Event: Pearl-MUN 2003
Student: Laila Barghouti
The current constitution was passed by the National Assembly in May 1995. It drams on the 1991 constitution. The amended constitution meant that Rwanda acquired a French- style political system with both a president and a prime minister. The presidential is elected for five years and can stand for only two terms. The president appoints the prime minister, who then appoints the cabinet; which approves decisions of the transitional government. Rwanda is divided into prefectures, each with a perfect appointed by the president. Prefectures are divided into sub-prefectures and then into communes, each headed by a Brougmestre (administrator) who is also appointed by the president.
Rwanda has a transitional coalition government until 2003, or until elections are held. The Rwandan Government is made up of a coalition of five major parties which are the Rwanda patriotic Front (RPF), Republican Democratic Movement (MDR), Social Democratic Party(PSD), Christian Democratic Party(PDC) and Liberal Party(PL). The government is dominated by the (RPF) which is predominantly English speaking and Tutsi. The (MDR) is the (RPF's) major partner in government although its influence is debatable as its support is drawn mainly from among moderate Hutus. The other parties in the coalition have even lower profiles than (MDR). The National Transition Assembly has 74 appointed (not elected) members (increased from 70 members in Sept. 2000) .
The Rwandan Patriotic Army consists almost entirely of (RPF) soldiers. It is an important political force whose views closely reflected those of the (RPF).
Rwanda is in east central Africa. The area of Rwanda is 26,338 sq. km. Its capital is Kigali. Rwanda has borders with Uganda from the north, a border with Tanzania from the east with Burundi from the south and from the west with Lake Kivu and the democratic republic of Congo. Rwanda is a landlocked country.
Steep mountains and deep valleys are all around Rwanda. Rwanda is known for having a lot of volcanoes which are about five. One of the volcanoes is on Virunga Mountains in the northwest. Rwanda also has twenty three lakes; some of these famous lakes is Kivu and Tanganyika. It has a numerous number of rivers, Kagera is a river that is in the eastern side of Rwanda, most of the rivers are found on the eastern side of Congo. Rwanda's position on maps is 75 miles south of the equator in the Tropic of Capricorn, and 1,250 miles east of the Atlantic Ocean. The Landscape of Rwanda is like a reminder of tropical Switzerland. Its control of feature is a chain of mountains that go all the way on another south axis. They also have river valleys such as "Akagera" which is in the east.
The climate is tropical, but tempered by altitude. The capital, Kigali, has an average temperature of 19?C. Average rainfall (785 mm) is barely sufficient for agriculture. Rwanda has two rainy seasons (Feb.-May and Sep-Dec) and two dry seasons. During the two rainy seasons, heavy downpours occur almost daily, alternating with sunny weather. Annual rainfall averages 80 cm but is generally heavier in the Western and Northwestern mountains than in the Eastern savannas.
As in every country it has different natural resources, and plants and animals. Rwanda has forests that are mostly concentrated in the western mountains and lake Kivu area. It contains different kinds of trees such as the Predominant trees that are the eucalyptus, acacia, and oil palms. Wildlife includes elephants, hippopotamus, crocodiles, wild boar, leopard, antelope, and flying lemur. Flying lemur is important to Rwanda's government that they did a park called "Akagera National Park" that takes care of the wild animals. Rwanda has the estimated half remaining of gorillas their home is on the Viruga Mountains which is in the north west of Rwanda.
It has many different natural resources that is planted in forests and near lakes such as the coffee and tea which is one of the important plants that can be sold quickly. They also plant different kinds of fruits and vegetables such as bananas and beans and potatoes. They also care about planting different kinds of plants that animals such as the wild boar can eat and one of those plants is called the "Sorghum". "Pyrethrum' a kind of poison insect made from chrysanthemums is planted there. Cigarettes increase the gross income of the country, because they export it to different countries. Rwanda also has metals such as gold and Cass trite which is also known as "tin ore" and wolf Amite "tungsten ore" and methane and hydropower.
The population of Rwanda is 7, 312, and 756. The population density is 278 people per square km; Rwanda is one of the most density populated countries in Africa, even though the Civil War caused massive numbers of deaths. There is a small number of European there, a small number of Asians, African from Tanzania and Congo. Rwanda has about 56% of Roman Catholic, 18% of Protestants, and 1% for Islam and 25% animist. Rwandans live near grass huts and farms. Women generally dress in brightly colored wraps, men in white.
