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In the present time the head of state is President Abdul Kalam and has been since 26 July 2002, but India at the present time does not have a Vice President. The president is elected by a democratic college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for over five-years. The last election held was on July 2002 and the next is to be held on July 2007. Vice president is elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term as well. Last election held on 12 August 2002 and the next is to be held on August 2007.
On the other hand, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party that follows legislative elections, last election held on October 1999 and next is to be held on October 2004.
The head of the Indian government is the Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, since 19 March 1998. The Council of Ministers form the cabinet, appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Next comes the legislative branch, and I’ll start off with the bicameral Parliament. The bicameral Parliament or Sansad is made up of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha is a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are chosen by the president, the rest are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies and the members serve six-year terms. Then we have the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha which consists of 545 seats. 543 of those seats are elected by popular vote, and two chosen by the president, and these members serve five-year terms.
The People's Assembly election was last held on 5th of September through 3 October 1999, and the next is to be held in year 2004.
There is also the Judicial branch which is Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65)
India does have a large number of parties, after all India is considered as the world’s biggest democracy. The number of those parties would reach an approximate five hundred parties. Of the small parties in India is the United party or the Janta Dul. The largest party though is the BJP, the Hindu-Nationalist Bhartiya Janata Party. The party considered next after the BJP is the congress party.
The BJP believes that plural, multi-religious India is essentially Hindu, where Muslims and Christians came as 'invaders'. They must be made to accept the 'cultural nationalism' of Hinduness. The BJP believes in majoritarianism. In reality, Christianity and Islam are as Indian as contemporary Hinduism. They believe that they are even older and have been integral to India's ancient culture for a thousand years. On the contrary to that the Congress Party believes the Hindus are not essentially part of India and that the ancient civilization of India did concern Hinduism at all. That brings the two parties into a clash.
India’s population of 1,029,991,145 is rich with diverse ethnic and cultural groups. According to ethnic background approximately 72% are Indo-Aryan, 25% are Dravidian and 3% are Mongoloid and other ethnic backgrounds. Religion wise Hindu, the majority, are 81.3% of the entire Indian population, Muslim make up 12%, Christian are 2.3%, Sikh, the minority, are 1.9%. Also other religious groups include Buddhist, Jain, Parsi which all make up 2.5% of India’s population.
The main problem going on inside of India is the ongoing clash between the Hindus and Muslims. The reason wars go on between those two religious groups is because they have different beliefs and also because of the Hindus caste, which is the Hindu system of organizing society into hereditary classes. That is the reason they tend fight with each other. This violence between the two religions is what led to the separation of India to two countries, India and Pakistan. Also there are some problems with race, concerning Tamil, who have dark skin, against the Aryan, who have light colored skin. Low caste people tend to be dark-skinned, so the prejudice reinforces itself.
English is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication. On the other hand, Hindi is the national language and is spoken by 30% of the people. There are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language.
India mainly relies on agricultural products from food. Some of the main crops include wheat, rice, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, jute, tea, coarse grains such as sorghum, maize corn, millet, and cotton. Forests form another natural resource for India, with woodlands covering 21.6 percent of its land area. Major commercial tree species include teak, rosewood, and sal, bamboo.
The mineral resources of India include a massive belt of coal reserves (fourth largest in the world), bauxite and iron ore. Other mineral deposits include manganese, copper, chromate, titanium ore, natural gas, diamonds, and arable land. Some of the Indian industrial products include textiles, jute, processed food, steel, machinery, transport equipment, cement, aluminum, fertilizers, mining, petroleum, chemicals, computer software.
There are significant oil and natural gas reserves in Assam and Gujarât states, and on the continental shelf off Mahârâshtra and Gujarât which it exports. India also has ample reserves of phosphate rock apatite, gypsum, limestone, and mica. India does export its resources and its export reaches an approximate $44 billion, some of its export partners are the US (22%), UK (6%), Germany (5%), Japan (5%) and Hong Kong (5%).
On the other hand, India’s Imports reach up to $53.8 billion. Some of those imports include crude oil, oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, and chemicals.
Apparently, even with so many natural resources India does face a problem with poverty because of the country’s large population. Apparently, because of the post green revolution India is capable of feeding itself. India goes through a lot of natural hazards, they are the following: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes.
India consists geographically of the entire Indian Peninsula and portions of the Asian mainland. The length of India from north to south is 3,050 km (1,900 MI); from east to west it is 2,950 km (1,830 MI).
