Country: Russia


Event: Pearl-MUN 2003

Student: Muneera Al-Nibari

 

 

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The Russian National Anthem


The Russian Federation




 

Country Profile

 

Political Structure:

The Russian Federation known to most as Russia was once a great power an empire and a union. After the defeat of The Russian Empire in World War 1 a revolution lead by the Stalin and by the Marxism or Communist ideology transformed the Russian empire to The Soviet Union (USSR). For almost seventy years the harsh communist decree ruled The Soviet Union, and in 1991 after General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev attempts to modernize Communism the former USSR parted into 15 independent republics.

Russia along with many other countries is attempting to become a democracy. There are three main components to Russiaís government, first the executive branch which is composed of The Chief of State currently President Vladimir Putin, head of government who is Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov and his Deputy Prime Ministers. The cabinet the ministries are also a part of the executive branch which is formed of the prime minister his deputies and ministers all chosen by the president. The president is chosen by elections for a four-year term, there is no vice president the prime minister becomes president until elections are held, with Duma approval.

Secondly, there is the legislative branch, which is the bicameral Federal Assembly. There is the Federation Council and The State Duma. The executive branch appoints the Federation Council and it is composed of 178 seats while the State Duma, which is composed of parties, and the voting is by proportional representation there are 450 seats in the State Duma. Russians havenít forgotten their roots for the Communist party holds most of the house.

Finally, there is the judicial branch is composed of the Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Superior Court of Arbitration; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president.

In the Russian Federation the most powerful ruling power is the Chief of State for the final decision is left to him he has extreme superiority in decision-making

 

Natural Resources:

Russia is a country rich in natural resources, for it has major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, timber, and many strategic minerals. Russiaís great land holds different climates and thus itís resources vary; itís forests hold grains that are mostly self sufficient, but sometimes grains are imported since there is a lack due to the short growing seasons and little rainfall. Russiaís Ural Mountains hold many minerals, in Siberia oil, gas, timber and coal. Russiaís problem is not lack of resources its lack of means to manufacture them, so most of its exports are raw materials.

 

Geography:

Russia is the largest country in the world thus has many borders with the following countries Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Russia has a total border of 19,990 km and it borders Azerbaijan, Belarus, China (southeast), China (south), Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Latvia, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast), Mongolia, Norway, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast), and Ukraine.

Russiaís climate is awfully hot summers and cruelly cold winters, while summers are short and the winters are long and harsh causing a lack of agriculture. Due to the harsh winter climate most of Russia is frozen and so it is of no use.

 

Cultural Factors:

Russia is populated by 144,978,573 people almost all are Russians because few immigrate to Russia. The populationís structure is women outnumber men and 70% of the population is between 15-64. While Russians are 80% of the population there are several other nationalities such as Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%. Religions common in Russia are Russian orthodox or Muslim choice of religion is a revelation since during the communist rule religion was not permitted. Most Russians are well read and literate. Many Russian Muslims face problems in practicing their religion there. However, Russia is constantly being pressured by the concerned countries, such as the Muslim countries regarding the Islamic faith there, the US., the UN., and Amnesty International in order to have more religious freedom.

 

Defense:

When Russia was part of the former USSR it had a great military force with many nuclear weapons and millions of troops, since then much has changed and the Russian military has deteriorated in the sense of military power. The Russian military consists of the following branches Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Space Forces, Airborne Forces, and Strategic Rocket Forces. Only men are eligible for military and they are fitting at 18 years of age, and currently the troops are 30,392,946. Due to lack of economic capabilities Russia doesnít have much to spend on training or weapons, thankfully much of the former Soviet Unions military belongings now belong to Russia. Russia has some, but few and outdated aircraft carriers.

As many countries feel that Russia having nuclear weapons is a threat have urged Russia to sign treaties for arms control such as the that which Russia and the US. have signed and ratified they have cut their deployed strategic nuclear forces to 1,700-2,200 warheads each, it also signed the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) agreement. This is to Russiaís benefit, as it cannot afford these weapons. As Russiaís economy gradually strengthens, its army will improve. Now, itís big and poor quality, so when Russia eventually becomes a stable economy it will try to train its army by limiting the number, but by improving their skills.