The Rwandans diet consists mainly of sweet potatoes and beans with banana. Cattle are a sign of wealth. They eat meat once or twice a week. Fish is eaten by the people that live near lakes. Rwanda's culture is rich from doing fine crafts such as pottery, paintings, wood carving, and metal work. The Tutsi were known for their songs and dynastic poetry of chronicling the origins of the Tutsi ruling class. In addition to that Rwanda is known for producing a number of writers such as Alexis Kagame and J. Saverio Naigaziki which were known for writing in French. However, most of Rwanda's traditional culture heritage revolved around dances, songs, and poems. After a while the Hutu stated doing regional dances. The designing of fine craft stopped since they decided that it was from the past. Not only had this but also Rwanda's National Ballet and the Impala Orchestra added brightness to the cultural factor.
Rwanda uses the same weapons that she used in 1994 against the rebels of Tutsi when they came as a rebel to Rwanda, there are no major weapons but there are armies. Rwanda is trying to develop her weapons because the rebels can cause insecurity. Rape was one of the weapons used in 1994. They also used chemical weapons that destroyed Rwanda when the chemical weapon was thrown on people of "Byumba". They also used bombs in 1990-1994 in wars that occurred in Rwanda; Rwanda bought different kinds of weapons from Egypt and France such as 60-mm and 82-mm mortars, and 122mm and P-30 howitzers. In addition to that they have rocket-propelled, plastic explosives, anti persona land mines. Rwanda also has supplied weapons from South Africa including R-4 automatic riffles, 7.62 mm grenade launchers. Military Branches own armies and air force weapons. Only mates are accepted in armies and they should be from age 15 till age 49 years old.
The government has launched an ambitious plan to demobilize thousands of soldiers. Under the International Military and Training Program (IMET), the US. has provided professional training for Rwandan military officers, especially in civil –military relations and respect for human rights.
Rwanda is the most density populated country in Africa, and has few natural resources. The gross domestic product in Rwanda is only 2 billion or 240$ per person. Most of the country's infrastructure was destroyed in the civil war and the number of people living below the poverty line grew from 40% to 70%. Rwanda's economy depends mostly on agriculture since it is a rural country. Exports of coffee account more that 70 percent of its foreign exchange, while tea accounts for 10 percent. Mineral recourses make up ten to fifteen percentage total exports and it includes tungsten, tin, tantalite, columbine, and beryl. Rwanda also exports Methane Gas that is used as nitrogen fertilizer for trucks. Gold is smuggled out of the country because there is a little amount of it. The main destinations of Rwanda's exports are Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and UK. Rwanda imports food, machinery, transport's equipment, clothing, and construction materials from Belgium, Kenya, Japan and Tanzania. The country's major source of energy is the "Mukungwa Hydroelectric Power insulation".
While growth has been strong following the end of the civil war, it slowed in 1999 and 2000 due to soil erosion, droughts (subsequent famines) and the high price of fuel imports which made Rwanda dependent on foreign assistance, especially from Belgium. In July 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved US $12.5 million for Rwanda. The World Bank is currently financing eight projects in Rwanda to the value of US $ 258 million. The government has also gained the support of the international aid community.
Views of World Problems
With Uganda: Rwanda has a very united and connected relation with Uganda, and they are allies. They became allies in 1950s-1960s when many Rwandans left Rwanda and settled in Uganda. Not only this but some members of the Rwandan Government were previous members of President Museveni's National Resistance Movement. In addition to that President Kagame and President Museveni had very close ties. The past 2 years Rwanda and Uganda entered the war against Congo as allies however, troops from Rwanda and Uganda have clashed together on several occasions resulting a numerous number of deaths on both sides. Obviously it appeared that there is a rift between the 2 countries.
With Burundi: The relation between Rwanda and Burundi is really shaky and changeable. It doesn't stay the same and that is because in both Rwanda and Burundi a Tutsi dominated government in power. Both Tutsi governments are fighting rebels by extremist Hutu groups and events that happen in ones country have. However Rwanda has been cautious about being seen to cooperate to closely with Burundi government which came to power in 1996 coup.
