, Social Security and Labor, State Property, Transportation, Trade and Foreign Economic Relations, and Urban Affairs and Construction. In addition, the State Departments are: Archives; Forest Economy; Material Resources; Sport; Tourism; Border Defense; Geology; Social Economic Information; Standardization, Meteorology, and Certification; and Youth Affairs. On the other hand, there are eight political parties in The Republic of Georgia, and these parties are: 1) Citizens Union. 2) Aghordzineba (that is revival in Georgian). 3) People Faction (Also Known As PF). 4) Imedi (that is Georgian for Hope). 5) National Democratic Party (Also Known As NDP). 6) Majoritari Sakartvelos Regionebi (otherwise known as Majoriter- Regions of Georgia). 7) Laborist. 8) Abkhazeti (also know as Abkhazia). Although the State Departments, Ministries, and Political Parties are private and different from other countries, the Political Structure of The Republic of Georgia is sort of the same as the USA's Political Structure.

 

Cultural Factors:

Ever since The Republic of Georgia was separated from the USSR, there have been seven different ethnic groups. In order of there amount in the population: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, and other 5%. On the other hand, the religions in Georgia are: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslims 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, and some unknown religions that take over 6% of the country's population. There are five spoken languages within the borders of Georgia, and they are: Georgian which is the official language and there are 71% of the country's population who speak it, 9% of the population speak Russian, 7% speak Armenian, 6% speak Azeri, and there are a few other languages that 7% of the population speaks. However, the actual language in Abkhazia (a region in Georgia that is causing most of the ethnic problems inside Georgia) is Abkhaz.

Out of the all the people in The Republic of Georgia 99% of the population can read and write over the age of fifteen, all males can read, but for the females 98% of them can. The population in Georgia is 4, 960, 951 according to the survey of July in the year 2002.

 

Geography:

The Republic of Georgia lies in South Western Asia, and it borders the Black Sea. It lies between Turkey, which is to its South, and Russia, which is to its North. The geographical coordinates for Georgia are: its longitudes are 42 North, and its latitudes are 43, 30 East. The climate is generally minor, pleasant, and serene; however on the beach the climate is subtropical. Plus, the climate is Mediterranean-like on the shore of the Black Sea. Georgia's area is 69,700 square kilometers (km), comparing to the United States of America, Georgia is vaguely smaller than South Carolina. Georgia's shares its borders with Russia about 723 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, and Turkey 252 km. Plus, it's coastline is about 310 km, however, there are no lakes, rivers, or ponds within the borders of Georgia.

The topography in Georgia is mountainous at the North and South borders. For example, the Great Caucasus Mountains on the North borders with Russia, and the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the South with Turkey. Georgia controls most and almost all of the Caucasus Mountains not only that, but also the routes that lead to them. In addition, there is a lowland in Georgia called the Kolkhet'is Dablobi and it opens into the Black Sea towards the West side of Georgia. Also, there is the Mtkvari River Basin towards the East of Georgia, on the borders between Georgia and Azerbaijan, and that's where a catchment or collection of a river is, or it is to some extent together with this area of water where ships or boats may be secured and connected. In Georgia, there are also some good soils that are flooding the even, level, and flat foothills of the Kolkhida Lowland towards the West. The lowest point in Georgia is the shore or coastline of the Black Sea and it is 0 km, however, the highest point in Georgia is a mountain called Mt'a Shkhara and it goes as high as 5,201 m.

 

Natural Resources:

The natural resources in Georgia, are: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits, tobacco, grapes, and the subtropical climate on the coastline causes good soil, and that allows the important growth of tea and citrus fruits. The rich and productive land covers about 11.21% of Georgia, the permanent crops cover 4.09% of Georgia's area, and the rest of the ground is just cities and it covers 84.7% of Georgia's area. On the other hand, the wet and moistened land covers about 4,700 square km of all Georgia's area.

