Italy

Student: Hassan Dashti

Event: Pearl-MUN 2003



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The Italian National Anthem


Inno di Mameli (Hymn of Mameli)

Original Italian Words

Fratelli d'Italia
L'Italia s'è desta
Dell'elmo di Scipio
S'è cinta la testa
Dov'è la vittoria
Le porga la chioma
Chè schiava di Roma
Iddio la creò
Stringia moci a coorte
Siam pronti alla morte
(repeat)

L'Italia chiamò
Stringia moci a coorte
Siam pronti alla morte
(repeat)

L'Italia chiamò, sì
(repeat entire song)

English Translation

Italian Brothers,
Italy has awakened,
She has wreathed her head
With the helmet of Scipio.
Where is Victory?

She bows her head to you,
You, whom God created
As the slave of Rome.
Let us band together,
We are ready to die,
(repeat)

Italy has called us.
(repeat previous four lines)

(repeat entire song)

Italy


 


Country Profile:-

 

Political Structure:

According to Italy’s official name, Repubblica Italiana, Italy has a republican form of government. Italy is set up its present form of government in 1946. That year, people voted to change their nation from a monarchy ruled by a king to a republic headed by a president. Voters elected a group of 556 members called a Constituent Assembly to write a constitution. The constitution was written and approved on the first of January year 1948. The constitution established a government with a president, currently Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999), a Cabinet headed by a premier, currently Silvio Berlusconi and a parliament (legislature) consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of deputies.

Italy has 20 administrative divisions regions: Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, and Veneto

The president of Italy is elected to a seven year term by both houses of Parliament. He must be at an age of 50 years old. The president employees the premier and has the power to dissolve Parliament and make new elections. The vice president is usually the Senate of Parliament who serves the president’s place. The president is only ceremonial; he doesn’t have much power as the government.

The Parliament consists of a Chamber of Deputies has 630 members however the Senate has 315 elected members and 5 members selected for life by the president.

Italy was announced independent on 17th March 1861. All Italian judges are chosen when they undergo through civil service examinations except for the 15 judges of the Constitutional Court. The 15 judges are divided into thirds. 5 judges are chosen by the president, 5 by Parliament, and 5 by other courts. All judges in Italy operate and the national ministry of justice and 24 other judges called the Superior Council of Judiciary. The Constitutional Court has the ability to stop any acts declared by the Parliament.

There are several political parties organized in Italy. Just to a few in my point of view the most important one Headed by Silvio Berlusconi is the Central Right Freedom House Coalition.

Italy is participating in numerous numbers of international organizations. Italy is a member in the UN, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MUNURSO, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO and ZC. However Italy is an observer in BSEC, LAIA and OAS.

Silvio Berlusconi's House of Freedoms electoral coalition won Italy's general elections. The Italian prime minister is Italy's richest man. People began to worry and question how is this possible and how could he handle it. He made several promises and didn’t follow most of what he promised. (More information about Berlusconi himself is found in the History of Italy)

In conclusion, the chief of state comes first elected by both houses of Parliament. The chief of state (president) is only ceremonial; he says what the government and the council decide to do. Next, the head of government which is the prime minister, after that is the cabinet which is made up of the Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president. Italy has a unitary system of government which means that the national government has most of the power in the country so I could conclude that the LEGISLATURE of Italy has the real power.

 

Geography:

Italy is part of southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea and lies northeast of Tunisia. Its geographic coordinates are (42, 50) North and (12, 50) East. Italy covers 301,230 sq. km including Sardinia and Sicily, from that 7,210 sq. km of water and 294,020 sq. km of land. Italy borders allot of countries that adds up to 1932.2 km of borderline and 7600 km of coastline. Italy borders Austria, France, Holy See, San Marino, Slovenia and Switzerland.

Italy has mostly Mediterranean climate however changes towards the far north where the Alpine mountains lie and Italy has a hot dry weather in its southern regions. Summer, spring and fall are sunny; winter however is rainy and cloudy.

Italy’s topography starting with the north where the Alpine mountain lies. The steep slope decreases from the Alpine mountain to Po Valley. Next to the south comes the Adriatic plain and after that comes the rugged mountains called the Apennines and other plains lie throughout the rest of Italy. The lowest point in Italy is 0 m that lies in the Mediterranean Sea. However its highest point is the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur 4,748 m.

