Country: Pakistan



Event: Pearl-MUN 2003

Student:
Nasser Al Aujan




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Pakistan




The Pakistani National Anthem


Latin Transliteration

Pakistan


Pak sarzamin shad bad
Kishware haseen shad bad
Tunishane azmealishan
arze Pakistan
Markazeyaqin shadbad.
Pak sarzamin ka nizam
quwate akhuwati awam

Qaum, mulk, Sultanat
Painda ta binda bad shad,
bad man zele murad.
Parchame sitarao hilat
Rahbare tarraqio ka mal

Tarjumane mazishane hal jane istaqbal
Sayyai, khudae zul jalal.


English:

Blessed be the sacred land,
Happy be the bounteous realm,
Symbol of high resolve, Land of Pakistan.
Blessed be thou citadel of faith.

The Order of this Sacred Land
Is the might of the brotherhood of the people.
May the nation, the country, and the State
Shine in glory everlasting.

Blessed be the goal of our ambition.
This flag of the Crescent and the Star
Leads the way to progress and perfection,
Interpreter of our past, glory of our present,

Inspiration of our future,
Symbol of Almighty's protection.








Country Profile

 

1. Political Structure:

Officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the chief of state and the head of the government is the president Pervez Musharraf, and the cabinet is appointed by the chief executive. The main political groups are the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam), or PML-Q, a faction of the PML that generally supports President Pervez Musharraf and the military; the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), or PML-N, the PML faction that remains loyal to former prime minister Nawaz Sharif; the Pakistan Peopleís Party (PPP), led by former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and the largest party within the Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy (a 15-party pro-democracy bloc); and the Muthida Majlis-e-Amal (United Council of Action), an alliance of six hard-line Islamic groups.

The real power in Pakistan is the chief of state and the head of the government is the president Pervez Musharraf. Pakistan is really not a democracy; Pakistan follows the martial law and is under military rule. In 2002, after dismissing the parliament in 2000, Musharraf reinstated the parliament and elections were held.

 

Natural Resources:

More than 20 types of minerals are found in Pakistan. These minerals are found in small quantities and not much sufficient for commercial use. Most these minerals are found in the mountain region in Pakistan. These minerals include poor quality coal, natural gas reserves, petroleum, gypsum, limestone, chromate, iron ore, rock salt, and silica sand. Pakistan has extensive natural gas reserve that is piped to major Pakistani cities. Oil is limited, but exploration for new reserves is continuing. Timber is in a short supply because only %3.3 of Pakistanís land is forested. 25% of Pakistanís land is irrigated, it can feed itís own population, but it lacks an essential agricultural product which is the grain which it imports from various other nations.

 

Cultural Factors:

Pakistanís populations equals to 147,663,429 (July 2002). Pakistanís main and official religion is Islam, where %97 of Pakistanís population is Muslim (%77 Sunni and %20 Shiía), other religions available in Pakistan include Christianity and Hindu which consist of the other %3 of the Pakistani population. Pakistanís official language is Urdu, although a small percentage of Pakistanís population uses it as a first language. Other languages available in Pakistan consist of Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) , Pashtu, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), and Burushaski. Pakistan is rich with cultural and many different ethnic groups that include Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants). There are conflicts between different groups in Pakistan, they donít all get along. Pakistan allows the Muslim Muhajir to migrate to Pakistan to protect them from the Hindu neighbor India.

 

Defense:

The Pakistani military branches into five branches that are the Army, Navy, Air Forces, Civil Armed Forces, and the National Guard. The Pakistani military age is 17 years old. The manpower availability is 36,941,592 males that age from 15 to 49 years. The manpower fit for military services is 22,606,576 males that age from 15 to 49 years. The military expenditures in a dollar figure equals to $2,545.5 million annually (Fiscal Year 2001).

Pakistan has many disputes with India over many issues and boundaries. There is an armed stand-off over the status of the Kashmir province. More disputes over the terminus of Rann of Kutch, and water-sharing problems over the Indus River. Pakistan has hold of nuclear weapons, and threatens to use them against India, if any more problems over Kashmir occur. Pakistan in the tongue of their prime minister that they helped, or at least, support terrorists in Indian-controlled Kashmir. The Pakistani leaders are afraid to be a target of terrorists if they do not support them. Pakistan can fight India over Kashmir but in the end it will be along war that will divide the region into two sides and no one will win. India has a greater number of nuclear weapons than Pakistan. Pakistan cannot take over all of Kashmir, neither does India.

