Event: Pearl-MUN 2003Students: Sara Al Muzaini
The republic of Philippines is a democratic republic governed under a 1987 foundation. This foundation is modeled on the commonwealth foundation of 1935 that set up a system of government similar to that of the United States. It includes many restrictions on term lengths and presidential powers as a way to protect against dictatorial rule.
The head of state and chief executive of the Philippines is a president, which is elected by popular vote to a nonrenewable six-year term. The vice president, who is also directly elected, may serve no more than two consecutive six-year terms. The president and vice president are elected by separate votes and may belong to different political parties. The president nominates arrangements for heads of government departments, or ministries, to form a cabinet. The Commission on Appointments, composed of 24 members of Congress, reviews and votes on the nominations. The approved cabinet oversees the day-to-day functions of government. The president has limited emergency powers and may place the republic under military law for no more than 60 days. Freedom of speech exists in the Philippines.
The Philippines is currently ruled by President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Teofisto GUINGONA (since 20 January 2001).
Philippines is located in Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam. It is slightly larger than the Arizona State, so its total area is 300,000 sq. km (1,830 sq. km water and 298,170 sq. km land). As for the remaining The country's coastline is 36,289 km and its climate is tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October). As for its elevation extremes, it lowest point is the Philippine sea which is 0 meters and its highest point is Mount Apo which is 2,954 meters. Its terrain is mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands. Some of its environmental issues are uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds.
The Philippines has a wide range of available minerals in its lands. Some of the very important minerals that are found are silver, copper, gold, nickel, lead, timber, petroleum, salt, and chromium. Zinc, cobalt, and manganese are also important and available minerals in the Philippines except they are less abundant than the other minerals. Copper is the leading mineral product however there are many more mineral resources that are available and untouched in the country's lands.
Another very important natural resource in the Philippines is the great variety and amount of fish that is found in its waters. Fish is essential in the Philippines because fish is like a staple of the Philippines diet and is an export commodity. However, there has been a lot of water pollution in the country's waters, which has damaged a lot of marine ecosystems, of the country’s coastal wetlands, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs. Even so, the country has enough clean water.
The arts of the Philippines contain various cultural influences and traditions from all over the world. Early contact with traders that introduced Chinese and Indian influences were made with the Malayan peoples. As for Islamic traditions, they were also first introduced to the Malays of the southern Philippine islands in the 14th century. Most modern aspects of the Philippines cultural life evolved under the foreign rule of Spain and, later, the United States.
The religions that are found in the Philippines are the Catholics 83%, Protestants 9%, Muslims 5%, Buddhists and other 3% and the ethnic groups are the Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, and other 3%
The Philippines military is composed of four branches: The Army, Navy, Air Force, and paramilitary units. The minimum age for military is 20. The amount of population available for the military is males from ages (15-49), 21,718,304 and the males that are fit for the military from ages (15-49), 15,285,248. In 2001 the armed forces of the Philippines included an army of 67,000 members, a navy of 24,000, and an air force of 16,000. Military service is voluntary. The Philippine National Police (PNP) is divided into regional units under a local leader. The country has an army that is big enough to carry out peace through its lands, and since it does not engage in participating in wars, it is not in need for a big army. In the end, the Philippines can defend its self it times of need, however those occasions are very rare.
US.-Philippine relations are based on common history and commitment to independent values, as well as on financial ties. The historical and cultural relations between both countries stay strong. The Philippines modeled its governmental institutions on those of the US., it continues to share a vow to equality and human rights. At the most deep level of two-sided relations, human relations continue to form a strong bridge between the two countries. There are a predictable 2 million Americans of Philippine heritage in the United States and there are more than 120,000 American citizens living in the Philippines. The Philippines tries to make peace with most countries therefore it doesn’t really have any enemies. Some of its closest allies are Japan and the US. They have a lot of trading and business relations together including a lot of other relations.
Before World War II (1939-1945) the Philippines economy was based on the production and export of a narrow range of main merchandise, mainly rural and forest products. In the early 20th century the Philippines mainly exported food products to the United States market. After the country's independence, it remained exporting its food products to the United States like sugar.
During the 1950s the Philippines tried to become an built-up nation. However, protectionist financial policies provided little encouragement for the development of physical export manufacturing. In the 1970s the government carried out a policy to encourage export manufactures and foreign investment, and the rate of economic growth accelerated. The country’s foreign debt rose dramatically, however, and by the mid-1970s the country faced problems meeting payments on its international loans. This problem became intense because of a worldwide recession in the early 1980s. The recession resulted in less demand for Philippine manufactures, and the economy moved into a deep recession in the mid-1980s.
In the early 2000s the government was pursuing financial reforms to help the Philippines match the pace of development in the so-called newly developed economies of East Asia. The strategy includes improving road and rail network, adjust the tax system to increase government income, promoting further deregulation and privatization of the economy, and expanding trade ties in the region. Prospects for 2002 depend heavily on the economic performance of two major trading partners, the US and Japan. Today, the average household income is between 2% and 39% meaning that 40% of the population are below the poverty line.