 

Natural Resources:

According to Agriculture, Italy has almonds, cheese, fruits, figs, potatoes, sugar, beets, tobacco and olives coming from the Po Valley, Northern region. Italy manufactures automobiles, chemicals, clothing, leather products, machinery, ships and steel in the northern cities such as Genoa, Milan and Turin. Finally Italy also has asbestos, bauxite, marble, mercury, sulfur and zinc from the Po River. Because the Po River region is irrigated, the Po River is rich with corn, rice, and wheat as well.

Italy’s land is divided into 28.07% arable land, 9.25% permanent crops and another 62.68%. Italy’s irrigated land reaches up to 26,980 sq. km (1998 est.).

Natural hazards in Italy include landslides, mud flows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding land and subsidence in Venice.

 

Cultural Factors:

Italy is divided into two parts:

A. North: Huddles of Albanian and Greek Italians. Languages spoken are Italian, Albanian and Greek. Religions in southern Italy are mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant but Jewish and Islam are also practiced there. Southerners are SOMETIMES DESCRIBED BY NORTHERNERS as lazy and worthless people. These people are mostly farmers. You could describe Southerners as less advanced as the Northerners, they are simpler.

B. Small clusters of German, French and Slovene Italians are found. Languages spoken are Italian Slovenian, French and German. Religions in northern Italy are mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant but Jewish and Islam are also practiced there. In comparison Northerners are known as hard workers, almost Germanic. You could describe Northerners as advanced and more technological.

Italy’s capital city is Rome where history ruins, ancient monuments and beautiful palaces are found. Catholicism makes up 98% of Italy’s religion. There is no state religion; however, the Catholic Church receives some privileges not available to other religions. The relationship among religions in society added to religious freedom. The Catholic Church’s historic and continuing main role in society leads to disagreement when Church teaching is supposed as instruction to Catholic legislators on matters of public policy. While Roman Catholicism is no longer the state religion, its role as the dominant one occasionally gives rise to problems some clear, others societal.

 

Defense:

Italy is guarded by four military defensive armies: Army, Navy, Air Force and Carabinieri. Men reaching the age of 18 must serve the armed forces for 16 months in the air force and the army but 28 months in the navy. Italy owns 467 ships. The military manpower from ages 15-49 is 14,184,307 (2002 est.). The military manpower of people fit for military from ages 15-49 is 12,157,753 (2002 est.). The reaching military age is 304,369 (2002 est.). The military expenditures are $20.2 billion which is 1.64% of the GDP. Italy has approximately 325,000 troops. Italy is quite a strong country that can defend itself from enemies but it isn’t as strong as the neither United States nor UK. Because of Italy’s strong troops, Italy is more likely going to be invited to contribute troops to NATO, coalition attacks or to the EU. Italy’s troops can be taken seriously and have what to it takes to fight.

 

Economy:

Italy has an industrial economy with the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. Northern Italy has private companies, and low developed agriculture, with 20% unemployment. Most materials needed by industry and about 75% of energy requirements are imported from other countries. Rome has moved slowly on applying needed structural reorganization, such as lightening high taxes and repairing Italy's market because of the current economic slowdown.

The economy of Italy differs greatly from North to South.

A. North: Northern Italy is one of the most advanced industrial areas of Western Europe. Industry in Northern Italy makes up 30% of the GDP. As I have mentioned before, Northerners are active and hard workers.

B. South: Southern Italy has less developed agricultural from which it receives its income. 30% to 40% of Italians work on agriculture however agriculture creates only 2% of the GDP. As I have mentioned before Southerners are sometimes lazy. After January 2002 Italy changed its currency from the Italian Lira to the Euro dollar. Italy exports $259.2 billion and imports $238.2 billion. Italy exports to mainly Germany, France, UK, Spain and United States. But imports mainly from Germany, France, Netherlands, UK and United States. Italy had donated about $1 billion aid donor and Italy is in debt, running a budget deficit, which the EU has threatened to punish it for. Italy's economy has been gradually shifting from food and textiles to engineering, steel, and chemical products, in other words, the economy is shifting from the concentration on the South to the North

Italy’s Gross Demotic Product is $1.438 million (2002 est.) from purchasing power parity and its growth rate is 0.4%. The GDP per capita from purchasing power parity is $25,000 (2002 est.). The GDP structure by sector is divided into: agriculture 2%, industry 30% and services 68%.

 

View on World Problem:

Italy became part of NATO in the 50s and a member of the United Nations in year 1955. Italy is also part of the EU (European Union), OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), GATT/WTO (Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization) and the OSCE (Organization for Security and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe). Starting in year 2002, Italy is one of the European country’s that share the Euro Dollar therefore it has good relations with those countries.