India is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan. India’s geographic coordinates are 20 00 North, 77 00 East. India’s total area is 3,287,590 sq. km, its land area is 2,973,190 sq. km and its water area is 314,400 sq. km, and its coastline is 7,000 km. Compared to the US, India is more than one third the size of the US.
The total bordering distance for India is 14,103 km. India borders the following countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km and Pakistan 2,912 km. India’s lowest point is the Indian Ocean (0 m), and highest is Kânchenjunga (8,598 m) in the Himalayas. India’s terrain ranges from upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north. India’s climate varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north.
The various branches of the Indian military include the following: Army, Navy , Air Force, Strategic Nuclear Command (SNC), Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (including Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, Rashtriya Rifles, National Security Guards). The navy has 18 submarines and 40 surface combatants India’s air force is the fourth largest in the world and has more than 500 helicopters and transports. India’s Air Force has 110,000 personnel and 779 combat aircraft.
The age for military entrance is 17 years. The available military manpower available is 285,729,565, and the manpower that’s fit for service is 167,599,380. The Indian government spends $12,079.7 million for the military, which is 2.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). The Indian army is made up of 53,000 members, and the army’s strength is 1.1 million. There are 432,000 of the 636,000 members of the paramilitary forces guarding the Indian borders [these are basically Indian thugs in Kashmir to fight Pakistani-influenced thugs].
In 1998 India declared itself a "Nuclear Weapon State" after placing five nuclear devices that they have made. In reaction, Pakistan began nuclear tests as well and also made nuclear weapons. The main reason India is not able to defeat Pakistan or China, whom also has nuclear weapons, is because India’s defense is not mandatory but is voluntary, therefore it is not that powerful. In the mid 90s India had about 30 nuclear weapons. Regardless of the actual number, most analysts believe that India is rapidly expanding the number of its nuclear weapons, and in the present time the number seems to have boosted to 60 nuclear weapons. According to the latest nuclear tests in India many analysts conclude that India’s nuclear weapons are pretty accurate.
A lot of weaponry and planes are being re-developed for stronger outcome, also India produces most of its weapons. With such qualities, the Indian army is without doubt one of the most well organized armies in the world. So military wise, India is without doubt capable in defeating its enemy, Pakistan if no nuclear weapons are used. India does have a couple of problems with bordering countries like China and Pakistan, concerning water sharing.
The Indian currency is the rupee. India's wide economy includes village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. India’s very high population is preventing the Indian economy from flourishing that well. About a quarter of the entire Indian population is too poor to be able to afford a sufficient diet. The Indian government controls have been minimized on imports and foreign investment, and sale of domestic output has gone on slowly.
The economy has announced an excellent average growth rate of 6% since 1990, reducing the rate of poverty by about 10 percentage points. India has a large number of highly educated people who are skilled in the English language. India is a major exporter of software services and software workers. The poor monsoon of mid-2002 has affected the agricultural resources substantially.
India’s budget revenues are $48.3 billion and their budged expenditures (money spent) are $78.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $14 $13.5 billion. India’s external debts reached an approximate $100.6 billion. Basically, each year India’s debt gets bigger. Many of the Indian industries include: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software. India's exports reach up to $44.5 billion; most of its exports are textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures. India’s main export partners are US 20.9%, UK 5.2%, Germany 4.3%, Japan 4.0%, Benelux 3.3%. On the other hand, India’s Imports reach up to $53.8 billion. Some of those imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, and chemicals.
Views of World Problems
India is a well known country worldwide because of its large population, exports, army, prime location and it’s very rich diverse culture. India is an active member of the United Nations and is now seeking a last and permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council. India has also been a constant participant in the UN peacekeeping acts. Lately India has donated personnel to the UN operation in Somalia, Cambodia, Mozambique, Kuwait, Bosnia, Angola, and El Salvador.
India negotiates and talks about various issues ranging from environmental to trade. India is still the leader of the (NAM) Non-Aligned Movement. India even hosted NAM at the 1997 heads of states summit. India is working on building up commercial as well as political relations with the United States, the European Union, Iran, Japan, and China.
India is also an active member of the (SAARC) South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation, WHO, (IORARC) the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation, and the UNSECO.