With Tanzania and Kenya: The relation between Rwanda, Tanzania, and Kenya is generally good, however, the movements of large numbers of refugees to Tanzania caused some tension. Most Rwandans Refugees have now been repatriated from Tanzania. In 1996 a number of key members of the previous Rwandan government were arrested in Kenya and bought to trail. The relation has been restored and that was the beginning of rapprochement between Rwanda and Kenya.
With Australia: The relation is somehow good and friendly they are not allies and not enemies. This relation happened in 1994 when there was genocide. Australia sent people to take care of health and water supply. In addition to that a military medical support of around 300 went to Rwanda for mainly assisting with surgery, gunshots, machete wounds, and tropical diseases.
With the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): The Rwandan Government has been involved in a military conflict in the (DRC) since 1998 when it intervened in support of Congolese rebel movement in an attempt to remove President Kabila from power. President Kabila was initially a protégé of the Rwandan. They helped him to power in 1997 but now they accuse him of supporting the Hutu rebels. But the effort to remove him failed when Zimbabwe, Namibia, Angola, and Chad intervened on Kabila's behalf. Rwanda has stated that it will not withdraw until rebel Hutu groups responsible for 1994 genocide are disarmed and brought to account for their crimes.
With Canada: Canada has a cooperation program in Rwanda. The cooperation program has three objectives: (1) to strengthen government, particularly the ability of Rwandan organization to uphold justice and promote human rights; (2) to help Rwandan woman to participate as equal partners; and (3) to support activities enabling the poorest people to meet their basic needs.
The first known inhabitants of Rwanda were the Twa. The Hutu from the Congo basin, were well recognized when the Tutsi came down from the north and conquered the area. The Tutsi kings became the monarchs of the area. Political and economic relations between the Tutsi and the Hutu based on an equal feudal relationship, known as the "Ubuhake System" in which the Hutu became the caste of serfs for the Tutsi. A similar feudal system was dominant in Burundi. From 1894 to 1918, Rwanda along with Burundi was part of German East Africa. After Belgium became the administering authority under the mandates of the League of Nations, Rwanda and Burundi formed an administrative entity and they continued to be jointly administered as the Territory of Rwanda-Urundi until the end of the Belgian trust ship in 1962. Then the two states evolved different political systems. Rwanda forces its monarch into exile and declared itself a republic.
On July 1, 1962 Belgium granted Rwanda independence with Kay Banda, leader of the Parliament (now named the Democratic Republican Movement; MDR) as president. The MDR won the elections in 1965 and 1969. In 1963 some exiled Tutsi returned to Rwanda as a rebel army. The take over attempt prompted a large-scale massacre of Tutsi by the Hutu, followed by periodic ethnic.
In July 1973 the defense minister, General Habyarimana , lead a bloodless coup that ejected Kayi banda. Both parliament and the MDR were suspended after the coup. Political activities resumed in 1975 with the formation of the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (NRMD). In 1978 a new constitution was approved and president Habyarimana was confirms in office for another 5 years. On 7 April 1994, the Hutu President, Habyarimana, was killed when his plane was shot down. It has never been determined who was he responsible for the act but it is believed that the Hutu extremists were involved in the accident. It caused a breakdown of civil society. About 800,000 people were killed in 100 days.
On 19 July 1994 the Rwandan Patriotic Front claimed victory in the civil war, the day before, President Pasteur Bizimungu and a transitional coalition government were sworn on 2000 President Pasteur Bizmimungu resigned in March and Paul Kagame was appointed interim president.. He was official elected President on 17 April.
1) Controlling the spread of SARS virus and finding a cure for it.