View of world problems:
The Philippines shares its point of view for a lot of issues with a lot of countries, therefore, these countries are usually found in the same organizations as the Philippines. The Philippines has a participation in these international organizations: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO. Some countries like Afghanistan are in these organizations: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, and some others. Another country that has a participation in some of these organizations is India, G-77, AsDB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFT, IDA and some more. There are many other countries with similar participation in similar organizations too.
The history of the Philippines can be divided into four different phases: the pre-Spanish period (before 1521); the Spanish period (1521-1898); the American period (1898-1946); and the Philippines independence which was on July 4, 1946. The pre-Spanish period introduced the Malays, Muslims, Chinese, and Negritos to the Philippine islands. However, the Malays were the dominant group until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. The came the Spanish period when Ferdinand Magellan claimed the Philippines for Spain in 1521, and for the next 377 years, the islands were under Spanish rule. On May 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War, the Americans defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. By then Spain was being ruled by Emilio Aguinaldo and he declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. A war of struggle against US. rule, led by Revolutionary President Aguinaldo, broke out in 1899.
Although Americans have historically used the phrase "the Philippine Insurrection," Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to these conflicts as the Philippine-American War (1899-1902), and in 1999 the US. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this phrase. In 1901, Aguinaldo was captured and swore commitment to the United States, and the fighting gradually died out.
In 1935, under the terms of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel Quezon was elected president of the new government. The government was designed to prepare the country for independence after a 10-year evolution period. World War II intervened, however, and in May 1942, Corregidor, the last American/Filipino stronghold fell. US. forces in the Philippines surrendered to the Japanese, placing the islands under Japanese control. The war to regain the Philippines began when Gen. Douglas Mac Arthur landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944. Filipinos and Americans fought together until the Japanese surrendered in September 1945. Much of Manila was destroyed during the final months of the fighting, and an expected 1 million Filipinos lost their lives in the war. Soon the Philippines got its independence on July 4, 1946 and after a line of presidents, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Estrada's Vice President, assumed the Presidency in January 2001 after extensive demonstrations that followed the collapse of Estrada's accusation trial on dishonesty charges. The Philippine Supreme Court later allowed generally the constitutionality of the reassign of power.
Issue #1: The question of rising water due to the effect of global warming.
Global warming is the rise in water level, which leads to the drowning of many nations that are islands. This happens because the water tends to cover up the lands surface and causes a lot of nations to disappear below the waters surface. Global warming occurs when heat is trapped in a layer of carbon dioxide that then warms this earth. This causes the ice to melt and increases the rising level of water. The Philippines is not affected by global warming even though it contains many islands. However, the Philippines has experienced something called the red tide.
In order to prevent this from happening (global warming), growing trees is a wise solution. Since the trees take in the carbon dioxide, the heat will no longer be trapped in the carbon dioxide, therefore, the earth wont be heated and some nations wont be in any position of drowning. As for the red tide, it means when the water gets heated and causes a lot of marine ecosystems to die in the Philippines waters. This process definitely effects the people since fish is the main food in the Filipino's diet and one of the main exporting products too.
Issue #2: The question of controlling the spread of the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.
SARS stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The SARS is a deadly virus that has been infecting thousands of people in Asia. In fact, lots of people have died because of this deadly virus, and unfortunately no one exactly knows the cure for this disease at the moment. The WHO, which stands for World Health Organization is trying to find a cure for it before even more thousands of people get effected by it.
Since the Philippines is in Asia and is surrounded by a lot of countries that have already had more than a couple of cases of SARS, the Philippines is most likely to be the next country to be effected by SARS. In addition, the Philippines has taken proactive steps toward eliminating this disease from the Philippines. Unfortunately, there have been 2 cases of the disease in Philippines and there happens to be 1 case under observation at the moment. Hopefully, WHO will find a cure for this disease before so many lives are lost. This effects the Philippines because if the disease is spread there, a big percentage of the population will decrease. This can cause serious problems, therefore, it is important to try to eliminate this disease from getting into any other country as well as the Philippines.
Issue #3: The question of searching food and water for nations in times of war and famine.
Usually, most countries face starvation or have very little products that are required for daily life during times of war or famine. Therefore, they have to purchase these products from other countries. Unless the country is poor and it cant offered buying the food, then the people will have to face starvation and they will die. Water is very important; it is required in order to live. Sometimes in war, some countries lack in the amount of water that is potable; that causes a lot of problems.
The Philippines tries to have a peaceful relationship with most countries therefore, the country tries not to participate in wars. This puts the Philippines in a position where it doesn’t have to face starvation in times of war. However, there are times when the Philippines has faced some problems in the production of some products. For example, the Philippines has faced a couple of dry years when the rain was not enough for the rice to grow. This caused the Philippines to buy rice from other countries like Thailand and Vietnam. But having peaceful relationships with other countries is really one of the Philippines main issues so it does not have to worry about starvation problems during war.