India’s relations with Pakistan are not that good. Both countries keep on threatening each other with nuclear weapons. The fights between the Hindus and Muslims led to the separation of Pakistan from India. Another factor that brings both sides to fight is Kashmir. Kashmir’s Hindu maharaja decided in 1947 to join Kashmir to indo, even though the majority of the people were Muslims. So those are the factors that bring both sides at rage.
Concerning other neighboring countries, India did have a good relations with Russia. Although India and Russia seem to have begun forgetting the friendship at times of war and both sides have an uneasy feeling, India fears that Russia will do something that may drive India away. Generally, India has a good relationship with its bordering countries, for the exception of china and Bangladesh. Concerning Bangladesh, India has had fights and minor clashes at bordering areas, but nothing major. With china India has problems with border areas as well between the two countries. But India is not that concerned about the problems with china, but is more interested in improving Indian-US relations. So basically, India is interested in getting better relations with the US.
As a matter of fact, India’s history does not begin with independence in 1947, but more than 4,500 years ago, when the name India referred to the entire subcontinent, including present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. The earliest of India’s known civilizations today, the Indus Valley civilization (about 2500 to 1700 BC), was known for its very specialized artifacts and spread throughout northern India. Another early culture is the Vedic culture which dates from approximately 1500 BC and is considered one of the sources for India’s mainly Hindu culture and for the forming of several important philosophical traditions.
As early as the 15th century, Europeans were interested in developing trade opportunities with India and a new trade route to East Asia. In 1700 the Rise of Regional Powers takes place and the weakening of Mughal authority frees local Muslim rulers raises the powers Sikhs, Rajputs and Marathas.
The battle of Plassey takes place in 1757 and the victory over Nawab of Bengal gives East India company control of Bengal and begins expansion of British power in India. The full British rule takes place in 1800 and leads to political dominance of Britain which introduces Western culture, language, methods of government, and technology into city organizational centers.
Finally, in 1947 the nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru led to independence in 1947. Gandhi stood steadfastly against the partition of India but ultimately had to agree, in the hope that internal peace would be achieved after the Muslim demand for separation had been satisfied. But at all times Gandhi always stood for peace.
Then the Congress Party, the party of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, ruled India under the power first of Nehru and then his daughter and grandson. Afterwards Britain partitions India into modern countries of India and Pakistan (East and West). In 1962 there were some border clashes with china. In 1971 the formation of Bangladesh takes place when war between East and West Pakistan results in separation of Pakistan into two states: Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), is the Hindu party that encouraged independence. They also sponsored India’s recent of nuclear tests near the Pakistani borders. Recently most of the typical Indians are likely to be Hindu. The ongoing violence between the two groups is unstoppable. The BJP is a Hindu NATIONALIST party and that’s the reason Muslims dislike it. On the other hand, Congress leaders think that if the BJP is on the decline, the Congress must be on the rise. The BJP’s leaders are Hindu nationalists. They believe that congress granted a lot to the Muslim minority and also to the Sikhs and lower castes. As a matter of fact, if there is an anti-Muslim violence attack the BJP is in suspicion by the people.
The Indian Congress party has often traditionally depended on an union of Sikhs, Moslems, people who believe in Gandhi’s ideas of socialism, high caste, southerners, untouchables, and low caste
On the other hand, the Hindu-Nationalist Bhartiya Janata Party often depends on getting most of the Hindus who feel that have been deceived or cheated due to affirmative actions, special laws, to react against this. In India’s earliest incarnation, the BJP was racist to an unbelievable extent. Almost as racist as Israel’s Likud or Hitler’s Nazi Invasions. Fortunately, such matters have settled a bit. Without doubt this makes it hard for India to make peace with Pakistan and resolve all the conflict.
Issue # 1: The question of rising water levels due to the effects of global warming.
Two months ago, whole regions of West Bengal disappeared under water - rescue workers had to use boats to give emergency help to more than 16 million affected people.
These were the worst floods for more than 20 years. Several factors were blamed - from silted riverbeds to mismanagement of resources. But could global warming also have played a part? Nirmal Ghosh, an earth scientist, says the steady shrinking of Himalayan glaciers means the entire water system is being disrupted - global warming, he says, is and will cause even greater extremes in the long run. He even said, "Statistically, it is proven that the Himalayan glaciers are actually shrinking, and within 50 to 60 years they will virtually run out of producing the water levels that we are seeing now.