The main natural dangerous exposure that Georgia faces is earthquakes, but there are several other natural hazards in Georgia. Plus, the current environmental issues that are striking Georgia are: air pollution, inadequate supplies of potable water, and soil pollution from the waste of toxic chemicals that is buried in the soil. The toxic chemicals that are buried under the soil can lead to the killing of people. There are some environmental and intercontinental agreements that Georgia made a few years ago, and these agreements are to stop, prevent, and be aware of: air pollution, biodiversity, and climate change-Kyoto Protocol, desertification, endangered species, and hazardous wastes, law of the sea, Ozone Layer protection, ship pollution, and wetlands. Georgia exports citrus fruits, tea, wine, and vegetables to Russia mostly, Turkey, Azerbaijan, USA, and Germany. As for the imports, it imports grains and other types of food from Turkey mostly, Russia, Azerbaijan, Germany, and USA.

 

Defense:

The military branches include Ground Forces such as National Guard, combined Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, and Republic Security and Police Forces, there are internal and border troops. To be able to enlist in the military the person must be 18 years old at least. The military output and expenses are $23 million.

A Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) international relations force of Russian troops is positioned in Abkhazia region or origin in Georgia, along with a UN military observer group. Also, a Russian international relations battalion or troop is positioned and organized in South Ossetia. Chechen and other dissatisfied people in Chechnya are being transferred to Pankisi Gorge to comprehend, penetrate, and invade the Akhmeti region. Plus, the Russian borders with Georgia have been encircled largely but still haven't been isolated or established. Some small, tactic sectors remain in quarrel and debate. Georgia is now under the threat of Russia, which says that the Russians shall be bringing Chechens into the region of Pankisi Gorge, and that is a military threat that might cause a war between Georgia and Russia.

 

Economy:

The Republic of Georgia's currency since it's independence from the USSR has been the Lari; however, the currency code is GEL. A Lari is worth $2.1888 US dollars. The Gross Domestic Product's (GDP) actual growth rate is 4%, and that has been a great rise since the years before 2002. The GDP's organization and constitution by segment is: 20% for agriculture, 25% for industries, and 55% for services. The Republic of Georgia's budget from the tax incomes are $499 million per year, and the budget from the consumption and payments are $554 millions per year. The industries of Georgia are: steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, and mining for manganese, chemicals, wood products, and wine. The sources of electricity are: fossil fuel 21%, hydro 79%, other sources such as nuclear are not used as a source of energy in Georgia. Every year Georgia exports items up to $515 million; some of the export products are: agricultural products like, citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes, and livestock, they also export electricity in the form of fossil fuels and hydropower. Also, scrap metals, machinery, chemicals, fuel re-exports, and wine. Georgia's export partners are: Russia 23%, Turkey 21.5%, Azerbaijan 3.3%, USA 3%, and Germany 2.5%. Georgia spends $750 million per year on imports. Its import cargo is: fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment, grain and other foods, and pharmaceuticals. Georgia's import partners are: Turkey 15.3%, Russia 13.3%, Azerbaijan 10.7%, Germany 10.1%, and USA 4.1%. Georgia's external or exterior debts rise up to $1.7 billion.

A whole lot of Georgia's money and economic activities and actions incorporate the nurturing of agricultural products, for instance, citrus fruits, tea, hazelnut, and grapes. Some of the economic activities and actions also involve the mining of manganese and copper, and output of a small manufacture engineering and mechanical subdivision and segment of producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and drinks, metals, machinery, and chemicals. Georgia only imports the majority of its energy needs; such as, natural gas and oil products. Although Georgia has suffered rigorous and strict destruction of their economy, it has regained the rate of its economy successfully; however, with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, and they needed a few years, but in 1995 the GDP's normal and average rate was back. Also, the government of Georgia is enduring limited resources, and that is because of the frequent and repeated failure to collect tax incomes.

 

Views of World Problems:

The Republic of Georgia's allies are Turkey, Azerbaijan, Germany, The United States of America, Britain, and France. Georgia's enemy is Armenia. Russia is considered an ally, but due to current issues that are taking place, Russia is accusing Georgia of harboring terrorists and Chechen rebels, it is not an enemy; however, it lies in between being an enemy and an ally.