 

Geography:

Pakistan is located in Southern Asia, bordered with the Arabian Sea at South, India in the East, Iran and Afghanistan in the West, and by China in the North. Pakistanís land area equals to 778,720 sq. km, the area of water equals to 25,220 sq. km, and the total area of Pakistan equals to 803,940 sq. km. The terrain in Pakistan is flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west. The highest point in Pakistan is the mountain K2 mount Godwin-Austen 8,611 m, the lowest point in Pakistan is the Pacific Ocean at 0 m.

There are many spectacular mountains within the Pakistani border, such as the Hindu Kush Mountains, Karakoram Range, K2, also known as Mount Godwin Austen, the second highest peak in the world, Nanga Parbat, and Trich Mir. 13 of the 30th highest mountain peaks in the world are available in Pakistan. There is one river available in Pakistan which is the Indus River, which runs along the entire length of Pakistan and empties into the Arabian Sea. The Indus and its tributaries provide water to two-thirds of Pakistan. The principal tributaries of the Indus are the Beâs, Chenâb, Râvi, and Jhelum rivers.

India and Pakistan is divided by a 2,912 km long border that is created by mountains in the northern part of the border, and jungles in the mid and southern part of the border. Pakistan is separated from Iran and Afghanistan by a desert. The Himalayan Mountains divide China from Pakistan. Pakistan enjoys a great geographic position since it is in the middle of the world and it is a connection from the east to the west. Pakistan has an important trade position; it is a transit point for many traders. Pakistanís land consists of mountains, some of the highest in the world, rivers, and arable and irrigated lands.

 

Economy:

Pakistanís GDP is $299 Billion (2001), and the GDP per Capita is $2,100 (2001). Pakistanís total exports equal to $8.8 billion (2001), the export commodities are textiles (garments, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, other agricultural products. Pakistanís export partners are US 24.8%, UK 6.5%, UAE 6.2%, Hong Kong 5.9%, Germany 5.6%, (2000). Pakistanís total imports equal to $9.2 billion (2001), and the import commodities machinery, petroleum, petroleum products, chemicals, transportation equipment, edible oils, grains, pulses, flour. The import partners are Kuwait 11.7%, UAE 10.7%, Saudi Arabia 10.5%, US 6%, Japan 5.6% (2000).

Pakistan has a debt of $31.5 billion (2001), Pakistan also a recipient of economic aid that equal to $2 billion. The official currency in Pakistan is the Pakistani Rupee (PKR), $1 US equals to PKR60.719 (2002). Pakistanís industries include textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp. Some Pakistani agricultural products are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs.

Over the years, Pakistan has received several economic and military aid, most recently after the war on terrorism, $ 1 billion. Pakistan has some trade difficulties such as the lack of international investment in Pakistan and the constant threat and tension with its neighbor, India. Also political disputes add on the trade difficulties. Pakistan is mostly plateaus and flat land, this would help trade in Pakistan and through it.

 

 

View of World Problems:

Pakistan is a vital and main member in many organizations that include the United Nations (UN), the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC), and ASEAN. The Pakistani-US relations worsen and become better. In 1998 India and Pakistan launched a nuclear program which worsened the relations, but attempts by the Clinton administration to renew the relations, currently US aid is limited. There always has been tensions in the Indo-Pakistani relations especially over the Kashmir region, many treaties have been signed and terrorism threats from both sides threaten the national security of both nations. Pakistan played a vital role to free Afghanistan fro the soviet occupation, Pakistan has helped, over the years, many Afghani refugees along the border. The Pakistani government recognized the Taliban as the government before the September 11th attack on the US, and played a big role in the war against terrorism.

The Russian-Pakistani relations are important, when the Soviets and India signed a treaty, Pakistan considered them a threat. Pakistan was against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan thus worsening the relations, after the collapse of the USSR, relations were renewed. China and Pakistan have strong relations since the 50ís, China supported Pakistan against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and Russia. Pakistan is historically a trade partner with the Arabian Gulf, and supported the Coalition forces against the Iraqi invasion on Kuwait. Pakistan was against the war on Iraq and wanted to give the weapons inspectors more time.

Pakistan has an enemy in the east: India. Many disputes with India, mainly over the Kashmir region. Pakistani controlled Kashmir is home to many terrorist groups that are responsible for many terrorist attacks in Indian controlled Kashmir. Pakistan has a strong relationship with China, since it perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and Russia. Afghanistan is a good friend since it is a trade partner and since Pakistan played a big role in granting freedom to Afghanistan from the Taliban invasion. The Arabian Gulf countries and Iran are trade partners with Pakistan since Pakistan takes Oil from them and give rice and other agricultural products back.

