Student: Sirene Saddedin
Event: Pearl-MUN 2003
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God is greatest! (repeat)
He is above the plots of the aggressors,
And He is the best helper of the oppressed.
With faith and with weapons
I shall defend my country,
And the light of truth will shine in my hand.
Sing with me! (repeat)
God is greatest!
God, God, God is greatest!
God is above the aggressors.
O World, look up and listen!
The enemy's army is coming,
Wishing to destroy me.
With truth and with my gun
I shall repulse him.
And should I be killed,
I would kill him with me.
Sing with me--
Woe to the Imperialists!
And God is above the treacherous tyrant.
God is greatest!
Therefore glorify Him, O my country,
And seize the forehead of the tyrant
And destroy him!
(repeat previous two lines)
Colonel Muammar Gadhafi took power in 1969 as head of state. Politically Libya is stable. There have been lately some problems between foreign workers and the authorities. Libya has no democracy, and no political parties. There is some freedom of speech. Libya is named Jamahiriya, which means a republic.
Jamahiriya involves a system of councils where all citizens are promised to have the right to say their opinion. The Jamahiriya is organized into 187 basic peoples’ administrative congress. There address 47 municipal administrative units. It is hard to estimate what support Gadhafi has in the Libyan population. Many believe that Gadhafi enjoys wide popularity in most of Libya. The reason is politics that have attempted to divide the benefits from Libya’s wealth evenly between the Urban and Rural areas. There is heavy governmental control over the press also helps with presenting positive images of Gadhafi. Libya’s laws are based on Ghadafi’s religious beliefs and on laws that were put since the time when the Italians were in Libya.
Libya is a big peace of land that us mostly desert. Most people live in the Areas by the sea. Still many live in the deser areas mostly poor people.
Libya is located Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia The Mediterranean coast and the Sahara Desert are the country's most well-known natural features . There are several highlands but no true mountain ranges except in the largely empty southern desert near the Chadian border, where the Tibesti Massif rises to over 2,200 meters. A relatively narrow coastal strip and highland steppes immediately south of it are the most productive agricultural regions. Still farther south a pastoral zone of sparse grassland gives way to the vast Sahara Desert, a barren wasteland of rocky plateaus and sand . West, the area known as Tripolitania has characteristics and a history similar to those of nearby Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. It is considered with these states to constitute a supranational region called the Maghrib. To the east, the area known historically as Cyrenaica has been closely associated with the Arab states of the Middle East. In this sense, the Sirtica marks the dividing point between the Maghrib and the Mashriq. Along the shore of Tripolitania for more than 300 kilometers, coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons. Inland from these lies the Jifarah Plain, a triangular area of some 15,000 square kilometers. About 120 kilometers inland the plain terminates in an escarpment that rises to form the Jabal (mountain) Nafusah, a plateau with elevations of up to 1,000 meters.
Libya doesn’t have many natural resources almost like most Arab countries it relies on Petrol and gas. It’s natural resource in Petroleum, natural gas, and gypsum. Libya’s Economy Relies mostly on Gas and Petroleum. Libya has very limited natural fresh water resources but is working on the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being build to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara To coastal cities. As said in the economy section Libya has enough agriculture and meats and can rely on it self as for food. Of livestock, sheep in the main, its counts about 5,6 million. Libya has 1,3 million goats, 140000 cattle, 160,000 camels and 60 million poultry.
The most important region for agriculture in Libya is Tripolitania. The yearly output of petroleum in Libya exceeds 500 million barrels per year, while the amount of natural gas was at the level of 10,3 billion meter cubed. Libya has a large production of refined products, petrochemicals and construction materials.
Cultural differences between the provinces are important. The population of the west is far more cosmopolitan than that of the east and includes a higher proportion of people with Berber, Sudanese African, and Turkish origins. Cyrenaica was profoundly affected by the teachings of the 19th-century Sanusiyah, an Islamic brotherhood, which had little influence in the west and south. Since the 1969 coup, life-styles have been strongly influenced by the revolutionary government's restructuring of national and local government and its efforts to reduce the influence of traditional tribes. The government has also brought women out of traditional seclusion and into the mainstream of the revolutionary socialist society.