This issue does not only threaten India, but many other countries as well. India is not just concerned about the entire surface of the earth being covered by water. It is concerned in the present time about its water system being disputed, as well as the proven affects of global warming on flooding. India thinks the issue of global warming should be dealt with at the current time, and with nationwide support. And that there should be global awareness of how serious this issue is. For global warming might not be affecting other countries at the current time; but it is affecting a number India’s poor people who don’t have a cup of water to drink and are suffering from drought due to effects of global warming on their water systems.
Issue #2: The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.
While the war on Iraq was taking places, another event was brought into the perspective of the world. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused a nationwide fright, and many started fleeing from Hong Kong, the believed birthplace of the disease, and the affected neighboring countries. By April 27, a total of only six cases of SARS were reported in India, and no deaths till now. Which is a very fortunate number compared to the 4836 suspected SARS cases in 26 countries, and out of them 293 have died.
The reason India has experienced a low number of SARS casualties is because it has started pre-scanning passengers coming from all SARS affected countries and has been checking for the virus’s symptoms. It has also taken security advice from the World Health Organization on how to control the spread of the disease. The outcome of that is the total of "only" six cases in India. India thinks that SARS needs to be taken into thought seriously by all countries. Even if the country is not yet affected by the virus; in order to avoid and entrance and spreading of the disease. India has participated, and urges the continuous effort to find a cure to this contagious virus before it get out of control.
Issue #3: The question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine.
Even though India itself does suffer from famine, it has made great contributions to many nations at times or war and famine, which shows India’s involvement to this issue. This benefits the hungry and thirsty people of this nation who are in need of water, food, blankets and medicine. Apparently, many of the world’s nations are going to war and the people who face the consequences are the civilians. Many countries have contributed water recourses, food and medical appliances to these countries. You would be sure to find out that India would be one of these contribution countries.
Over the years India made lots of contributions to the needy nations of the world. One of the most recent examples is when India wanted to extend its hand of friendship with Afghanistan and announced a $10-million grant along with other medical, food and water supplies to the needy people of Afghanistan. Another example is when the Indian government gave 20 billion rupees (417 million dollars), water along with staples in emergency aid to areas struck by serious drought in the United States. India thinks that all nations should help support other nations at times of need war.
Issue #4: The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East.
In the current time, the whole world fears the current ongoing development of nuclear weapons. This might cause many nations to feel uneasy towards another, so that is why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was made; which bans any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and was opened for signature on September 24, 1996. Apparently, when it came to signing the treaty India took a different step than the other nations. When it cam time to sign the treaty India deadlocked the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty by blocking all efforts to close negotiations and open the pact for signing.
India, which tested a nuclear device in 1974, will neither agree to sign the treaty, even with stated reservations. And not even accept that any report short of agreement should be presented to the conference with the proposed treaty text included. India has also refused to sign the treaty because of the transfer of weapons and nuclear technology which last year (2000) was extended in force for an unspecified length of time. Indian politicians have demanded the freedom to test or deploy weapons, which India is believed to be capable of producing in a secret program. Wanting to carry on with nuclear test is also triggered by the current relationship of India with Pakistan. So India thinks that there should be a nuclear free-zone in the Middle East (S. Asia) because then India will not be in a position where it will put under China’s mercy.
Issue #5: The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.
The purpose of the human rights seminar that took place in Cuba was not to dwell on specific cases or on either country's human rights record. The focus was actually more philosophical and juridical in nature, an attempt to clarify ideas and concepts. Cuba wished to see if there was agreement on what constitutes human rights and the extent to which human rights are protected by international law. It was an ice breaking encounter at which Cuba and the people of Cuba hoped to lay the ground work for more policy-related discussions in the future. India fully supports Cuba in its approach to deal with human rights and reducing the amount of suffering from the segregation and discrimination.
The human rights are the rights that are considered by most societies to belong automatically to everyone, for example, the rights to freedom, justice, and equality. The human rights were issued by the United Nations and gave every human being an equal number of same rights. India, being a member of the United Nations, fully believes in them and supports them as well. India thinks that men are women are equal in all human qualities, regardless of race, religion, color of skin or language. India is against segregation and discrimination of other humans in any way whatsoever. India honors Cuba with its wise approach to deal with their current problems and hopes the best to come in their future.
