Country: The People's Republic of Iran
Event: Pearl-MUN 2003
Student: Abdullah Behbehani
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First off, all the power of Iran is concentrated in one man, Hazaruh Imam Ruhallah Al Musavi Al Khomeini, who is not the president of Iran. The president is Mohammed Khatami, they have different points of view. The conventional long form is the Islamic Republic of Iran and its local short form is Iran (the capital is called Tehran). Its local long form is taken From their language and is called Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran. Its former name is Persia. Iran's government type is theocratic republic. Iran's independence day is on the 1st of April, 1979, which is also the country's national day. Iran's constitution is 2-3 December 1979 which is revised on 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership. The legal system is stated as of that the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government (like Saudi-Arabia). Iran's executive branch is derived as follows: chief of state: Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-Khamenei (since 4 June 1989) elections: leader of the Islamic Revolution appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 8 June 2001 The results were that 77% of the votes went to Mohammed Khatami.
Head of government: President (Ali) Mohammad Khatami-Ardakani. First Vice President Dr. Mohammad Reza Aref-Yazdi (since 26 August 2001).
Whereas its legislative branch is derived as follows: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (290 seats, note - changed from 270 seats with the 18 February 2000 election; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) It's Judicial branch is used in the Supreme Court. Iran is a very stable country.
Iran can bethought of as a green country, with mountains that have snowy tops, but also baron in some places. It is in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan. Its total land area is 1.636 million sq. km, while its water area is only 12,000 km, adding up to a total of 1.648 sq. km. It is slightly larger than the state of Alaska. Iran's land boundaries are a total of 5,440 km Its border countries include: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km. It's coastline is 2,440 km noting that Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km). Irans climate is mostly arid or semiarid, but subtropical along Caspian coast. It has a terrain of rugged, mountainous land that is high. Also containing central basin with deserts, mountains, and small, discontinuous plains along both coasts. Irans lowest point is the Caspian sea, at -28 m. Its highest point is Kuh-e Damavand at 5,671 m.
Iran's natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc and sulfur. Its agricultural products are wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool and caviar. Then comes its export commodities, which are petroleum (85%), carpets, fruits and nuts, iron and steel, chemicals. We can see that petroleum is one of the greatest factors of Iran's export commodities. With all these resources and products, it must have trade agreements with other countries, and these countries are Japan 20.5% (the most country Iran trades with, indicating good relationship between these two countries) and Italy 7%, UAE 5.9%, France 4.7%, China 4.1% for the export partners. However, the import partners are similar as shown; Germany 11%, Italy 8.3%, China 6.1%, Japan 5.3%, UAE 5%
Iran's imports cost $19.6 billion while its exports cost $24 billion. This country is self sufficient since its imports cost less then its exports.
Iran's population is a total of 66,622,704 as of July 2002 est.. It's ethnic groups are divided into several categories; Persian 51% (most dominant ethnic group), Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%. 99% of all Iranians are Muslim, of which 89% are from the Shia' group, and 10% are the remaining Sunni group. The other 1% are a mix of Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i.
Persians migrated to the region from Central Asia beginning in the 7th century BC and started the first Persian Empire in 550 BC. They are the largest ethnic group, and include such groups as the Cilaki, who live in Gilan Province, and the Mazandarani, who live in Mazandaran Province. Except for about 60 percent of the total population, Persians live in cities all over the country, as well as in the villages of central and eastern Iran. Two groups closely related to the Persians both ethnically are the Kurds and the Lurs. The Kurds, who make up about 7 percent of the population, live in the Zagros Mountains near the borders with Iraq and Turkey. The Lurs make up 2 percent of the population; they live-in the central Zagros region.
Turkic tribes began migrating into northwestern Iran in the 11th century, gradually changing the ethnic composition of the region so that by the late 20th century East Azerbaijian Province was more than 90 percent Turkish. Since the early 1900s, Azeris (a Turkic group) have been migrating to most large cities in Iran, especially Tehran. Azeris and other Turkic peoples together are about 25 percent of Iran's inhabitants. The rest of the population make up small communities of Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Baluchis, Georgians, Pashtuns, and others.