There are several issues in Georgia, and Georgia considers these issues threats. For example, Russia is threatening Georgia that they will bring the Chechens inside the territory of Georgia. However, Georgia is not agreeing on that, because they do not want anything to do with the war between the Chechens and Russians. Also, they have their own problems, such illegal drugs being shipped and dealt inside Georgia, and the limited agriculture that is affecting the national utilization for Georgia. Therefore, Georgia does not want the Chechens inside its borders because of their own problems, also because they have enough ethnic problems inside Georgia. Another reason why Georgia doesnít want to allow Chechens in, is because it wants to keep there relationship with the USA, because the USA told them not to allow or add any other ethnic groups.

Georgia is member of the following organizations: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations International Development Organization (UNIDO), International Police (Interpol), World Health Organization (WHO), Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS), United Nations (UN), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), International Labor Organization (ILO), International Telecommunications Union (ITU), International Organization for Migration (IOM), and other international organizations as well.

 

History:

The Republic of Georgia was officially announced a kingdom around the year 4 BC. The first religion in Georgia was Christianity and it was introduced to Georgia the year 337 AD. While Queen Tamara was ruling the kingdom from the year 1184 until the year 1213, Georgia included all Transcaucasia. Since the 16th century Georgia has had a fight and struggle between Persia and Turkey. As they entered the 18th century Georgia was considered an aide and assistant to Russia, however, they made a deal that Russia should protect them from Persia and Turkey. In the year 1917 Georgia joined Armenia and Azerbaijan to form an anti-Bolshevik Transcaucasian Federation (Caucasia is taken from the two words Caucasian and Asia; therefore, Transcaucasian is a resistance federation, that is put together by Caucasians in Asia), and later on in 1918 pronounced its independence. Not much later in 1922, Georgia was invaded by Russia to be a part of the Union of Social Soviet Republic (USSR).

After the separation of the USSR, The Republic of Georgia was formed; however, there were many complications. For example, ethnic and cultural group separations in Abkhazia and South Ossetia; poor supremacy, authority, domination, and power in the country; and some Russian militia were contradicting, refuting, and opposing to give the Government of Georgia efficient and operative jurisdiction over the whole territory of the state, even though the territory was globally standardized (it was officially announced in public around the world). Also, after the separation in 1992, its leader Zviad Gamsakhurdia was blamed for the bossy and arrogant policies he made, for arresting leaders of enemies, closing down on the press or media, and for abusing and not allowing human rights in his country.

A few months after that, in the same year 1992 Eduard Shevardnadze was elected as president, and he was the former USSR foreign minister. Later on in 1994, Russia and Georgia signed to an agreement that allows Russia to keep a couple of military bases in Georgia, and that Russia can train and to provide them with the appropriate equipment for Georgiaís army forces. In the year 1998 USA and Britain helped Georgia to wipe away and get rid of any nuclear or any remains from the years it was a part of the USSR. President Eduard Shevardnadze is liked in Europe and North America, more than he is in his own country, by his own people. Much later in the year 2002, the military of the USA trained Georgia's military in a way of anti-terrorism. The USA really wishes that Georgia tries to stop the growth of Islam, and that is to limit the ethnic problems in Georgia.

Recently in the years 2002-2003, there have been some threats from Russia that they will be bringing Chechens into Pankisi Gorge, a region in Georgia, but doesn't abide with the laws of Georgia (these are considered threats because if Russia does bring the Chechens into Georgia, not only shall there be more ethnic problems in Georgia; however, Georgia might also lose their relationship with the USA, and Georgia does not want to be part of the war with Russia and Chechnya, they are neutral).

 

 

Policy Statements:

 

A. The question of rising water levels due to the effects of Global Warming:

Rising water levels due to effects of Global Warming doesn't concern Georgia as much as it concerns small islands, because it is a country that isn't surrounded by an ocean, but by the Black Sea, only. However, Georgia is now adding a tube that connects it to the ocean, for Georgia to get more water. So, Global Warming isn't as big an issue to Georgia as it is to Tuvalu, Haiti, Martial Islands, or any other small islands that could drown because of rising water levels.

An environmental organization that Georgia is in is the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Since Georgia is somewhat concerned for the safety of the small islands, it has agreed to be supportive and decrease the amount of pollution in Georgia, and it intends to help these small islands in other ways.