Main Submitter: India
Forum: General Assembly
Issue: Securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine,
Defining famine as a severe shortage of food resulting in widespread hunger, due to factors such as wars,
Further defining war as a terrorist armed violent conflict between countries or groups that involves killing, blood slaughter and destruction,
Bringing to attention that according to, (digital city) combatants don’t always take responsibility in providing aid at times of war, like the recent war in Iraq, one side might not care what happens to their people;
Bearing in mind that not all nations are capable of giving out such contributions,
Defining contributions as any form of voluntary humanitarian grant given by a country,
Noting the Red Cross’s efforts, according to the (Red Cross) to aid nations and people who are facing drought and famine and wars, but that is not always sufficient,
Urges all countries to make any kind of contribution, regardless of amount or type
Noting that, according to the WHO, after people die due to lack of resources because of famine and wars, diseases tend spread after unburied bodies decompose,
Applauds to The USA according to (Whitehouse) for contributing an approximate of $300 million grant including food, water to the Afghani people at the time of the War in Afghanistan,
Deeply concerned, according to (All Africa), about the 40,000 people that have so far crossed the border from Cote d' Ivoire into Ghana since the beginning of the conflict due to lack of water and food resources,
Reporting that, according to the South African Department of Health 14 million people are at risk of dying because of famine in year 2003 in South Africa only,
Pointing out that, according to the WHO nearly 10 percent (2 million) of the North Korean population has died because of famine,
Defines aid workers as personnel from the Red Aid Organization who work in securing food, water, medical aid, health awareness, disease awareness etc., to people at times of war, and other disasters,
Keeping in mind that according to The Washington Post India was not part of the coalition of the US for the war on Iraq, by putting the Iraqi civilians who are at risk in perspective,
1-Expresses it’s hope that all suffering countries due to wars and natural causes will help in executing this preventable problem by implementing this resolution;
2-Requests the combining of the preexisting Red Cross and Red Crescent country members into ONE main organization, the RAO (Red Aid Organization) which will accomplish the following: A. Expand action of providing emergency disaster response, disasters meaning wars, famine; B. Provide Primary Health Care Programs, the RAO will expand the training of proper health practices broader than ones applied by Red Cross and Crescent countries separately; C. Spread Food Programming to all countries in need of aid;
3- Notes that the RAO aid workers are not similar as the international peacekeepers, they and the Blue caps are part of the UN while the RAO aid workers are volunteer workers;
4-Calls upon countries who aren’t preexisting members of the Red Cross or Crescent to join the RAO;
5-Resolves that the RAO should be granted additional funds by the United Nations;
6-Further Resolves to have monthly meetings by all members of the RAO that will take place near the UN headquarters in order to accomplish the following: A. discuss the current situation of countries facing lack of food, water due to war, famine; B. exchange thoughts on how to solve harms caused by currently faced disaster; C.-collect contributions and funds by countries, further create fund-raisers and request funds from UN;
7-Reassures that when the RAO is formed, the RAO will become more expansive, accurate, faster, reliable and stronger in securing food and water resources at times of war and disasters;
8-Implies that the UN should not allow tolerate wars because they are a preventable cause of harm that increases the need of food and water in this issue, and the war on Iraq violates the United Nations law, and the Geneva Conventions, like: Not providing immediate aid, not providing security to the Iraqi people, not protecting or securing civilian hospitals;
9-Posts and puts up awareness posters worldwide, making people aware of the significance of the issue;
10-Create television commercials that reveal suffering people from all parts of the world, have a contribution hotline where people can call and make contributions by the secure VISA net;
11-Create fund-raisers to collect contributions for the RAO like the following: a-Auctions; b-Celebrity rallies; c-Concerts; d-carnivals;
12-Investigate in order to find out if war is declared just in order to get aid, the RAO provides aid to trouble regardless weather war is present or not.
Once you start you are bound not to stop thinking of India’s many wonders. For India’s marvelous wonders will blind your senses from their magnificence and take onboard an overwhelming historical tour from the breathtaking Taj Mahal to the Mystical Buddha temples. And from the crystal sea shores of Goa to the soaring Himalayan mountains.
The peaceful nation of India regrets that terrorization has long been seen between India and its neighborly country, Pakistan. But now, India is witnessing important peace talks with its neighbor Pakistan on Kashmir. The loving nation of India hopes that the two neighbors return to their former state of peace and become the friends they once were.
I assure you all that India is a spectacular place where you can liberate your senses, ease your mind from the world’s pressure and stress and celebrate humanity, like Gandhi said: "The dignity of man requires obedience to another law-to the strength of the spirit"
Than you, and Peace to you all!