There have been some problems with Iranian Jews since 99% of Iran's population are Muslims. It is known that Muslims have problems with the Jews so they have treated them unfairly because of their religion. Since the Jews don't even make 1% of Iran's population, no action has been taken to stop this. Baha'is and Baluchis are educated people who cause most of these problems. However, none of these three tribes get along and hate has been between them for several centuries.
Iran's military structure is one of the strongest and largest structures in the Middle East. the GNP spent on this sector is only 2.4%. The Military branches in the Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards (includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law Enforcement Forces. Iran has the biggest navy force in the gulf. Most of the Iranian arms are either built in Iran using foreign plans, or is built by Russia, China or the USA secretly. The US is afraid from Iran since they have long range ballistic highly destructive missiles. Upon the recommendation of the president, the faqih appoints a joint chief of staff to coordinate five branches of the armed forces. In addition, a total of 200,000 men and women were listed in volunteer reserve force, the Basij. A two-year period of military service is required of all male citizens of Iran aged 18 and older. The Ministry of Defense exercises general supervision of the armed forces. In general, the military is under the tight control of the civilian government, and armed forces personnel are encouraged to avoid involvement in partisan politics.
The country of Iran has the capability to defend itself because it has 1 7,762,030 militants working in the military. 10,545,869 are fit for military. It also has long range ballistic highly destructive missiles that also the US fear. These missiles are exported of high-quality.
This country is financially stable and is has no worries economically, since it relies on no one but itself for money. Its economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. President Khatami has continued to follow the market reform plans of former President Rafsanjani and has indicated that he will pursue diversification of Iran's oil-reliant economy although he has made little progress toward that goal.
Iran's currency is know as the Irani rial. The currency code for it is IRR. Its recorded external debt is $8.2 billion (2002 est.). From 1997 to 2001, Iran had a multi-exchange-rate system; one of these rates, the official floating exchange rate, by which most essential goods were imported, averaged 1,750 rials per US dollar; in March 2002, the multi-exchange-rate system was converged into one rate at about 7,900 rials per US dollar. The main countries that are involved in trade with Iran are: Germany, Italy, France, China, Japan and UAE.
Views on World Problems:
First off, Iran belongs to the following worldwide organizations: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO.
Iran's women have made themselves among the most politically active and empowered in the region. Budding entrepreneurs are eager to establish winning connections overseas. Respected clerics speak increasingly about the compatibility of reverence and freedom, modernity and Islam. An increasingly competent press is emerging despite attempts to muzzle it. And Iran has experienced not one but three increasingly democratic rounds of elections in as many years.
In recent months, Iranian leaders have talked about their nation's policy of détente. And Foreign Minister Kharazzi said not long ago that "Iran is ready to act as an anchor of stability for resolving regional problems and crises."
Iran have not caused its military to cease its determined effort to acquire technology, materials and assistance needed to develop nuclear weapons, nor have those developments caused Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps or its Ministry of Intelligence and Security to get out of the terrorism business. Until these policies change, fully normal ties between our governments will not be possible, and our principle sanctions will remain.
Iran views the US as an enemy. It has sided with Iraq during Gulf War II. However, the US are constantly trying to improve their relationship with Iran in any way possible.
Iranians are very proud of their history since it dates back more than 1800 years ago where Iran was the home to many religions, ethnic groups and cultures. There quite arrogant about it too. There have been many events that have happened throughout the history of Iran. There have been various problems with Iran. The one that stands out is the Iraqi Iranian war.