Russia and Germany have been natural enemies and Russia has measured its army by its ability to take on Germany. Currently Russiaís ground forces are weak while the German ground forces are well trained yet small. Russia could get Germany by nuking them and Germany doesnít have nuclear weapons so that is an advantage. Russia could have gotten rid of Saddam, but the war would not have been as easy as that which the US. fought. It would have had more deaths on both sides and since Russia and Iraqís armies are of about equal force it would have been harder.

 

Economy:

After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia suffered severely as it is still struggling in the process of industrialization. Between 92 and 98 it was doing badly, but since then Russiaís economy has grown. Russiaís Gross Domestic Product is 1.27 trillion that is a significant amount, but due to corruption their economy is still suffering, as 40% of the population is poverty-stricken. Most Russians work in services, second most employed sector is industries and the least employed sector is agriculture. 59% of the GDP goes to services, 34% industry and 7% for agriculture. Russiaís exports are petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures it exports to Germany, US, Italy and China, but most of itís resources are used inside Russia. Its imports are machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, grain, sugar, semi-finished metal products from the same countries to which it exports, oil and gas dominate Russian exports, so Russia remains highly dependent upon the price of energy. I would describe the Russian economy as a developing one, but by definition itís a developed economy.

Russiaís external debt is $140 billion. It is making progress in meeting its foreign debt obligations. The 2002 Russian Government (Ministry of Finance and Eurobond payments) budget assumed payment of roughly $14 billion in official debt service payments falling due. Russia continues to explore debt swap/exchange opportunities. The Russian labor force is undergoing tremendous changes. Russia is a member in the Arctic Council (AC), the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS).

Due to the lack of funds to create up to date oil companies German companies play a big part in the Russian oil production for they bring in the new technology and the Russians bring the oil and the employees. Russia is notoriously known for selling weapons to Iraq, it also sells weapons to the same kind of countries meaning they are most probably war torn countries.

While the Russian economy does get aid from the American government that, gives to the IMF, and the United Nations thus has a VERY influential voice in aid and so Russia is careful on as not to touch the thin line.

 

Views on World Problems:

Politics is a show and we all play our parts, Russia once had a leading role it now has a supporting role due to the break up of the Soviet Union. Russiaís unstable economy has caused it to become a friend of the United States when it was once itís greatest enemy. Russia is a backer of NATO, but not so much because it doesnít want new members like Georgia. It also has relations with countries such as the US. so that they will not interfere with the disputes between Russia and Chechnya. Russia, like the US, likes to bully its neighbors, which are small countries which most of the rest of the world are oblivious to.

Russia is a Security Council member and as a SC country is poses much power. Russia is and was mostly opposing to the US., but since itís loss of power itís opposition has declined to simply a vote rather than a strong campaign. Russia was against the war on Iraq and condemned along with other SC. nations such as France and Germany it may have been for financial reasons (Iraq is indebted to Russia $ 7 billion), but didnít cut off all relation between it and the US, it currently feels that the UN should play a substantial role in the rebuilding of Iraq. As for the rape of Palestine issue it is neutral, but favors the Palestinian side, as it may want to win over relations with Arab and Islamic countries. A fourth of Israel is Russian Jews, who were persecuted in Russia also and so Russia is neutral most on most of the Middle East conflict issues.

Putin and Bush have warm relations compared to those of former US. and Russian Presidents, Vladimir Putin is better to the Russians than any other elected Russian President has been. Putin is also making drastic changes in the US.-Russian relations, he has agreed to things, which a former opposing the US. Russia would have never agreed to. Russia being part European is involved in the European world one of it allies is France, but Europe also holds a great enemy of Russia (Germany). Although recently relationships between Russia and Germany have developed they are no longer natural enemies and have agreed on issues such as Iraq, this new found friendship is most probably because Germany is a great ally to the United States and Russia is becoming a democracy has tried to make new friends with old enemies.

International Organization Participation:

APEC, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC

 

History:

World War I was a war that very much affected Russia and with internal pressures, a rebellion on March 1917 led to Tsar Nicholas II resignation. A temporary government came to power, headed by Alexander Kerensky. On November 7, 1917, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control and established the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Then in 1918 civil war started between Lenin's "Red" army and various "White" forces and lasted until 1920, when, despite foreign interventions, the Bolsheviks triumphed. After the Red Army conquered Ukraine, Belorussia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, they formed a new nation in 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The U.S.S.R. lasted 69 years. In the 1930s much happened to the people of the USSR and much died. During World War II as many as 20 million Soviet citizens died. As the USSR started fighting more wars and becoming a world power in the late 1940ís it developed itís own nuclear weapons.

Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party and head of the first Soviet Government, who died in 1924. In the late 1920s, Joseph Stalin emerged as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, served as Communist Party leader until he was ousted in 1964. Aleksey Kosygin became Chairman of the Council of Ministers, and Leonid Brezhnev was made First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee in 1964, but in 1971, Brezhnev rose to become "first among equals" in a collective leadership. Brezhnev died in 1982 and was succeeded by Yuriy Andropov (1982-84), Konstantin Chernenko (1984-85), and Mikhail Gorbachev, who resigned as Soviet President on December 25, 1991. On December 26, 1991, the USSR. was formally dissolved. After the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation became its largest successor state, inheriting its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, as well as the bulk of its foreign assets and debt. Boris Yeltsin was elected President of Russia by popular vote in June 1991.

By the fall of 1993, politics in Russia reached a stalemate between President Yeltsin and the parliament. The parliament had succeeded in blocking, overturning, or ignoring the President's initiatives on drafting a new constitution, conducting new elections, and making further progress on democratic and economic reforms. In a dramatic speech in September 1993, President Yeltsin dissolved the Russian parliament and called for new national elections and a new constitution. The standoff between the executive branch and opponents in the legislature turned violent in October after supporters of the parliament tried to instigate an armed insurrection. Yeltsin ordered the army to respond with force to capture the parliament building (known as the White House). In December 1993, voters elected a new parliament and approved a new constitution that had been drafted by the Yeltsin government. Yeltsin has remained the dominant political figure, although a broad array of parties, including ultra-nationalists, liberals, agrarians, and communists, have substantial representation in the parliament and compete actively in elections at all levels of government.

In late 1994, the Russian security forces launched a brutal operation in the Republic of Chechnya against rebels who were intent on separation from Russia. Along with their opponents, Russian forces committed numerous violations of human rights. The Russian Army used heavy weapons against civilians. Tens of thousands of them were killed and more than 500,000 displaced during the course of the war. The protracted conflict, which received close scrutiny in the Russian media, raised serious human rights and humanitarian concerns abroad as well as within Russia.

Putin is the new leader whom seems to grasp the concept of democracy unlike the former Russian Presidents, he is an intellectual and seems to be good for Russia politically and economically you can see the changes.

 

 

 

Policy Statements: Security Council

 

A. The question of rebuilding Iraq.

Iraq is a country which currently undergone a war and for almost 35 years since the Al- Baíath party got POWER their standards of living were deteriorating, but for the ten years that Saddam ruled they lived in fright and doom. During Saddam's tyranny they went into two wars with neighbors and lost all their money because he choose to spend it on weapons.

The Russia Federation feels very strongly about the rebuilding of Iraq we think that the United Nations should have a role in the rebuilding of Iraq. While the coalition thinks that it should be them who see through the political rebuilding of Iraq, we think that it should be a world effort while we may not have agreed to war it is a job set upon us to see that Iraq finds peace. We also feel that the sanctions should not be lifted until the Weapon Of Mass Destruction and Saddam are found. How do we know that Saddam isn't in a bunker hiding with WOMD waiting to fire when the sanctions are lifted? We also feel that Iraq should repay all of it debts to the countries of the world.

 

B. Question of reducing tensions on the Korean peninsula.

The tensions accruing in the Korean peninsula are accruing because of the apprehensions after the DPKR withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, and since the United States feels that North Korea is a threat to the world and to there security. Russia feels that all countries should have the freedom to chose if they do or donít want to create Nuclear weapons, one nation should not be the country to decide this and with this we say that we do accept and respect all points of view. Thus, from this somewhat unique and objective stance, and with understandable concerns about the current "crisis," we offer the following observations and recommendations of peace talks between conflicting sides with the hope that these will help us here at the Security Council in the formulation of a Korean peninsula policy that is just conducive to the maintenance of a lasting peace and promotes freedom of choice.

The 1992 Korean Peninsula Denuclearization Declaration only covers the weaponization of plutonium, so the uranium enrichment activity is technically ok.

For myself: Russia doesnít really care about this issue, but would most probably try to allow United States interference and it would like to stay out of this problem.