There are no problems in Libya between cultural groups. That is after Ghadafi, maybe that is because of the large controll Ghadafi has on his country. Control in TV controlling what people think and say. People in Libya watch what they say in public since3 there is always some fear of government. There still is some Islamic brotherhood problems which are being handled well. Libya has far less people groups problems than countries around it like Algeria.
The Air force does not seem to have played a decisive role. With Soviet assistance, the air force was organized into one medium bomber squadron, three fighter interceptor squadrons, five forward ground attack squadrons, one counterinsurgency squadron, nine helicopter squadrons, and three air defense brigades deploying SA-2, SA-3, and Crotale missiles. Army units operated (the three SA-5 launch sites.)
The navy has always been the stepchild of the Libyan armed forces, although its Soviet-supplied submarines and fast-attack craft with missiles have endowed it with the potential for inflicting damage on other naval powers in the Mediterranean. The navy consisted of no more than 200 officers and men when the first warship was delivered to the Idris regime in 1966. Under Qadhafi, naval personnel had increased to 6,500 by 1986 and were expected to rise still further to meet the staffing needs of additional ships on order.
The Libyan defense is weak and can’t stand for the army of big countries like the United states. Since Libya's defense technology is weak even though it trades petrol for technologies in some countries. Countries don’t give Libya technology that can be used in war. Libya may have the ability to defend itself a little but for sure it will not last in front of the big armies of countries like the UK and the US. As for Chad Libya can defend itself against Chad, although it will not need to since Libya is trying to be friends with Chad, Muammer Ghadafi called the leader of Chad trying to make friendship between the countries.
Libya has had a healthy trade balance with about US$400 million yearly surplus. The main partners are Italy, making up about 40% of the export market and 18% of the imports, Germany with 20% and 12%, Britain with 6,5% and 3%. While the trade with neighboring countries is important, it is inferior to trade with European countries. Libya’s exports to European countries are petroleum and imports are of technology products. The embargo of Libya has improved trade relations with other countries like China.
Agriculture represents 5% of he total GNP. Output includes wheat, barley, olives, dates. Libya’s debt external is 4.7 billion dollars. The countries that Libya should pay to are Turkey. Bulgaria, African countries. Libya paid its’ debt to all African countries year 2001. Libya has promised to repay turkey and Bulgaria.
View on World problems:
After years of threats, tantrums, and acrimonious public disputes, Libya’s Revolutionary Leader Muammar Qaddafi finally did it. On Oct. 24, Libya’s permanent representative to the Arab League, Abd al-Mun‘im al-Huni, presented his nation’s official request to withdraw its membership from the institution. Two days later, Arab League General Secretary Amr Mousa flew to Libya’s capital, Tripoli, and unsuccessfully tried to convince Qaddafi to reverse his decision. Libya’s official reason was not immediately specified, but many commentators in the Arab press were quick to connect it to Libya’s criticism of the league’s inaction over the Palestinian issue and the Iraqi crisis. Libya is ready to have with the United States of America relations based on mutual respect, and even cooperation relations, said Abdeslam Triki, secretary of Libya's people committee for African Unity (minister).
"We are ready at any time to work with the USA for relations normalization," he said at a press briefing Sunday on the eve of a visit by King Mohammed VI of Morocco.
While Libya is ready to cooperate and open dialogue with the USA in the frame of respect of mutual interests, it refuses dominion or to be dictated any conditions. Libya contradicts itself after wanting to reset relation with US by standing against it in political parties. The United States has put embargoes on Libya. The USA has bombed Tripoli and coasted deaths and harms, one of the Deaths was Ghadafi’s daughter.
Libya always calls on the African unity since it gets more attention from African countries than the Arab countries. Libya has called upon countries to settle their disputes, preserve peace and boost the resources of the African continent, eliminate poverty and disease concentrate on development and sort out debt problems. Ghadafi wrote the White Book, which is dedicated to the African unity. The White Book is based on Ghadafi’s philosophies.