Arab Muslim armies began their conquest of the Persian Sassanian (Sassanid) Empire in AD 636 and during the next five years conquered all of Iran, with the exception of the Elburz Mountains and the Caspian coastal plain. They finally put an end to the Sassanid Dynasty in 651. For the next two centuries, most of Iran (which at that time extended beyond Herat in what now is western Afghanistan) remained part of the Arab Islamic empire. The caliphs the ruler of the Muslim empire ruled from Medina in present-day Saudi Arabia, then from Damascus, Syria, and finally from Baghdad, Iraq, as each city became the seat of the caliphate. Beginning in the late 9th century, however, independent kingdoms came out in eastern Iran; by the mid-11th century, the Arab caliph in Baghdad had lost effective control of virtually all of Iran, although most of the local dynasties continued to recognize his religious authority. From the time of Islamic conquest, Iranians gradually converted to Islam. Most had previously followed Zoroastrianism, the official state religion under the Sassanid dynasty, but minority groups had practiced Christianity or Judaism.
By the 10th century the majority of Iranians probably were Muslims. Most Iranian Muslims were still orthodox Sunni Islam, although some followed various sects of Shia Islam. The Ismailis, a Shiite sect, stayed a small but effectively independent state in the Rudbar region of the Elburz Mountains from the 11th through the 13th century.
The British and Soviet authorities allowed Reza Shah's system of political and press repression to fall and constitutional government to go with minimal interference. They permitted Reza Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, to succeed to the throne after he promised to reign as a constitutional monarch. In January 1942 the two occupying powers signed an agreement with Iran to respect Iran's independence and to withdraw their troops from the country within six months of the war's end. A US.- sponsored agreement at the 1943 Tehran Conference reaffirmed this commitment. In late 1945, however, the USSR refused to announce a timetable for its withdrawal from Iran's northwestern provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, where Soviet-supported autonomy movements had developed. Although the USSR withdrew its troops in May 1946, tensions continued for several months. The problem, which became known as the Azerbaijan crisis, was the first case to be brought before the Security Council of the United Nations.
This episode is considered one of the precipitating events of the coming from the Cold War, one of the shah's most vocal opponents was the leading Shiite scholar, or ayatollah, Ruhollah Khomeini. Khomeini was arrested in 1962 after publicly speaking out against the bill, and his arrest instantly elevated him to the status of national hero. Although released the following year, he refused to keep silent. He instead broadened his criticisms of the regime to include corruption, violations of the constitution, and rigging of elections. Khomeini's second arrest in June 1963 led to three days of rioting in many Iranian cities; the military suppressed the riots only after more than 600 people had been killed and more than 2,000 injured.
Fearing that Khomeini would assume martyr status if he were kept in prison or executed for treason, the Shah exiled him to Turkey in 1964. Khomeini settled in the Shia theological center of An Najaf in Iraq. From there he still has contact with his former students in the Iranian city of Qum. These students formed the covert anti-shah movement that was growing among the clergy. In 1971 Khomeini published a book, Velayut-ef~qih, that provided the religious justification for an Islamic government in Iran.
In the 1990s Iran worked to improve its foreign relations. The hostage crisis with the United States had brought international disfavor upon the Islamic republic. As a result, it had received little international support when Iraq invaded in 1980 or during the long years of war. In 1998 Iran's foreign minister signed an agreement promising that the Iranian government would not implement the fatwa; which is explained by the Islamic look or opinion made a very wise Islamic leader This made Britain rise to restore full diplomatic relations with Iran.
All over the 1990s Iran's leaders continued to distrust the United States, which they perceived as hostile to their revolution. While the United States is deeply suspicious of lran's regional plans, believing that Iran was developing weapons of mass destruction and supporting international terrorism. The two countries had unofficial contacts in the early 1990s but failed to solve their differences. In 1993 the United States, showing Iran as a threat to US. interests in the Middle East, adopted a policy to prevent Iran from gaining too much regional power. In 1995 the United States banned all US. trade with and investment in Iran, and in 1996 it drafted a law placing sanctions non-US. companies.
1-The question of rising water levels due to the effects of global warming.
