Kazakhstanís government type is republic meaning that democracy is well spread. It has been nearly 70 years as part of the Soviet Union. The new capital city is either called Astana or Alma-Ata. Kazakhstan expanded itís independent in Dec, 16 1991. Kazakhstan constitution was adopted by the national referendum in the 30th Aug., 1995. As most countries, Kazakhstan suffrage is 18 years old. The president hasnít changed from its liberation of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan is joined to more than 60 international organizations.
One of the most important meetings held for politician is called the High Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan. High Court Council is founded and headed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It includes the Chairman of the Constitutional Council, Chairman of the Supreme Court, General Prosecutor, Minister of Justice, Senate deputies, judges and other persons, selected by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Council gives recommendations to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan who submits to the Parliament Senate the candidatures for the election to the position of the Chairman of Supreme Court. Security Council is a consultative-and-advisory body established by the President of the Republic for it to operate in the field of ensuring defense possible and national security for protecting human rights and freedoms, independence and territorial integrity of the state.
Kazakhstan has many natural resource like oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium. Most of those natural resources are being stolen from many countries near by getting help from some of the Big Five countries.
Kazakhstan is a large country in Asia, about the size of India. It is a population of about 16,741,519. The area is about 2,717,300 sq. km. Itís boundaries are China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km. Kazakhstan coastal borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water about 1,070 km and the Caspian Sea about 1,894 km. About 12% is used for arable land. About 4% is for forests.
Kazakhstanís culture in libraries is well known. Kazakhstan's libraries originate in the famous Otrar library in its time second only to that of Alexandria. As the legend goes the Otrar library was founded by Abu Nasr al-Farabi, a great scholar, philosopher and poet, follower of the great Aristotle and teacher of Ali Abu Ibn Sina. The library stored chronicles, dastans, Indian books decorated with fish scales, papyrus scrolls, clay tablets from Babylon. There were books of science and fiction, verses and medicinal recipes, religious treatises and descriptions of travels made in ancient times. The country is represented by 11,000 libraries with an aggregate book fund 213,000,000 documents to be summarily served by 7,000,000 people. As well Kazakhstan are big fans of theaters. One of them is called Kazakh State Musical Theater, now the Abay Academic Opera and Ballet House which was founded in 1934.
Kazakhstan's military branches are ground forces, air defense forces, naval forces, and republican guard. Itís main enemies are Russia, China, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyz Stan. Those countries are in need for Kazakhstanís natural resources. One of itís major conflicts is with China when they congregated together to help each other in May 1995. China has been stealing some of itís natural gas till the year 2001 when they got aware of it. Kazakhstan has as many as 449 airports, but only 28 are international while the others are for military uses.
Itís military expenditures dollar figure is $173 million. Nuclear weapons were a main contributor to Kazakhstan's national security. The breakup of the Soviet Union left Kazakhstan with many nuclear missiles and even some nuclear capable aircraft. Kazakhstan also had an interest in elimination itself of nuclear arms and materials. Kazakhstan was the test zone for the Soviet Union during its development of nuclear technology and weapons. These tests created more than 70 thousand square miles of unusable land and caused 75% of the surrounding population to suffer from exposure to radiation. There are many reasons for the United States to become so involved in Kazakhstan. Huge deposits of natural resources are located in Kazakhstan, oil in particular. The major concern for Kazakhstan now is how it will maintain its national security after it disposes of all of its nuclear weapons.
The economy in Kazakhstan is slowly improving. Foreign companies are buying much of its public utility industry and privatizing it. This helps generate revenue for the government of Kazakhstan. It also helps modernize the country through foreign investment and upgraded services. One of the requirements for a foreign company to purchase a utility is for the company to have an investment and development plan for the utility.
Unfortunately, the foreign ownership often has to raise prices in order to make a profit from the business. Itís GDP is $98.1 billion. Itís unemployment rate it about the same as the US which is less than 10%. Even though they have problems with Russia, half of itís imports are from Russia. Itís current currency is tenge which may change by the year 2005. Most of itís exports are oil products and ferrous metals, grain and wool. Kazakhstan is an important fuel and power engineering region. Kazakhstan is joined to OPEC, ISO, ITU, and NAM. Most of them are oil organizations. In 1996, one of the biggest agreement was held in the western Kazakhstan which was called Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement.
Views on World Problems:
Kazakhstan view on Iraqís war is accepted. Kazakhstanís government is allied with the States.
The region of Kazakhstan has come to be mastered by man nearly a million years ago. As early as the age of Lower Paleolithic the ancient man settled down on these Karatau lands fit for normal life, rich with game and wild fruit. It is there that they have found ancient settlements of Stone Age. As early as the Bronze Age, some four millennia ago, the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by tribes of the so called Andron and Begazy-Dandybay culture.