The US-Pakistani relations were good because Pakistan helped the US a great deal with the war against terrorism. But now Pakistan is against the US-led war against Iraq because Iraq is a Muslim nation.

 

History:

Pakistan was home to the first civilization in Southern Asia, the Indus Valley Civilization from 2500 to 1700 BC. In 711 AD the Muslims came through Persia and conquered Pakistan for 1000 years. In 1206 an independent Muslim kingdom in India was formed until 1526. In 1707 the Muslim and Mughal rule of Pakistan started to decline. The British showed interest in Pakistan and invaded it through the English East India Company, from 1757 to 1946 when Pakistan was given itís independence.

The Indian subcontinent in 1947 was divided into India and Pakistan and the fight over the rule of Kashmir started, Karachi was named the capital of Pakistan. Pakistan started as a non-aligned country, but eventually was on the US side. In 1956 Pakistan adopted a new constitution and declared itself as an Islamic nation. In 1958 the president declared martial-law and Ayub assumed the presidency chair. In 1967, Ayub changed the capital to Islamabad. A new constitution promulgated by Ayub in 1962 ended the period of martial law. After the legislative elections political parties were again legalized. Ayub created the Pakistan Muslim League (PML). A war with India over Kashmir started in 1965 and ended in 1966 by signing Tashkent Treaty.

In 1971 during the Pakistani Civil War, East Pakistan was declared as Bangladesh with Dhaka as itís capital. In 1972 ,agreement confirmed a line of control dividing Kashmîr and prompted the withdrawal of Indian troops from Pakistani territory. In 1979, the USSR invaded Afghanistan which poured Afghan refugees into Pakistan and targeted the Pakistani national security. Tension between India and Pakistan started in the 90ís, and testing of nuclear weapons in 1998 increased the tension, support of Pakistan to terrorist militants in Kashmir increased the tension more. In 1999, Musharraf declared himself the chief executive of Pakistan, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the legislature. In 2002 Musharraf assumed power and became the president of Pakistan with a military government. Pakistan was a strategic importance for the war on terrorism in 2001, cutting all relations with Taliban and offering intelligence and airspace.

Currently, Pakistan has said that it thinks that UN weapons inspectors should have more time, and it wouldíve voted against a US resolution in the SC because Pakistan feels that war is not the solution, and war is wrong because it is against another Muslim nation and it will increase the disputes in the Middle East region.

 



 

Policy Statements:

 

1. The question of rebuilding Iraq:

Defining rebuilding as "To build again" and "To make extensive structural repairs on." Pakistan thinks that the OIC (Organization of Islamic Countries) should play a great role in the rebuilding of Iraq. Iraq is a member of the OIC and the rebuilding of Iraq should be handled by the OIC. The rebuilding of Iraq should not be handled by a couple of countries because it is a great responsibility. The revenues of the rebuilding of Iraq should not be concentrated all to one or two countries.

The current Pakistani policy is the best; the OIC should play a major role in rebuilding Iraq. The UN and the OIC should cooperate and rebuild Iraq together. The whole world should join and rebuild Iraq together not only two countries.

 

2. The question of reducing the tension on the Korean peninsula:

Pakistan defines tension as "Barely controlled hostility or a strained relationship between people or groups." Pakistan is currently against any acts of terrorism, hostility, and aggression in the Korean region. The tension in the peninsula should come to an end. Peace should roam in the Korean peninsula.

 

3. The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire:

To define peace as "Freedom from quarrels and disagreement; harmonious relations." And defining security as "Freedom from doubt, anxiety, or fear; confidence." Pakistan thinks that peace and security should be granted to Cote D'Ivoire. Pakistan agrees that the hostility and tension in Cote D'Ivoire should end peacefully.

 

4. The question of reforming the Security Council

Defining reform as "To improve by alteration, correction of error, or removal of defects; put into a better form or condition." The creation of the Security Council is aged to after the Second World War. The world and countries in the world had undergone some changes in themselves and in their policies. Pakistan thinks that the Security Council should be reformed.

There is no permanent representation of neither a Central Asian country nor an Islamic Country in the current Security Council.