 

C. The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Cote D'Ivoire.

Russia is worried about the new spiral of tension in Cote d'Ivoire. Moscow keeps a watchful eye on Africa's attempts to reduce the tension. We appreciate the results of the extraordinary summit of the Economic Community of West African States, or the ECOWAS, which took place in Dakar, Senegal, during which it was decided to deploy peacekeeping forces of member states of this organization in Cote d'Ivoire until December 31, 2002. We hope negotiations in the ECOWAS framework will hinder a civil war in Cote d'Ivoire.

Russia sees no other alternative except all-round political settlement of the crisis. Russia supports the idea of peaceful settlement and intends to go on contributing to the effort to normalize the situation in Cote d'Ivoire, through the United Nations.

 



D. The question of reforming the Security Council.

The Security Council has its structure since the beginning with the 5 permanent member states that continue to show their great political and economical power in the world. They do indeed represent the different aspects of the world and Russia feels strongly about the structure of the Security Council. Russia feels that the current structure is working quite well and values its veto privilege. Russia feels that some countries have out used their VETO, which is embarrassing because in the United Nations countries are supposed to come together and be united, listen to one another and not just VETO something, which they do not want.

 

E. The question of the roll of the media in portraying conflicts.

The media may have an influential role in portraying conflicts and the media could very much be a way of showing abuse of human rights. There is one problem for countries that unfortunately cannot afford to have a very influential and respectable media; they therefore canít show the abuse of human rights. Many countries also choose to play with the media which can be a tool used for sympathy and influencing the world, some also chose not to show what hardship their people are going through.

Russia has crazy guidelines for their media because they encourage freedom of press and then when the press says something they do not agree with, Russia will put an end to the so called "free press". They would vote for a radical clause that would encourage freedom of media, but with "limits".

 

 

SECURITY COUNCIL CLAUSES

 

A. Question of reducing tensions on the Korean peninsula

1-Resolves
that a meeting to achieve stability in the Korean peninsula be established under the name Forum for Reducing Tensions on the Korean Peninsula (FRTKP), which will include North and South Korea and United Nations peacekeepers the conference will cover the following issues,
A. Peace talks between the conflicting countries,
B. It will update the Denuclearization Declaration to include that North Korea will be allowed to make nuclear weapons, but under the observation of UN. forces;

 

B. The Question of rebuilding Iraq

1-Resolves that the United Nations Weapons Inspectors shall go back into Iraq immediately and will continue to search for WOMDís;

2-Resolves that the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DKPO),
A. Research the situation and deploy troops to the region as needed,
B. Will teach a group of Iraqi forces so that they can enforce peace and stability through the region,
1. Financing the first shipment of weapons
2. Developing a program that will aim at teaching and developing a Iraqi police force;

3-Resolves that a meeting to resolve the Iraqi situation will be established the meeting will be under the heading "Iraqi Peace and Stability" (IPS), it will aim to:
A. Form a committee:
1. Which will be formed from the following:
a. A chief who would be appointed by the UN. Secretary General
b. Two representatives from the five permanent member states
c. 10 people from the different parts of Iraq,
B. Will have the tasks of:
1. Monitoring Iraqís political development
2. Seeing through the conferences that will:
a. Agree upon a temporary government
b. Developing Iraq's economy:
c. Have offices that will deal with: investments in Iraq, free trade within Iraq, and Iraqi debts (When Iraq is better off economically they will pay partial compensation annually);

4-Calls upon the UNCHR to send a group that will assure that The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is implemented and uncivil actions are abolished.

 

 

 

OPENING SPEECH



Zdravstvuite (Izdrastvecha) esteemed ladies and gentleman, The Russian Federation would like to welcome you all to the Security Council meeting. Russia being the largest country in the world cares about the woes and wars that the world faces. We aim at keeping peace and spreading relief through the world. Russia itself suffers from terrorist acts like all other great nations have in the past, but we choose to deal with it without wars adding to the tensions in the world. There are times to use force such as when terrorists from your own country kill your people and there are times when force is irrelevant which is when you start a war on a country that is far away and claims of weapons that were a threat have not yet been proven true. Russia understands the true meaning of national sovereignty.

Gathered here today to discuss subjects that are important to humans around the world, wars and tensions were almost all created by one nation. Also about the structure of the security council, which Russia feels so strongly about and thinks that it is premium for through its diversity all different opinions are made known.