Country: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Event: Pearl-Mun 2003

Student: Ahmad Al-Jouan

 

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The Saudi National Anthem




Saudi Arabia




Country Profile:


Political structure:

The modern Saudi Arabian state was founded by King Abdul Aziz Al Saud in 1900 when he set on unifying the country and started with capturing Riyadh the current capital of Saudi Arabia then conquered other regions Al Hasa, the rest of Najd, and the hijaz and in 1932 the year of unification All the regions were unified under the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is a monarchy. The Constitution of Saudi Arabia is Sharia law based on the Holy Koran.

The Saudi Government is split into three branches executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch consists of the King who is both the head of state and prime minister, and the council of ministers which includes members of the royal family. The legislative branch is made up of the consultative council, the council has ninety members and a chairman appointed by the King to four year terms, the council only possesses advisory powers note there are no political parties or free elections in Saudi Arabia. The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Council of Justice, and Islamic courts of first instance and appeals. Saudi Arabia is a stable country without any Major terrorist attacks. There are no dissident or secessionist movements, but because Saudi Arabia is located in the Middle East which is a volatile region it is hard to keep stable but so far it has done a good job of staying stable.

 

Geography:

Saudi Arabia is located in the Middle East, it occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula with the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba to the west , and the Arabian Gulf to the east. Saudi Arabia borders Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, The Sultanate of Oman, Yemen, and is connected to Bahrain through a water causeway. Saudi Arabia is mostly barren desert in the east of the country and as you go westward it becomes more steep and mountainous. In the east of the country the Arabian Gulf is located and in the west the Red Sea. The country contains the largest continuous sand desert the Rub Al-Khali or Empty Quarter. It has two chains of mountains The Al Hijaz mountains and aseer mountains are the most known mountains in Saudi Arabia they are all located in the west of the country.

 

Natural resources:

Saudi Arabia’s natural resources are hydrocarbons, gold, uranium, bauxite, coal, iron, phosphate, tungsten, zinc, silver, copper, petroleum, and natural gas. Saudi Arabia is trying to be sufficient in both the industrial sector and the agricultural sector

The Saudi Arabian constraints in the agricultural sector are due to water problems and a growing population that is hampering the government’s efforts in becoming more self-sufficient.

 

Cultural factors

The two main ethnic groups in Saudi Arabia are the Arabs which account for 90 % of the population and the Afro-Asian which account to 10% of the population . Most Saudi Arabians originate from the Arabian peninsula itself and the rest come from parts of Asia and Africa that are close to Saudi Arabia. The religion in Saudi Arabia is Islam. Saudi Arabia has a great deal of Islamic art and culture it is the birthplace of Islam and two of the most important sites in Islam are found in Saudi Arabia Mecca and Medina.

 

Military:

The Saudi Arabian military branches are the Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, and Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary). Saudi military service is voluntary and only males may enter the Defense Forces. Saudi Arabia was one of the biggest players in the gulf war it was the staging area for both the air assault and the ground invasion it allowed many nations to send their troops to fight in the war, it ranked second in the number of soldiers provided.

Saudi Arabia has Defense cooperation agreements with all the Gulf States through the GCC and with the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Saudi Arabia is a major ally to the United States and the west but its relation were recently strained about the war with Iraq.

 

Economy:

The economy of Saudi Arabia is oil based economy but is trying to diversify its economy and has gained success by reducing the dependence of the country on oil and developing the agricultural and industrial sectors of the country. The Kingdom is privatizing many public companies like the ones in the telecommunications and electrical sectors to provide more job opportunities to the swelling Saudi population and lessen the dependence of the kingdom on oil. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the kingdom is $232 billion and the per capita income is $10,600.

The number of the unemployed in the kingdom is unknown but there is a growing amount of poor people in the country this is known because the Saudi government has established a fund to help fight poverty in Saudi Arabia and has called upon the kingdom’s wealthy businessmen to donate money to help fight this growing problem, adding to this the royal family and government have also contributed to the fund. The main industries in the kingdom are crude oil production; petroleum, petrochemicals, cement, fertilizer, construction, plastics, and light industry. Saudi Arabia’s main agricultural products are dates, grains, livestock, and vegetables. The main exports of Saudi Arabia are petroleum and petroleum products, Saudi exports are $81.2 billion. The main imports of Saudi Arabia are machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, and textiles. Saudi Arabia has trade agreements with all GCC members through agreements within the GCC.

Saudi imports are $30.1 billion. The major trading partners of Saudi Arabia are Japan, U.S., France, South Korea, Singapore, India, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Saudi Arabia has $23.2 billion dollars in foreign debt. The Saudi Riyal is the national currency of Saudi Arabia. The kingdom is a big donor it has donated to Lebanon, Palestine, and Afghanistan.