In 1998, Libyan President Muammar al-Qaddafi spoke on the telephone with President of Chad Idris Debi. Talks dealt with conditions in the African continent, especially in the "greater lake area" as Qaddafi is the chairman of the Presidium council of the desert and coast states union. Bilateral relations between Libya and Chad were also reviewed The secretary of the Libyan people's committee for health and social insurance (minister of health), Hetowish Faraj Hetowish, met on Monday night in Tripoli with Chad's health minister, currently visiting Libya.
The two sides reviewed cooperation between Libya and Chad in the areas of health, social insurance and efforts to strengthen and boost such cooperation in the service of the peoples of the of African desert and coastal states. The Libyan health minister also met with an economic delegation currently visiting Libya from Belgium. The two sides discussed cooperation between Libya and Belgium in the areas of health and social insurance so as to strengthen friendship and cooperation between the two sides. Obviously Libya is trying to strengthen it’s relations with Chad after the war and Libya’s occupation on part of Chad.
At various times in its history Cartage, Rome, Arabia, Morocco, Egypt, and Spain occupied the territory that is now Libya. It was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, serving in the 18th cent. As a base for pirates who in return for immunity provided large revenues to the local ruler. Italy seized Libya in 1911, but Libyan resistance continues until the 1930s.
Italy, which became a unified state only in 1860, was a late starter in the race for colonies. Italy intensified its long-standing commercial interests in Libya and, in a series of diplomatic manuevers, won from the major powers their recognition of an Italian sphere of influence there. It was assumed in European capitals that Italy would sooner or later seize the opportunity to take political and military action in Libya as well.
In September 1911 Italy engineered a crisis with Turkey charging that the Turks had committed a "hostile act" by arming Arab tribesmen in Libya. When Turkey refused to respond to an ultimatum calling for Italian military occupation to protect Italian interests in the region, Italy declared war. After a preliminary naval bombardment, Italian troops landed and captured Tripoli on October 3, encountering only slight resistance. Italian forces also occupied Tobruk, Al Khums, Darnah, and Benghazi. ( something here reminds me of the war on Iraq)
In the ensuing months, the Italian expeditionary force, numbering 35,000, barely penetrated beyond its several beachheads. The 5,000 Turkish troops defending the provinces at the time of the invasion withdrew inland a few kilometers, where officers such as Enver Pasha and Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) organized the Arab tribes in a resistance to the Italians that took on the aspects of a holy war. But with war threatening in the Balkans, Turkey was compelled to sue for peace with Italy. In accordance with the treaty signed at Lausanne in October 1912, the sultan issued a decree granting independence to Tripolitania and Cyrenaica while Italy simultaneously announced its formal annexation of those territories. The sultan, in his role as caliph (leader of Islam), was to retain his religious jurisdiction there and was permitted to appoint the qadi of Tripoli, who supervised the sharia courts. But the Italians were unable to appreciate that no distinction was made between civil and religious jurisdiction in Islamic law. Thus, through the courts, the Turks kept open a channel of influence over their former subjects and subverted Italian authority. Peace with Turkey meant for Italy the beginning of a twenty-year colonial war in Libya.
During World War 2, as an Italian colony, it was one of the main battlegrounds of N Africa, passing under an Anglo-French military government when the Axis was defeated in the area in 1943. In accordance with the UN decision, in 1951 the country became independent as the United Kingdom of Libya, with King Idris as a ruler.
Idris was ousted in 1969 in a coup d'état led by Col. Muammar al Qaddafi, who establishes anti Western several other Arab countries. An implacable foe of Israel, Qaddafi used Libya’s vast oil wealth to create an extensive social welfare system to help support the Palestinian guerrilla movement, particularly radical elements. In 1979 (Libya had occupied the disputed Aozou Strip, in N Chad, in 1973), withdrawing most of them later that year.
Qadhafi’s forces continued to take sides in Chadian fighting, eventually occupying much of N Chad, but they were pushed back somewhat in 1987. In 1990 the dispute over the Auzou strip was submitted to International Court of Justice.