Much like other respiratory illness, SARS seems to be spread by close contact. Because the cause of SARS infection is yet unknown, scientists are considering other possibilities of communication. Both the Centers and disease control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and many other organizations are working hard to reduce the spread of SARS by informing health care, workers and the general public about the condition. Some of the recommendations for medical personnel in direct contact with SARS patients are to follow standard precautions (like hand hygiene, to wear N-95 respirators) to wear the disposable gown and gloves and to wear eye protection. SARS patients and the family members and the health care workers in the contact with them should take precautionary measures for at least 10 days after SARS symptoms have passes. THE CDC and the WHO recommend recovering patients and people in contact with them to wash and disinfect hands frequently, to wear face masks when in close contact with others, and to avoid sharing household items. WHO also recommends that individuals should not travel to China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Singapore. Finding a way to fight SARS has so far eluded researchers, although health officials is Hong Kong said that drug Ribavirin has shown promise. At least 90% of patients treated with the anti-viral drug there have recovered, Hong Kong's Department of Health officials said.
Dr. Patrick Dixon- Wall Street Journal(E) 23 Jan. 2003 said "If we don't take great care, SARS could become established in the poorest nations – places like Rwanda, Burundi, Nigeria or Malawi – which have neither the high- tech capability of Toronto nor the totalitarian muscle of China to contain it. If that happens the consequences for global control could be grave." The Rwandan government has warned its citizens against traveling to Asia in precaution against catching SARS. Rwandan health authorities said although no case of SARS had been reported in the country, medical personnel of the ports and border posts have been placed an alert, state- country have started preparing their staffers to handle the disease in line with a federal government directive.
2) The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Mid-east.
The issue of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East was raised in the UN General Assembly in 1974 by Iran supported by Egypt. Since that time, the UN General Assembly has every year adopted a resolution recommending the establishment of such a zone. After 1980, it has done so by consensus, i.e. with the support of all Arab states, Iran and Israel. The current nuclear programs of the Middle East countries suggests that only Israel has a nuclear weapon capability, or as many experts believe, is already a nuclear weapon power, although the Israeli government many times declared that Israel will not be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East. Iraq is a special case.
After the Gulf war in 1991, it was revealed that Iraq, despite being a party to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) had for several years pursued a secret multi-billion dollar nuclear weapons program. By Security Council decisions, Iraq was ordered to destroy all facilities related to its programs for weapons of mass destruction and their missiles of Delivery. The military nuclear program of Iraq has now been eliminated. A further development was the proposal, in 1990, by President Mubarak of Egypt to establish a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. The proposal was not intended to replace the earlier idea of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the area but rather to be pursued in parallel to the earlier proposal.
Rwanda as all other African Countries signed An African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. They believe that the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone will protect African Sates against possible nuclear attacks on their territories. Rwanda agrees that the establishment of other Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones (NWFZ), especially in the Middle East, would enhance the security of States Parties to the African NWFZ.
3) The question of securing food and water recourses for nation in times of war and famine.
Global hunger is growing at an alarming rate. Hunger today stems from economic shocks, conflicts, natural disasters and deepening poverty for millions of people around the world. It is not caused by lack of adequate food supplies globally. In cases of Civil conflicts such as in Rwanda, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Somalia and Southern Sudan or Kosovo, WFP (World Food Programs) had stepped up its relief activities to meet the displaced persons, returnees and refugees.
The water supply systems in Rwanda's main cities have been disrupted as a result of the genocide in 1994. Many relief agencies arrived to Rwanda to provide emergency aid. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) water and sanitation engineers worked very hard throughout the country to provide safe water. In the very beginning plastic collapsible storage reservoirs connected to distribution stand posts were permanent schemes using simple technology. Regarding securing food, World Food Program (WFP) began its emergency program within months of the end of the genocide in 1994. WFP delivered and distributed over 125,000 metric tons of food to a monthly average of 750,000 people, WFP's assistance amounted to over US $180 million. In 1998, WFP offered food for an average of 500,000 people each month. Food-for-work Programs provide food aid for the rehabilitation of Rwanda. In 1997, over 11,000 houses were built providing homes for more than 50,000 individuals WFP continues to use food-for-work as a mechanism to assist the people of Rwanda to find solutions to food security.
4) The question of rising the level of water due to the effort of global warming.
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects arise in average global temperature of about-3.5 degrees Celsius by the year 2100. Rising waters, the result of melting polar ice caps and water expansion from increasing warmth, are the most widely anticipated consequence of a warming world. The U.N.'s IPCC projects that the world's oceans will rise any where from 15 to 95 cm by the year 2100. At the low end of the scale, rising water would increase coastal erosion and heighten the damaging effects of hurricanes and other coastal storms. Encroaching salt water has the potential to contaminate the water supplies that coastal cities and farms depend on. The rising ocean finds it easier to make its way inland as the level of coastal rivers and streams drop with the drying of the soil. The threat of contaminated water supplies is perhaps the most serious problem posed by the rising sea level.