One of the most current and widely discussed factor which could lead to the ultimate end of existence of Earth and man is global warming and its devastating effects. Scientists have asked how fast the Earth is heating up, and how the warming effects on Earth may effect crops and climatic conditions. Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warming is directly impacting on; rising sea levels, the melting of icecaps, and significant worldwide climatic changes. In my understanding, global warming represents a fundamental threat to all living things on earth.
In line with global warming predictions that Central Asia temperatures will increase 5?C (9?F) over the next 100 years, millions in Asian countries, including Iran, will face starvation and species could go extinct as 3 years of record drought dry up region's wells, rivers, wetlands and lakes. the Iranian embassy describes the drought as a "forgotten disaster, but the problem is still there." Iran is finding it increasingly difficult to cope with their own starving and displaced populations and need an immediate solution to this problem.
2-The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.
The key to controlling the rapid but seemingly erratic spread of a lethal respiratory disease known as SARS could lie in identifying highly infectious people known as "super spreaders," a World Health Organization official said. In an effort to solve the puzzle, a WHO team is visiting hospitals and speaking with experts in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, where the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome began. Scientists are working extremely hard to find a cure to this horrible disease.
In Iran, there have been no deaths related to the SARS vireus however there was one false announcement that there was a death from the virus but was later confirmed that it wasn't. Iran wants a cure to this problem as every other country does and is currently not accepting flights from SARS affected countries.
3-The question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine.
Whenever a situation will most likely result in a war, the first priority is to secure food and water resources since they are the vitalities of life. Without them, there would be no life. During war, access to these resources will be extremely hard so a country must have a a large amount of food and water to feed its people during war.
The Iranian embassy has noticed the importance of this matter but have taken no action since it is not on the verge of going into a war with any country, regardless of some bad relationships with other country. It will, however, take action if necessary. We should also take note of the war that has taken place of Iraq and Afghanistan and the actions taken there.
4-The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East.
For decades, the Middle East has been a region characterized by conflict and diplomatic distress. It is obviously a source of nuclear-weapons that must be seized immediately. Iranian Defense Minister Adm. Ali Shamkhani asserted his country had no ambition for nuclear weapons and warned of an "unimaginable" response
Iran's nuclear program began under the Shah in 1974, but was abruptly suspended following the Islamic revolution in 1978-79. The Shah also conducted research in the production of fissile material, but these efforts were suspended during the revolution and the Iran-Iraq war. It was not until 1984 that Ayatollah Khomeini revived Iran's nuclear weapons program. There are some indications that he did so reluctantly, viewing these weapons as amoral. In 1987 and 1988, the reactor sites at Bushehr I and II were damaged by Iraqi air strikes, and progress was again arrested.
Few doubt Iran's intention to develop a covert nuclear weapons program. Yet the weight of the evidence suggests that its military applied research program remains in its preliminary stages. Most analysts agree that Iran is not able to fund or staff a program equal to that which existed in Iraq prior to the Gulf conflict. Iran doesn't admit to having a nuclear weapon program, but they can make nuclear weapon. They would favor such a zone because they want to get rid of Israeli possessions.
5-The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.
The Cuban participants were unanimous in their conviction that their country has been specially targeted as a human rights violator for political, rather than humanitarian, reasons. There are countries in Asia and elsewhere with far worse records than Cuba's; yet, rather than mounting campaigns against them in the UN. Human Rights Commission in Geneva, the United States maintains full diplomatic and trade relations with such gross offenders. Even in Latin America, there are nations for example, Guatemala that are far more vicious in the treatment of their citizens than Cuba. Nonetheless, due to pressure from the United States, only Cuba has been assigned a special UN. Rapporteur. When such an obvious double standard is applied, and when human rights are used as a political weapon, then the cause of human rights must ultimately suffer. Cuba does not pretend to be perfect. What country is? Some Cubans conceded that there have been abuses and they should be corrected. But all the Cubans stated that Cuba will not be coerced, nor will it cooperate with a campaign against it that is politically motivated.
Iran does not have to do with this problem but its heart is with the Cuban people and will aid any solution to this problem because it feels that human rights should be conveyed and not violated whatsoever.