As a member of OPEC Libya has been leading exponent of limiting production and increasing prices of petroleum. Since 1986 Libya has attempted to form a union with the Arabic countries of the Maghreb, especially Algeria and Tunisia.
In the late 1980 the U.S to action against Libya for its backing of terrorist activities against U.S citizens, including an air strike (1986) on Qaddafi’s residence and other sites in Libya. In 1988, a bomb blew up on a Pan Am commercial airplane over Lockerbie, Scotland killing 270 people. International warrants were issued for the arrest and extradition to Great Britain of two Libyan suspects in the case, but the government refused to surrender them.
In 1989, it was discovered that a West German company was seeing Libya equipment for the construction of chemical weapons plant at Rabta. These actions, as well as the widespread belief in the United States and Europe that Qaddafi’s regime was responsible for terrorists activities, led to American and UN sanctions against Libya in 1992. In 1994, Libya pulled its troops out of Auzo strip, a mineral rich region of N Chad , after the world Court rejected its claim to that territory. In 1995 there were clashes between Libyan security forces and members of Islamic groups in E Libya. The United States charges (1996) that Libya was constructing a chemical weapons plants west of Tripoli and said Libya would be prevented from putting it into operations.
In April 1999, Libya handed over the suspects in the Lockerbie crash to the United Nations; they were to be tried in the Netherlands under Scottish law. The UN sanctions were lifted, but those imposed by the United States remains in place. In Dec. 1999, Qaddafi pledged not to aid or protest terrorists.
Issue # 1: The question of rising water level due to the affect of global warming.
Global Warming, increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere, oceans, and lands of Earth. The planet has warmed (and cooled) many times during years of its history. At the meantime Earth appears to be facing warming, which most scientists believe results, at least in part, from human activities. The main cause of this warming is thought to be the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, which releases into the atmosphere carbon dioxide and other substances known as greenhouse gases. As the atmosphere becomes richer in these gases, it becomes a better insulator, retaining more of the heat provided to the planet by the Sun. when the temperature increases the ice in the north particularly starts melting which will start covering areas of lands.
So far the global warming did not affect the planet earth so much specifically did not affect the great land of Libya. Global warming has risen in the past century it’s a coincidence that it has risen with the rising of the land of 50 states and the rising of the factories of this country. This land has spread its factories in several regions in the world most fuels and natural gases and carbon dioxide come mostly from big factories. The country of 50 states with vast numbers of factories should start thinking of lessening the number of its factories. Small petrol countries that when compared to this Big country are small don’t have a deep affect on the Global warming from its oil and natural gasses since it doesn’t have many factories or things that cause Global warming as much as this country.
Issue#2: The question of Controlling the spread of SARS virus and finding a cure for it.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory illness that has recently been reported in Asia, North America, and Europe. SARS is a deadly disease and if person gets it they would die in a matter of days.
Libya started acting on this issue by banning Asian workers from entering the land of Libya. Libya has many Philippine workers and has banned their entrance to Libya for their work. 132 Filipino workers were not allowed to enter Tripoli . 6,000 Filipino workers will be affected by the ban Libya has imposed. Libya is a country that cares for its’ civilians.
Issue # 3: The question of Securing food and water resources for nation in times of war and famine.
During war time food is very hard to secure, people are being left withou8t food or water. If a country doesn’t have many natural resources that citizens themeselves can use for food and water people would die. In some african countries there has been famines due to not having enough water therefor not enough planting therefor animals die so people have nothing to lie on and might as well die.
The Humane Libyan government helps countries that go through famine or war by sending food or water. Based on the Islamic law which is mainly used in Libya’s law and in it’s Third theory poor should be helped or people in need should be helped. United states is against helping countries in war time since it didn’t allow food and water entry to Iraq in war time. United states is not a peaceful country as it claims.
Issue #4: The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the middle east.