Rising water due to the effort of global warming is a major problem to coastal settlements and does affect them, because water reaches the coasts of these countries and destroys everything, not only this but it also mixes with river water and pure water that the people can use for drinking. So Rwanda is not affected directly with that issue since it is not a coastal country.
5) The question of guarantee human rights and alleviating suffering Cuba.
Over the past forty years, Cuba has developed a highly effective machinery of repression. The denial of basic civil and political rights is written in to Cuban law. In the name of legality, armed security forces silence dissent with heavy prison terms, threats of prosecutions, harassment, or exile. Cuba uses these tools to restrict severally the exercise of fundamental human rights of expression, association, and assembly. The Cuban government should permit domestic and international human rights monitoring. The government should officially recognize Cuban human right organizations, other non-governmental organizations, and political opposition groups. The Cuban government should grant access to its prison by domestic and international human rights. Cuba should allow the International human rights organizations, including Human Rights Watch, to conduct human rights investigation in Cuba.
Rwanda is characterized by weak democratic institutions. Local governments are beginning to assume responsibility for many of the social services and are trying to educate and inform citizens of their rights and responsibilities. As Rwanda is starting to apply a democratic institution, this means that maybe it believes in human rights in Cuba.
Defining that famine is extreme scarcely of food and water which leads to malnutrition and death,
Adding that famine is not caused by lack of food supplies globally but from: economic shocks, conflicts, natural disasters, and deepening poverty for people all around the world,
Noting that many events has increased the number of people unable to feed themselves and their families which leads to early malnutrition that cannot be compensated later and as a result society as a whole will suffer when poor health restricts productivity,
Fully concerned about Rwandan people and others that need water and food, their neighbor countries should provide them with water and care about them to have a healthy society,
Encouraging Committees and programs that cooperated with Rwanda and other needy countries all around the world to work on ending famine and starvation,
Thanking The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) that worked hard to provide people all around the world and helped feed 500,000 people each month since Rwandans in 1994,
Deeply appreciating that The World Food Program (WFP) for providing homes to families all around the world and it provided Rwanda 500,000 houses in the hard times,
Stating that every rich country should cooperate in saving food and water for famine and starvation,
1) Helps all starving people by sending them food, water and medicine to help them resist consequences of the famine;
2) Encourages other countries to send efficient equipment to farm the lands and machines to build factories that can help in producing goods and offering jobs for people;
3) Improves the education system in order to teach people the proper and efficient ways to build their country and avoid famine;
4) Increases a number of journalists to take pictures of those starving people to show others how they suffer and get help;
5) Establishes a rule that forces couples to limit birth which will help in decreasing the number of starving people;
6) Considers that every person that lives in a starving country should have the right to live normal as other people and should have: A. The rights to go to schools and live normally, B. The rights to have medical care;
7) Stands against the people that are entering starving countries if: A. They are coming back to their suffering countries after leaving their countries for a long period of time because this will increase the famine, B. They have viruses that can be contagious to the starving people, C. They ignore such big issue that killed millions of people.
Rwanda the country of twenty three lakes, the country of steep mountains covering the area, the country of numerous numbers of blue rivers like blue paint on a white paper. The country that cares for its wild life like a mother that cares for her babies. Rwanda the country that is like a huge garden that has all the kinds of trees and lakes, and finally the country that was destroyed for in 19 July, 1994 by the Hutu who made a genocide that killed millions of people and destroyed happy Rwanda.
On the other hand, over 1.2 million people in Rwanda run the risk being affected by famine caused by the drought that affliction the country for the third consecutive year. Not only this but since 1994 after the genocide Rwanda has always relied on food assistance. Several reasons leave large numbers of Rwandans in need of food aid such as: High market prices, high levels of malnutrition, low levels of income, a string of poor harvest, the large numbers of refugees coming back to Rwanda, insecurity in North- West, the legacy of the 1994 genocide, and the large numbers of female and children. Rwanda