Forum: General Assembly
Question: Middle Eastern Nuclear Free Zone
Emphasizing past resolutions such as A/c.1/56/L.25 , which calls upon all parties directly concerned to consider taking the practical and urgent steps required for the implementation of the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East and, pending and during the establishment of such a zone, to declare solemnly that they will refrain, on a reciprocal basis, from producing, acquiring or in any other way possessing nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive devices.
Defining the OPCW (Organization of Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) as an organization who’s ultimate aim is to contribute to international security and stability, to general and complete disarmament and to global and economic development,
Defining also the IAEC (International Atomic Energy Commission) as an organization which is concerned with the inspection of nuclear weapons,
Defining the Middle East as an area which includes the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian, Authority, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, and Yemen,
1. Condemns Israel for refusing to sign the nuclear non-proliferation act indicating that they do have nuclear weapons;
2. Reaffirming the right of all States to acquire and develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes according to U.S.A;
3. Emphasizing also the need for appropriate measures on the question of the prohibition of military attacks on nuclear facilities, such as the attack of the U.S.A on Iraqi grounds;
4. Bearing in mind that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East would greatly enhance international peace and security;
5. Welcoming all initiatives leading to general and complete disarmament, including in the region of the Middle East, and in particular on the establishment therein of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons;
6. Taking note of the peace negotiations in the Middle East, which should be of a comprehensive nature and represent an appropriate framework for the peaceful settlement of contentious issues in the region;
7. Recognizing the importance of credible regional security, including the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone,
8. Noting the constant threats of Israel to neighboring countries and its possession of nuclear weapons;
9. Emphasizing the essential role of the United Nations in the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East,
10. Emphasizes the fact that Israel poses numerous threats to Middle East security by its ownership of nuclear weapons;
11. Congratulates all countries that aid the dismantling of nuclear weapons from Israel;
12. Resolves the formation of a new organization called IODNW (International Organization of Dismantling Nuclear Weapons) which will exist in Saudi Arabia, since it is in the middle of the Middle East, and will exist as branches in the IAEC and OPCW and will aim towards having a main objective of dismantling any nuclear weapons in a Middle Eastern country;
13. Designates a group of scientists that will work for the IODNW that shall be divided into the following categories: A. Inspectors who will live in a inspected country and will be given extra money to live in that country during the inspection, B. Dismantlers who break down the weapon and get rid of the remainders, C. Negotiators that get information about the weapons from each country, countries that resists that distribution of information will be given an incentive for the information;
14. Strongly urges all Middle-Eastern countries to sign a petition that gives the IODNW the right to inspect whatever it wants whenever it wants;
15. Further Resolves that the IODNW will cooperate with ALL organizations and sub organizations of the UN that are concerned with nuclear weapons, such as the OPCW and the ICAE;
16. Affirms that the IODNW will be offering very high wages to staff members because they will be of high standards and will be required to have training from either the UNAEC or the OPCW.
17. Notes that the combination of two like organizations will strive towards a positive aim of achieving the ultimate goal of keeping the Middle East a nuclear free zone.
Iran is one of the world's oldest continuing civilizations. It has one of the globe's richest and most diverse cultures. Its territory covers half the coastline of the Gulf and on one side of the Straits of Hormuz through which much of the world's petroleum commerce moves. It borders the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus in Central and South Asia. Huge reserves of oil and gas are just beginning to be tapped. And it is currently chairing the organization of the Islamic Conference.
Iran stands before you and is pleased to inform you of turning over a new leaf and showing the world how we only strive to achieve peace. Iran also want to begin by wishing for tranquillity and peacefulness throughout the world, to achieve that we would have to prepare to a day where the world of Islam is duly equipped with arms Israel has in possession and its nanny.
The strategy of colonialism would face a stalemate because application of a nuclear weapon would not leave anything in Israel like the same thing would just produce damage in the Muslim world. Tranquillity and peace ladies and gentlemen…..tranquillity and piece