 

View on world’s problem:

Saudi Arabia is a very strong and powerful power in the Middle East having good relation with most Arab countries and always gives its view about world problems which have led recently to a worsening of relations with the U.S., this is a point that proves that Saudi Arabia has its own views, the kingdom is a peaceful country and always resolves its differences with other countries and has international credibility and is an international player and supports multilateral action rather than a unilateral, all that showed in the recent conflict in Iraq . Saudi Arabia is a member in the following organizations, ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BIS, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer). Saudi Arabia’s Biggest enemy is Israel which is Saudi Arabia’s only enemy in the Middle East.

 

History:

In the last 15 years in Saudi Arabia were very pivotal because it was the end of the of the Iran- Iraq War in which Saudi Arabia supported Iraq because of fear that the Islamic tide will come to its Kingdom which threatened it financially. The king is Fahad bin Abdulaziz who is the current ruler of Saudi Arabia. The country in 1990 was pushed into a new war when Iraq invaded Kuwait; Saudi Arabia was on Kuwait’s side accepting the Kuwaiti Royal Family and the Kuwaiti Government in exile and allowed Kuwaiti Refugees to come to its land. Saudi Arabia allowed Western and Arab troops to mass on its borders and it was the staging point for the war against Iraq.

This period changed Saudi Arabia and the region, after the war the Americans and has a presence that they did not have before the war. In 1995 there was a terrorist attack on a US. Army housing complex in which Americans died. In 1996 The King Passed authority to his brother and crown prince Prince Abdullah because of health problems. 1998 there was a 40 % drop in the country’s income because of falling oil prices causing the first recession in six years. In 2000 Saudi Arabia and other OPEC countries experiencing a recession reduced oil production to raise the price of oil. In 2001 OPEC reduced production three additional times. Saudi-American relations were strained after the September 11 attacks because of the Saudi’s involved in the suicide bombings.

In 2002 Prince Abdullah proposed a new Middle East peace plan which was not supported by Israel and failed. Saudi Arabia recently had very strained relations with the US. because of the kingdom’s refusal to grant them use of Saudi airbases and airspace and for the Saudi condemnation of the US. invasion

 

 

 

Policy Statements


A. The Question of Rising Water Level due to the Effect of Global Warming.

The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is deeply concerned about the problem of rising water levels due to global warming. This problem is affecting the whole world, the problem is due to the rise in the average temperature of the earth’s temperature, and this is due to great industrial pollution and the emission of green house gases. This is being proved by the melting ice caps in the Antarctic and the coastal flooding happening in many oceanic countries.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia believes all countries have a role to play to reduce global warming this can be done through international accords and treaties that hold all the countries who signed the treaty responsible for undertaking the steps necessary to fulfill the terms of the treaty. The treaty must state that all countries for the utmost to reduce pollution and green house gases and Saudi Arabia will do all it can to help reduce rising levels of water and to solve the problem of global warming.

 

B. The Question of controlling the Spread of the SARS Virus and Finding a Cure for it.

The SARS virus is causing great concern to Saudi Arabia. SARS virus stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome it can be spread very quickly around the world. The is causing great concern to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is deeply concerned about the numerous numbers of infected people who can transport the virus via traveling. We have watched more countries announcing they have SARS cases but we commend the WHO on its persistent efforts and careful observation of SARS cases. We have seen the efforts that many nations have done to control SARS.

Saudi Arabia believes that all countries must do all they can to contain the SARS virus and do all they can to find a cure for it. We believe that all countries do everything to contain SARS and not allow it to spread to the rest of the population or to spread to other neighboring countries, we believe that there should be joint committees inside the United nations and outside it that are assigned jobs to research and exchange information about SARS and find a cure for it.

 

C. The Question of Securing Food and Water Resources for Nations in Times of War and Famine.

The Kingdom Saudi Arabia is for a solution to the problem of aid to nations in times of war. What is meant here is in times of conflict or in famine which means there is no food or little food available and which causes great hunger in the general population in time of conflict or in times of peace. As proven in the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, war inflicts great suffering on civilians because they do not have running water and very low supplies of food, so in a short time they become dependent on international aid for survival.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a big donor of aid to poor, war stricken and famine stricken countries. It believes that the United Nations has to give a quota on how much aid rich countries have to donate to UN organizations. That all aid organizations have to be protected by the government in time of famine and by the warring groups in time of war. Having emergency relief supplies which are sufficient for a number of weeks until countries can respond efficiently to. We stand with a resolution for securing food and water resources for nations in time of war.

 

D. The Question of Creating a Nuclear Free Zone in the Middle East.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia believes that there should be a nuclear free zone in the Middle East because nuclear weapons only cause devastation and an escalating of tensions. The Middle East is the area covered by countries from Egypt to Iran inclusive, nuclear weapons are weapons using the release of energy by nuclear fission or fusion or both, nuclear free zone is an area that is free of nuclear weapons. These statements were echoed by the US State Department and various Middle Eastern countries. We wish that these statements be followed by actions. Saudi Arabia specifically states that most Arab countries will come only if Israel complies and agrees to the nuclear free zone.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia suggests that special committees be formed to monitor the disarmament of nuclear weapons in all Middle Eastern countries and these committees have to be accepted by all Middle Eastern countries. The other suggestion is the signing of treaties and pacts that hold all Middle Eastern to disarmament from their nuclear weapons.