Cooperative Assembly was a Partnership for Peace exercise conducted in Albania from 17-22 August 1998. Approximately 620 personnel from Italy's Army, Air Force, Navy and Carabinieri took part in the exercise, as well as 15 aircraft including: 2 AMX’s, 2 AV-8Bs, 2 AB-212s, 3 SH-3Ds, 2 AB-205s, 3 CH-47s, and 1 H-3F. Italy is willing to provide help to any other country such as Italy did to Albania for peace. Italy also provided a $1 billion aid donor to fulfill peace in the world.

Italy’s relation with Europe and the United States are fine relations. There are US military bases in Italy. Italy supports all actions made for peace.

Italy shares many relations with the United States. Italy imports and exports products to and from the United States; Italy also has many institutions in the United States and exchange students to study in the United States. Italy has good and friendly relations with United States.

For the War on Iraq, Italy didn’t take direct part in US-led military assault on Iraq but is willing to provide support for the United States, but will not participate directly in military operations, and will not send men to Iraq.

Italy is willing to give any donations to find cures for SARS in which nine SARS cases were found in Italy.

 

History:

For nearly 1,500 years, starting about 1000 B.C., the history of Italy was largely the history of the Etruscans and of ancient Rome. The last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was defeated in Italy in AD. 476 by a German barbarian. His defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire.

Italy’s history began from year 476. Between years 476 and 1935 Italy was involving and began to hold it self together e.g. in year 1866 Venetia became part of Italy. The incidents that occurred in those years are very significant to the present.

In year 1939 Italy was at war continuously in World War II. Mussolini, Italy’s dictator ruler, who began to rule Italy in year 1925, promised to fight on Germany’s side, but Italy was prepared neither economically nor militarily therefore Italy suffered defeats in North Africa, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Greece. The Allies invaded Sicily, one of the two huge islands of Italy, and landed in Italy on September 3rd and Italy surrendered that same day. Italy declared war on Germany on October 13 and Mussolini was killed by Italians on 1945. Allied troops left Italy in year 1947.

On June 2ND Italy held their first elections and chose a republic to replace the monarchy which had been ruled by Mussolini. The voters elected a Constituent Assembly to prepare a new democratic constitution. Three political parties became the most powerful in the Italian republic: the Christian Democrats, the Socialists, and the Communists.

The most important events in the 50s were the establishment of industrial and agricultural programs. Italy formed relations with the United States. Italy also became part of NATO in the 50s. Italy became a member of the United Nation in year 1955 and Italy’s economy began to rise at the late 50s.

During the 60s, the government made the tax system fairer opened higher education to more students, and established regional government with increased authority. During the 70s the Communists increased their involvement in Italian politics. Communists won control of many regional and city governments. Today finally Italy is enjoying its life however it still faces several problems from Communists who could be called a Left Part, they are not revolutionaries.

Italy’s Previous Prime Minister, Giulio Andreotti, was guilty of involvement to murder and was sentenced to 24 years in jail. Andreotti was indicted in the 1979 murder of an editor of a political magazine that exposed political scandals. He denied and said that it is impossible that he would prove guilty. However he lost and was put in prison for murder. This was important because many politicians take money and in the past, this was overlooked.

Silvio Berlusconi's House of Freedoms electoral coalition won Italy's general elections after it has lost its first time. The Italian prime minister is Italy's richest man. People began to worry and question how is this possible and how could he handle it. Silvio Berlusconi is no ordinary politician, in 1994 when he first served as Italian premier; he was simply a wealthy businessman, today he is an experienced strongman. He made promises to cut taxes, make jobs and undertake giant public works. Berlusconi's political first appearance came in 1994 when the Italian party system collapsed after the end of the Cold War. The Olive Tree Coalition, made up of elements from the old socialist and communist left, and the Christian democrats picked up the votes.

Berlusconi, who was already famous for his media holdings and for owning the AC Milan soccer team, picked up voters by gathering together a group of market fundamentalists, Catholic conservatives, northern separatists and belligerent neo-fascists. With his own brand-new party his unarranged coalition won. Berlusconi is allied with Bush which makes him from the Right. He’s almost a Bush character. Without him, Italy’s policies in different events would probably differ than its current policies. When Berlusconi’s allies fell to fighting and the government collapsed, he was secondary. Berlusconi made his fortune in real estate, financial dealings and media takeovers by bending all of the rules of Italy's business culture. He has promised that in his first hundred days he would pass legislation on divestment. As usual, his promise came with a warning: passage of the law would depend on the will of the whole political system. But that will be changed.