 

B. The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it:

SARS, also known as, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, is a very deadly and fatal disease that has started to spread for not much over two to four months. SARS is an extremely dangerous disease that was discovered in China during the month of March, and since then, it has been spreading rapidly and shortly. It has caused over 430 deaths, and 6,100 cases worldwide, most of which are found in Hong Kong and China. There is still no cure for this deadly virus, but it is known that if the people infected with this virus keep in cold areas it would give them a longer life, but scientists are not sure if it is a cure. Vietnam is the first and only country that has been successful in controlling the spread of SARS within it.

Georgia is very concerned about this issue, however, it is relieved that there arenít any cases of SARS in Georgia. It concerns Georgia so greatly, because it is a country in Asia, and SARS started in a country not so far away from Georgia, and it is China. Also, Georgia is a part of the World Health Organization (WHO), and WHO has a few scientists working on finding a cure for SARS, and Georgia is happy to help. Georgia is taking all necessary precautions to prevent SARS from entering Georgia, and Vietnam is helpful because it did stop the spread of SARS within it. Therefore, Georgia is glad there are no cases of SARS in it; however, they are very careful not to get a case, by considering some necessary precautions. For example, they aren't allowing any flights from Thailand, China, or Hong Kong and a couple other countries.

 

C. The question of securing food and water resources for nation in times of war and famine:

Starvation is a very critical issue now-a-days, because there are many wars going on, and these wars are causing the loss of houses and valuable items. Not only wars are causing this issue, but so are earthquakes, because sometimes earthquakes have lots of bad effects such as leaving families homeless, without food, water, or money to provide food and water. Over 1800 people are suffering from lack of food and water, most of which are in Africa and in those countries reviving from wars that just ended.

Georgia doesn't have any lack of food problems, like Africa any other poor countries, or any countries that just ended a war, but it tends to help countries in times of war and famine. Georgia provides food, water, and money for the poor countries in need. Georgia is also in continuous help to these countries in need by providing all other necessities to these countries.

 

D. The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East:

Many of the Middle Eastern countries have been suspected of owning nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction; however, Georgia doesn't like to pinpoint or accuse any of them. Many countries are trying to make the Middle East free of these weapons. Georgia is concerned about this issue, because it would like to help the Middle East do that, and create a nuclear free zone. Georgia is also with the Middle East for doing this because Georgia is surrounded by Muslim countries, and it wants to help the Middle East for international safety reasons, too. Not only that, but also another reason why Georgia wants to form a nuclear free zone in the Middle East is because a small part of Georgia's population is Muslim, and all the Middle Eastern countries are Muslims.

Furthermore, Georgia would like the safety of all nations around the world, and it would like to stop nuclear weapons all around the Middle East, because several countries have many weapons of mass destruction.

 

E. The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba:

Human's rights is a big issue, or should be a big issue, to all the 196 countries that are in the United Nations. Human's rights have been debated in many UN meetings, and it is supposed to be that every independent country, in other words, every country in the UN should have human's rights for its population.

Georgia is against the sanction of Cuba by the USA, even though it is an ally of the USA, therefore, Georgia is neutral. Georgia is against that because Georgia thinks that Cuba should have human's rights, and that the USA shouldn't place an embargo on Cuba for it's small area or it's many needs from other countries. Many countries are in need, not only Cuba. Georgia also believes that the USA should abide by the rules that are set by the UN, and not ban Cuba from any economic activity. Another thing is that only three countries were for the sanction of the USA to Cuba, and all the other countries were against that, because they know it is wrong, and that the USA hasn't got a good or reasonable reason to apply an economic sanction over Cuba. The USA is only applying a sanction for Fidel Castro's communist regime, and therefore they are attacking human rights in Cuba, and causing the people to suffer even more than they already are under Fidel Castro's regime. He is making the people suffer, and not the leader, who should be the one that is suffering.

 

Resolution:

 

Delegation of Georgia

Delegate: Sarah Fakhral-Deen

Issue: The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.