Nuclear weapons have took many lives of innocent people and are very deadly and dangerous. Nuclear weapons have been used in several wars and have caused severe damages. Nuclear weapons have been used in the war by the country neighboring Canada on Hiroshima and has caused damages that are still showing till this day.
In 1996 Libya signs the Treaty of Pelindaba, which established a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in Africa. In the name of Libya ghadafi stated that nuclear weapons around the world should be destroyed so that the world lives in peace. Libya is a peaceful country and is against nuclear weapons. Israel has nuclear weapons and its refuses to have it’s nuclear weapons under international supervision. Israel should be the first country dealt with.
Issue # 5: The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.
The main reason for the suffering in Cuba is its "revolutionary leader". The Cuban leader Feudal Castro is not democratic and practices dictatorship. If leadership is taken and replaced by another leader it is said that Cuba would stop suffering.
The relationship between the Libyan Government and the Cuban Government is a very close relationship. Cuban and Libyan revolutions have very similar objectives which aim towards peace. The land of 50 states has been trying to change how things go in both these two countries. Libya and Cuba are both anti- US countries and have put similar laws. Libya aids the leader Castro. Everything in Cuba as going very well and nothing needs to be changed. If there is suffering in Cuba than the suffering comes from the sanctions on it imposed by the united states.
Issue: A Nuclear Free Zone in the Middle East
Forum: General Assembly
Defining Nuclear free zone as AN AREA IN WHICH countries do nit posses nuclear weapons or powers,
Bearing in mind that some countries have nuclear weapons,
Expecting all countries in the world to have a nuclear free zone,
Deeply disturbed by the fact that Iraq went through war because of suspicion of nuclear weapons when they weren’t found,
Recalling the devastation that has happened in Hiroshima where civilians were vastly killed and injured,
Noting that the affects of the nuclear attack are still going on,
Fully alarmed by the fact that Israel own nuclear weapons and refuses to sin a treaty prohibiting that spread of nuclear weapons and refuses to put it’s nuclear institutions under international supervision,
1-Declaring that the issue of nuclear free zone in the middle east is very important;
2-Emphasizes that Israel has nuclear weapons;
3-Notes that nothing is done about Israel having nuclear weapons;
4-Recommends that a Middle East free zone action should start with an Israel nuclear free zone;
5-Resolves that the formation of Middle East nuclear Free zone comes through the following steps: A. The United Nations will form a group for inspecting nuclear weapons; B. Inspections will take place yearly to all countries that are not suspected and every 5 months to countries that are suspected to have nuclear weapons; C. Countries already suspected of having nuclear weapons should immediately be checked by the UN: D. If Nuclear weapons are found in a country a country is given a warning if it doesn’t get rid of them or puts them under international supervision, sanctions are imposed by the UN on this country,
6. Encourages the writing of an international law expressly forbidding use of nuclear weapons;
7. Notes that if this resolution is used and Middle East countries or Third World countries are safe then Middle East countries have no right to have nuclear weapons.
After walking around town all day (driving will drive you mad), you don't have to leave town to get a dip. The beaches of Tripoli are there just in front of you, and clean enough to take a swim. This beautiful land in that marvelous country which is leaded by the Great Revolutionary leader Mummer Ghadafi who added so much the country and aided equality in the country.
This Leader put laws that were of best sources, law based on Islam from the Koran. What can be better than a law put by god . Gadhafi aid many positive things around the world including the Arab unity and the African unity. If all the world went with the Law put by Libya the world would live in peace and harmony and no country will have enemies. This beautiful land has gone through hard times thanks to the Land of 50-states that has always aimed on changing Libya’s policies and way of leading.
Washington bombed Tripoli in 1986, killing several Libyans including Gadhafi's adopted daughter, when claiming Libyan involvement in anti-US terrorist attacks. Also that same country aimed on putting sanctions on Libya also when claiming that Libya had nuclear weapons as if that same country did not have nuclear weapons which were used and still affecting. Countries that aim on changing Libya’s law do it afraid of the spread of this law and the drop of its own countries’ law. Afraid of Arab unity, knowing that it will be weaker than the Arab countries if they become one.