 

 

 

Policy Statements:-



1- The question of rising water levels due to the effects of global warming.

Italy is a peninsula which means it is surrounded from three parts with water; Italy also has many islands such as Venice, Sicily and Sardinia. Currently Venice is facing daily floods at night. Any rising in water levels will directly affect Italy from all sides and may drown and bury the islands. Italy may be one of the first countries affected by rising water levels because of the surrounding waters.

Italy wants the pollution to decrease; however it would be in some ways impossible because the reliability of countries on polluting products is extensively high. The Kyoto Protocol didn’t succeed and didn’t have a great effect in the world because not all countries signed it. Therefore Italy thinks that the world must start thinking of what the world would do when Global Warming begins to take effect. Italy wants the world to wonder and think about what procedures will be followed when water levels begin to rise. Italy is willing to find a way to lower the effect of Global Warming on the world. Italy wants the world to stress on this worldwide problem and to find solutions that may save the world. Italy also wants the United Nations to set this problem as the most significant because this problem will not affect Italy but will affect all of the countries of the world.

 

B. The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.

Italy suffered 9 SARS infections in 39 days however in the previous days the number of infections significantly increased to double the amount of infections. No death cases were reported in Italy by SARS however if this virus continues it will significantly affect all of the Italians and will defiantly kill.

Italy wants to resolve this problem like every other country. However it would like to create a reward to make scientists compete among each other, this competition will lead to the solvency of this problem faster and before the time is up. Italy will support all actions that lead to the solvency of this life threatening virus.

 

C. The question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine.

Because Italy is highly irrigated and has high amounts of food, in a war famine is not a big problem to Italy. Italy is enriched with all type of fruits, vegetables and other necessary foods needed to survive. The Alp Mountains in Italy provides it with clean water. Italy did not suffer any famine in WWII. Italy has donated a total of $1 billion to other countries including food donations.

Pain is enough to be suffered in war times. Italy is looking for a way that makes it legal to donate food and to bring food to other countries during war. Italy is also looking for the creation of an organization that collects food donations from all rich countries to provide them to poor countries during war time.

 

D. The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East.

Italy is a member of the World Atomic Energy Association (WAEA). This association is trying to make the world a safer place, and trying to make the world a safer place the Middle East must lack of all nuclear weapons. By being a member of the WAEA Italy is in charge of this problem. Italy is also part of this problem because it has nuclear weapons, and according to Voice of America, the United States currently stations between 6- 8,000 nuclear weapons in seven European countries: Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Greece, Italy, Turkey and the United Kingdom American which means that American bases in Italy also have nuclear weapons. The significant difference is that Italy and the US could follow and obey the rules; however the Middle East could not follow rules related to nuclear weapons.

Italy will support all actions against this problem. Italy supports all solutions that will remove nuclear weapons off the Middle East due to the high chance of usage. Italy will do as required to make the world a safer place. Italy will support the dismantling of nuclear weapons in the Middle East.

 

E. The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.

Italy took place in allot of Cooperative Assembly was a Partnership for Peace and is a member in the Human Rights Association. Due to the membership, Italy is required to take in deep actions of any non humanitarian rights of any nationality of the world.

Italy is looking for a way to be able to shift the current dictatorship in Cuba to freedom and shift it to a democratic republic where everyone has a right. Italy is willing to support all actions that leads to the decrease of suffering by Cubans and is willing to support all actions that will lead to the release of political prisoners.

 

 

Resolution:-

 

Forum: General Assembly

Delegate: Italy

Delegation: Hassan Dashti

Issue: Rising water levels due to the effects of global warming.

Defining global warming as the trapping of gases in the earth's atmosphere causing the earth's overall temperature to increase,

Bringing To Your Attention that according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the increasing temperatures may be followed by a large variety of other problems for mankind such as flooding, melting glaciers, increase in water levels and fires,

Reporting that according to http://members.tripod.com/GlobalW/effects.htm scientists noted that the 1990s were the warmest decade on record, with 1998 being the warmest year since temperatures began to be measured in 1861,

Bearing in mind according to the IPCC if all the glaciers were to be melted after the ozone layer’s destruction, they'd contain enough water to raise the sea level by 250 feet that is enough to flood and overrun many cities and islands,

Regretting Montana's Glacier National Park, two-thirds of the glaciers have melted since 1850, and IS expected to vanish by 2030,