 

E. The Question of Guaranteeing Human Rights and Alleviating Suffering in Cuba.

The recent detention of political opponents of the government has forced the United Nations to take another look at Cuba’s Human Rights record in the recent Human Rights Committee meeting it voted on the resolution that would urge Cuba to allow for the visit of the envoy responsible for the monitoring of civil liberties in the country Saudi Arabia stands by that decision by the United Nations.

In this resolution we wish all countries respect human rights but we do not want to interfere with a country's sovereignty or internal affairs and it is the business of the country to decide how to deal with its internal affairs but all within the context of respecting human rights. Human rights are rights held to be common to all. We urge Cuba to respect human rights. We urge the United Nations to monitor human rights Cuba and come back and give the United Nation’s General Assembly a report on human rights in Cuba. The Creation of a committee that is neutral and be accepted by the United Nation’s and Cuba to help in the suspected breach of human rights and alleviating suffering but this has to be done with the blessings of Cuba.

 

 

 

Resolution

Forum: General Assembly

Submitter: Saudi Arabia

Question of: Creating A Nuclear Free Zone In The Middle East.

Affirming its belief in the Middle East Peace process and its objectives,

Aware of the high tensions which are caused by the presence of Nuclear Weapons in the Area,

Believing in the efforts of the United Nations to solve the problem of nuclear weapons,

Recognizing that countries develop or buy nuclear weapons to use them as a counter balance to defend themselves from other countries nuclear arsenals,

Alarmed By the growing number of Middle Eastern countries acquiring more advanced nuclear weapons,

Deeply concerned by the involvement of foreign powers in the development and selling of nuclear weapons to Middle Eastern Countries,

Welcoming the steps taken by Middle Eastern countries ready to ban Nuclear Weapons and there development,

Confident that all Middle Eastern countries want a nuclear free zone,

Reaffirming the need to block all nuclear weapons sales to the Middle East,

Emphasizing the need to dismantle the nuclear weapons programs and thus the threat of nuclear attack on other nations,

Expecting that all Middle Eastern countries would make great contributions to this nuclear free zone.

1. Recommends the creation of The Middle Eastern Nuclear Proliferation Treaty.
A. All Middle Eastern countries must abide by the treaty.
B. This calls on the Nuclear disarmament of all Middle Eastern countries.
C. The monitoring of all countries for signs of restarting nuclear programs.
D. Any breaches to this treaty will be reported to the United Nations.
E. United Nations is asked to take control of this treaty and it is responsible for monitoring this treaty.

2. Calls Upon the IAEA to monitor these Nuclear power plants and check that they are only used as a source of energy;.

3. Endorses the United States plan to make the Middle East a Nuclear free zone, which calls on all Middle Eastern Countries to disband nuclear programs and disarm their nuclear weapons;

4. Encourages all countries to abandon nuclear weapons and nuclear research programs;

5. Urges all countries having nuclear weapons or expertise to stop Exporting or sharing nuclear information with Middle Eastern countries;

6. Further requests the creation of sub-committees responsible within the United Nations for the following tasks:
A. The creation of a committee within the United Nations responsible for monitoring all Middle Eastern countries for any illegal breaches in The Middle Eastern Nuclear Proliferation Treaty,
B. The creation of a committee responsible for the disarmament of all nuclear armed Middle Eastern countries,
C. The creation of a committee within the IAEA responsible for monitoring all Middle Eastern countries for any breaches in The Middle Eastern Nuclear Proliferation Treaty;

7. Trusts that all Middle Eastern Countries would put their differences aside and stride to make the region a safer and peaceful place with the abandonment of nuclear weapons.

 

 

 

Opening Speech


Bismillah Allah al rahman IL raheem Honorable chair, honorable delegates.

I come to you from Saudi Arabia the holy land of Arabs and Muslims. The land which holds two of Islam’s holiest sites. The land which contains both deserts and mountains, despite these differences in topography yet all the differences among the different ethnic groups are dissolved in the Saudi society. This land which overlooks two seas which connect the west and the east. This is Saudi Arabia the country which was founded by King Abdul Aziz Al Saud. Saudi Arabia is very concerned about the problem of terrorism and world peace. We believe that each country has the right to protect itself within the context of international law through organizations such as the United Nations. The power of these organizations has been weakened by the unilateral actions of some countries which sidelined the United Nations in the most recent war and acted unilaterally to attack another country without a mandate from the United Nations.

We believe that the only way for peace to prevail is through the use of international organizations such as the United Nations and its resolutions. Terrorism is affecting a great deal of countries the most recent terrorist attacks were against us, Saudi Arabia and Morocco, so we stand with the right to charge these criminals with their crimes but take into account that human rights must be respected. The attacking of countries that are not connected to terrorism only feuds the terrorists ideals and creates more terrorism and terrorists. We believe by keeping the world a safe heaven where justice and equality prevail among the nations of the world terrorism will disappear.

We pray God to save this world and make it a peaceful place free of terrorism and war.