Defining SARS as sever acute respiratory syndrome, which damages the lungs and leads to respiratory failure if not treated or cared for immediately,

Pointing out that getting infected with this virus is very easy, you can be infected if you come in physical contact with an infected person, or that person's personal items, or anything she/he has physically come in contact with, or even by simply breathing the same air that an infected person is breathing,

Emphasizing on the fact that the SARS virus spreads hastily and speedily upon the presence of a single case,

Fully aware of the threat that SARS poses to the safety and well-being of the populations of all the countries around the world,

Expressing deep concern, that no cure has been discovered for SARS as of yet, but it is said that an infected person can live longer in cold areas,

Expressing Gratification to the many organizations that are helping to search for a cure for this deadly virus, the great and hard work of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the great concern of the United Nations(UN), and encouraging any other organization to help in fighting this fatal virus,

Encouraging all nations and organizations to help in fighting this fatal virus through means of adopting this resolution,

Congratulating Vietnam on its successful efforts in controlling SARS and overcoming large obstacles that nations world wide are facing difficulty in overcoming, and wishes to receive Vietnam's full support to try and implement this resolution,

1) Resolves that a new sub-organization of the WHO, called the World Health Organization Division for the Monitoring of the SARS Virus (WHODMSARSV) shall be formed to take over this nasty disease, this sub-organization shall consist of no more than 30 countries assigned by the WHO based on statistics from its database evaluation of its scientists; 10 countries of which are the most important and most concerned countries with the SARS virus, and the other 20 members would be AIDs and assistants to the ten most concerned countries, and placing a country in charge, preferably Vietnam, seeing as it is the first and only country that was able to overcome and stop the spread of SARS inside the borders of Vietnam;

2) Further resolves that the WHODMSARSV would be in charge of:
A. Ensuring that infected people stay inside an insulated, but comfortable and cold place, and the rest of the population be vaccinated,
B. Creating a database, that will include such information as how many people are infected in the country currently, how many people have died, how many have been cured, and provide or mention all necessary precautions to help a person avoid be infected by the SARS virus,
C. Presenting all the medical supplies needed to countries suffering from the disease,
D. Supplying masks at all international and domestic airports,
E. Granting a check up center in all the requiring nations, and offering free check up for the homeless, and the requiring nations are determined as such by the professionals at WHODMSARSV,
F. Providing quarantine centers for all countries that need it, that includes different rooms for the different stages of the SARS virus according to the severity of the conditions, also including the appropriate environment, and each room would be at a cold temperature, for all patients infected with the virus;

3) Urges all nations to cooperate and give support to the WHODMSARSV by doing things such as:
A. Sending groups of scientists to help in the search for a cure,
B. Giving exact and specific figures of infected people and deaths caused by the virus to the WHODMSARSV database,
C. Welcoming all WHODMSARSV scientists into their countries to help in the checking procedure, the checking points will be located in: the airport, and there would be a mobile group of doctors checking people and vaccinating them;

4) Encourages all nations to urge its citizens to take all necessary precautions while visiting infected countries to avoid catching the disease such as wearing a mask at all times and any other precautions specified by the WHODMSARSV scientists;

5) Further encourages all nations in which the WHODMSARSV scientists detected a sign of the disease in, to immediately take all those infected and place them in a three-week quarantine, and they shall be placed based on the severity of their case, they will be evaluated by the WHODMSARSV scientists, providing them with the medical necessities, and allowing them to rest in a cold and comfortable room for their safety along with their nation's safety.

 

 

 

Opening Speech:

 

Greetings from the land of green meadows and emerald hills. Georgia is a land of lovely scenery, having a great time, and gentle and benign people. People can always enjoy their time in the extremely green and breathtaking parks that are scattered all over Georgia. No matter where a person is in Georgia, green trees, plants, and nature will surround them. Not only that, but Georgia is a very quiet, calm, and serene country. You can walk in the streets of Georgia calmly, safely, and coolly without being bothered by a soul, and any help you need, you will find before you can snap your fingers. Help is found where ever you go in Georgia by the benevolent and caring population.

Although Georgia is an extremely friendly country, that is one of a kind, its neighbor doesnít seem to think so. Georgia is being troubled and bothered by their large neighbor to the North. This neighbor is cruelly trying to force us to allow Chechens in, but the red, white, and blue is encouraging us not to. Georgia is obviously with the red, white, and blue, because allowing Chechens in can affect their serene and calm population negatively by creating ethnic problems, and Georgia cares too much to make their population a chaos.