Recalling the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto agreement that involves both developing and industrial countries to protect the ozone layer to save all living things on earth and the world from global warming that was signed on 1987 and improved in 1992 but not participated by all countries,

Greatly disturbed that low-lying region will be devastated by rising sea levels,

Greatly disturbed that another 100 years the sea levels are expected to rise at least 37 inches, which could drown Maldives and the Bahamas,

Congratulating the World Environmental Organization (WEA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for providing frequent awareness to the world about the current environmental situation including global warming,

Expressing its appreciation to the IPCC and other organizations for great efforts done to map and illustrate the global nature of climate changes that may be caused by Global Warming that is posted on http://www.climatehotmap.org/,

Expecting global warming to bring diseases caused by tropical floods up to the northern areas, such as Malaria and Cholera, (who says this?)

Keeping in mind that with the disappearance of wetlands, many animals that have lived there for thousands of years will die due to the sudden rise in sea levels,

Applauding Holland and other cities in the world that uses natural factors as energy resources to save the world from pollution due to decreasing the rate of global warming,

1. Emphasizes the fact that global warming is inevitable and decreasing pollution is a way to only postpone global warming and makes its effects show less destructive, however water levels will increase gradually and people couldn’t manipit, but save their lives from it;

2. Requests the WEA to expand and create Anti Global Warming Organization (AGWO) that consists of:-
A. Highly expert, educated scientists who are acknowledged with global warming,
B. Registered countries of the world,
C. Other staff that would perform various jobs;

3. Distributes a map that illustrates the local consequences of global warming to registered countries that would be provided by the AGWO from the IPCC to alert the citizens of what expected outcomes their country may face in the future because of global warming, where they are mostly posted in highly concentrated cities in those countries;

4. Displays (as in acts) from the AGWO will be acted public cities of registered countries to the citizens to show what life will be like in these harsh events that will:-
A. Motivate the citizens into taking this issue seriously,
B. Makes citizens reconsider the amount of pollution the public would excrete daily,
C. Delay global warming from taking effect so soon;

5. Recommends actions to be carried out by the AGWO in registered countries concerning the amount of pollution such as:-
A. Keeping record of the amount of pollution that is formed in each registered country,
B. Recording all highly used products that cause high amounts of pollution in registered countries,
C. Advising the countries to try to eliminate the use of high pollute products;

6. Announces that the AGWO will be recording less polluting activities being made in registered countries, and any efforts made in any country will be rewarded (according to the amount of effort) to express deep happiness;

7. Resolves scientists to estimate an approximate date where global warming will have extreme effects where water levels will increase to the maximum and glaciers in the Northern and Southern poles will melt;

8. Provides maps 10 years before estimated dates by the expert scientists of the AGWO which will provide registered countries with information and studies such as:-
A. Where the population should head in that specific country,
B. What areas the country’s population should avoid such as melting glaciers,
C. In which areas the countries should expect to face possible drought and fires,
D. What new diseases such as possible dengue fever spreading will form in that specific country,
E. What time of year should they expect heavy downpours, snowfalls and floods to build humanitarian centers,
F. According to elevation, the map will show what specific areas will be caused by severe flooding;

9. Reminds that these efforts will be done by each country with its own ability. These pieces of advice given if followed will save mankind from extinction and from severe suffering. The AGWO will supply help to countries that are unable to survive on its own;

10. Recommends all countries to register in this organization because it will provide various helps and pieces of advice that will save citizens from drowning at rising water effects the cooperation of every nation in insuring the protection of the citizens of the world and to face this hazard.

 

 

 

Opening Speech:-


Honorabili presidenti e delegati, saluti della Reppublicca Italiana. Honorable presidents and delegates, ladies and gentlemen, greetings from the Italian Republic.

As you listen to the sound of Ferraris passing by, while feeling the silky Armani dress on your body, and tasting the exquisite flavor of pasta on your tongue, while enjoying your view of the Mona Lisa remember that behind every creation is a creator. Italy is the creator of pleasure and entertainment. Italy welcomes you all.

However Italy is gradually fading away. Venice, one of Italy’s main islands, is facing nightly floods. Any increase in water levels due to global warming will drown Italy like Venice. Italy demands the Untied Nations and all the countries of the world to carefully look at this issue of Global Warming and to prepare the world for any unpredictable results.

Italy is anxiously waiting for a resolution to fix this problem, secure the citizens and stop this crisis.

Grazie