 

5. The question of the roll of the media in portraying conflicts:

Pakistan defines conflicts as "A state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash." Pakistan is with a small amount of coverage by the media in portraying conflicts. The media could twist the truth and make the good side look bad and the bad side looks good. When the media has a small amount of supervised coverage the truth would be told.

 

 



Security Council Clauses:

 

1. The question of rebuilding Iraq:

1. Resolves that all the sanctions on Iraq will be immediately lifted by the United Nations;

2. Resolves that a committee will be chosen by the SC to:
A. establish a new Iraqi government within one month with the supervision of the United Nations under the Islamic Sharia'a law through:
B. The United Nations will appoint a president and chose a prime minister and his cabinet,
C. The United Nations will supervise this new government and check on it every two weeks,
D. A nationwide general presidency elections would be held after six months under the supervision of the United Nations
E. The United Nations will distribute food and offer free health care to the needy,
F. Issue the contracts for the rebuilding of Iraq with the help of the new Iraqi government;

3. Send inspectors to check if the contracts and the payments for these contracts are to the cause of rebuilding Iraq through:
A. Send the inspectors on a monthly bases,
B. The inspectors will report to the committee,
C. If the project has failed, according to the committee, it will be suspended and the contract will go to an another company;

 

2. The question of reducing the tension on the Korean peninsula:

1. Resolves that the SC would form a committee that will:
A. Hold talks with North Korea to pressure it to abandon its nuclear projects
B. Send, with the cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 100 Weapons Inspectors to North Korea and:
C. Report to the SC within 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months and 4 months about any WMD found,

2. Resolves that if North Korea does not cooperate with this committee or WMD were found, the United Nations would impose Military sanctions on North Korea that would:
A. Halt any weapons shipments imported by North Korea from any country or exported by North Korea to any other nation,
B. Halt any economic aid to North Korea,
C. Cut off money sent to North Korea by Koreans living in Japan,

3. Emphasizes that the sanctions would be lifted when Korea cooperates with the weapons inspectors and the UN and abandon their Nuclear Projects;

 

3. The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire:

1. Resolves that the UN would send 2500 more troops of peacekeeper to Cote D'Ivoire;

2. Declares that the leaders of Cote D'Ivoire and the leaders of the rebellion would hold talks in Paris, France to solve the problem;

3. Resolves that re-elections in Cote D'Ivoire would be held after one month, and a committee of the UN would be formed to:
A. Supervise the re-elections,
B. Make sure that the votes are counted correctly,
C. Offer voting booths,
D. Keep the voting boxes and the votes with them with the assistance of the UN peacekeeping troops, so no one could tamper or alter the votes;

 

4. The question of reforming the Security Council:

1. Resolves that the Security Council should increase the number of its permanent Veto-powered nations by two new members, which would come from:
A. A Muslim Central Asian country,
B. An African country with both Economical and political powers ;

2. Further Resolves that the Security Council would increase the non-permanent seats by two members, these seats will be occupied by disputing countries during a time of conflict;

 

5. The question of the roll of the media in portraying conflicts:

1. Resolves that a special UN news television and radio channel would be established that would transmit news broadcasting of conflicts to the whole world free of charge in six languages: English, Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese;

2. Urges all news broadcasting channels to limit the number of their reporters portraying a conflict and acquire all the information they need from the UN channel;



 



Opening Speech:

 

Good afternoon honorable chairs, fellow delegates. The heavens are described as green lands with high mountains peaks scraping through the skies. Rivers flowing down these mountains and spill out into the gorgeous clear blue seas. A breeze gently shaking the green palm trees that are covering anyone who seeks the shade from the yellow hot sun. Happy people with smiles covering their faces. Well, these also characterize Pakistan, "The Heaven On Earth." We welcome you all to this meeting of the Security Council.

Do not allow yourself to be mesmerized by this image, for Pakistan is a nation of the world and shares many of its problems, pains, and sorrows.

Pakistan cares deeply about the fellow Islamic nation of Iraq, Pakistan cares deeply about what happens to Iraq and its future. Pakistan firmly agrees that the rebuilding of Iraq should commence under the United Nations, and the United Nations should play a major role in the rebuilding of Iraq.

During our meeting here today, we should find solutions to many problems. The tension in the Korean peninsula should disappear and peace should roam these lands. Korea is a key country that plays a major role in the development of the worldÖ We don't want an another warÖ

The world has changed since the formation and the first meeting of the Security Council. Countries have changed, enemies are now allies, and allies are enemies. Muslim from all over the world want a permanent representation in the Security Council to express their views and ideas.

Thank You,