Issue #4: The question of creating a nuclear free zone on the middle east.
Creating a nuclear free zone in the middle east is one of the main incentives of many countries. In order to accomplish world peace, there must be nuclear free zones all over the world. Therefore, it is important to many countries that want to accomplish world peace to make sure that the middle east is a nuclear free zone.
The Philippines is one of the many countries that wants to accomplish world peace, however, it is not necessarily concerned about the middle east. Therefore, creating a nuclear free zone in the middle east is not very important in the Philippines point of view. " We want nuclear free zones all over the world and not necessarily the middle east, so we are not fully concerned about the middle east itself " said Ms. Liza L. secretary of the Filipino ambassador. In the end, the Philippines wants to accomplish world peace but not essentially through the middle east.
Issue #5: The question guaranteeing human rights and eliminating all suffering in Cuba.
There have been a lot of problems regarding human rights that concern Cuba and its people. The US, Israel, Martial islands all agree that Cuba should not be country that has any business relationships with other countries. However, some other countries believe that Cuba should have human rights and that the control that the US has over Cuba should be eliminated.
The Philippines is a member in a lot of organizations that support human rights. Therefore it believes that Cuba should have human rights and that elimination of all suffering there should end. In addition, the Philippines respects the US's point of view and also agrees about some things against Cuba. Therefore the Philippines is on both sides of this argument. It supports human rights and strongly believe that human rights should be granted in Cuba and also strongly believes that Cuba should be restricted at some point.
Issue: The question of controlling the SARS virus and finding a cure for it.
Delegate: The Republic Of Philippines
Forum: General Assembly
Defining SARS stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. A deadly virus that has been infecting a lot of people in Asia,
Fully Alarmed at the causes of this disease which are the deaths of a lot of lives in Asia and the fact that there is no cure for the disease yet,
Expressing Its satisfaction towards the WHO which has been taking proactive steps in order to eliminate this problem by using different methods such as hiring experts in this matter, and observing the cases of this virus,
Keeping in mind that the Philippines is likely to be the next country to be infected by the virus since most of its neighbors already have experienced this virus,
Deeply Concerned that there have been 2 cases in the Philippines for this virus and 1 that is under observation at this moment and that one case occurred after a Canadian nurse already having the disease, arrived in the Philippines and transferred the disease to a patient of hers,
Viewing With Appreciation That most Asian countries have tightened security in order to eliminate this disease like the Philippines,
Notes That the most recent case of SARS in the Philippines is the cause by a Canadian Filipina nurse and countries would encourage infected countries to keep tighter security to prevent accidental spread of the virus in this manner;
1. Requests that people departing from the country have had a check up that confirms that they are not infected by this disease.
2. Recommends that the crew for any kind of transportation are wearing something that prevents the infection of the virus; in case someone happens to carry the virus;
3. Suggests that anyone that is returning from a country should be under observation by some doctors for a period of time, until the doctors confirm that he/she is free from this disease;
4. Supports WHO and other countries that are trying to eliminate this disease by trying different methods such as requesting their most experienced doctors in this matter to find a cure for it after doing some research and observing some cases, and suggesting a couple of nutrition solutions like eating garlic;
5. Encourages other countries to tighten security and to try and solve this problem before more countries are infected with all public areas are to be patrolled by specialized officers. A. These officers are to wear protective suits and their job is be on the look out for anyone that might look or act like he/she is carrying this disease. B. These public places include airports and other transportation areas and any public area where a lot of people might be gathered: shopping malls, parks, schools, offices and work building and etc. C. If anyone is found by any officer with this disease, this person shall be taken to a medical clinic immediately where he/she shall be checked for any virus symptoms.
6. Urges that each country that wants to get rid of this disease, to send a group of specialized scientists/doctors with some knowledge of diseases and their cures depending on what they studied, to an isolated area where these scientists will form an organization together that will try to solve this problem by: A. Using infected volunteers to test and to see if a different environment, new nutrition, etc. can stop this disease, B. Attempting to see if eating garlic may cure this disease, C. Providing these volunteers a reward for volunteering to help such an important research that may save the lives of many people, D. Taking detailed notes about each volunteer's actions and how they react to certain drugs and the viruses effects;
7. Further Resolves that each country should donate a reasonable amount of money that will be given to this organization as well any devices or anything that might be of help to this organization with the money to be used for: A. Buying special medical devices, B. Creating a habitable area for doctors and volunteers and the rest of the staff, C. Helping with all the organization's expenses.
Honorable Chair, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests,
The Philippines is the country where sunshine covers the land like a golden layer. The land where you hear children's laughter in the busy streets. This land is dear and holy; Full of noble heroes who gave their lives in order to see their countries flag waving freely in the breezy air. Full of talented artists, poets and many more that have created masterpieces that describe their love of their country and its greatness. There will forever be glorious liberty in the Philippines. It is the country of love, life, and friendship.