Student: Lulu Al Mishari
In the present time the head of state is President Ahmet Necdet SEZER, and has been since May 16,2002. The last election was on the 5th of May 2000 and the next election will be on May 2007. The President had 60% on National Assembly vote, and was elected for a seven-year term. The prime minister, appointed by the president, is Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN. He has been the prime minister since the 14th of March 2003, because Abdulla GUL resigned on the 11th of March 2003. The council of ministers appointed by the president nominate the prime ministers.
Turkeys government type is republican parliamentary democracy for 81 Turkish Provinces; the capital is Ankara.
Next comes the Legislative branch, Turkey has a unicameral grand national assembly or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi with 550 members elected by popular vote to serve five year terms. The last election was held on the 3rd of November 2002 and the next election will held on NA 2007.
Also there is a judicial branch, which is the constitutional court, the judges are appointed by the president, and the Court of Appeals (Judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors) The judicial function is the investigation of crimes committed and the apprehension of suspects and handling them over to the judicial authorities, that make up the judicial functions of the police force
Turkey is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, bordering the black sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean between Greece and Spain. The total bordering distance for turkey is 2,648 km. Turkey borders the following countries: Armenia (268 km), Azerbaijan (9 km), Bulgaria (240 Km), Georgia (252 km), Greece (260 km), Iran (499 km), Iraq (352 km), and Syria (822 km). Turkeys total area is 780,580 sq. km and its land area is 770,760 sq. km and its water area is 9,820 sq. km. Turkey, compared to Texas, is slightly larger.
Turkeys lowest point is the Mediterranean sea (0m) and highest is Mount Ararat (5,166m). Turkeys is a temperate country with hot dry summers and mild wet winters, harsher in interior. Its terrain is made up of mostly mountains and narrow coastal plains, with many rivers such as the Tigris and Euphrates. It is also knows as on of the most earthquake prone countries in the world.
Turkeys main exports are apparel, foodstuff, textiles, metal manufactures and transport equipment. Their import commodities are machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, and transport equipment. Also in Agriculture Turkey specifically exports tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beats, pulse and citrus. Their natural resources are antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore, arable land and hydropower.
Turkeys export partners are Germany (17.2%), US (10.0%), Italy 7.5%, UK (6.9%), France 6.0%, and Russia (2.9%). Turkey gains $37.6 billion from its export commodities only, mainly relying on services for income.
Turkeys population of 67,308,928 has two main ethnic groups, Turkish and Kurdish. According to ethnic background 80% are Turkish and other 20% are Kurdish. Most importantly the languages used for communication in Turkey are Turkish (Official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian and Greek. Religion wise the majority of population is Muslim (99.8%) and the other (0.2%) is mostly Christians and Jews.
The Turkish armed forces aim to modernize and upgrade their weapon systems to bring them into line with NATO standards, the better to defend the national independence since the 29th October. The section of the Turkish constitution on national defense has various provisions pertaining to the office of the Commander in Chief, the General Staff, and the National Security office. The Chief of the General Staff is the commander of the armed forces, and, in the time of war, exercises the duties of the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of the Republic.
The various branches of the Turkish military include Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coastal Guard and Gendarmerie.
With the purpose of maintaining her national existence, of strengthening her defense and keeping pace with technological progress, Turkey allocates adequate funds to the budget of the Ministry of National Defense within existing possibilities. For the year 1995 the budget of the Defense Ministry was fixed by parliament at TL 152,847,000,000,000(8.1 billion Dollars), qualified to 11.4% of the national budget and 4.5% of the GDP.
The mission of the Turkish armed forces is to defend and protect the Turkish land and the Turkish republic. According to the constitution, military service is the right and duty of every Turkish citizen. For this duty to be performed, all males who are Turkish citizens and qualified are enlisted. The military service period commences on the first day of the year in which they reach the age of 20.
Turkey depends on various resources for its income. Agriculture takes up 40% of employment in Turkey and 13% of the GDP. In agriculture they specifically export tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse and citrus. Yet, Turkey plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport and communication. The most important industry, and the largest, is textiles, which is most entirely in private hands. 30% of the GDP is from industry and the other 57 comes from services.
The economy has announced an average growth rate of 4.2%. Turkeys budget revenues are $ 42.4 billion and their budget expenditures are $ 69.1 billion. Turkey external debts reached an approximate of $ 118.3 billion. Turkeys overall GDP equals to $ 468 billion. The current currency is the Turkish Lira (TRL).
Turkeys main export commodities are apparel, foodstuff, textiles, metal manufacturers, and transport equipment. Turkeys export partners are Germany (17.2%), US (10.0%), Italy 7.5%, UK (6.9%), France 6.0%, and Russia (2.9%). Turkey gains $37.6 billion from its export commodities only, mainly relying on services for income. However Turkey loses 43.9 billion from its import commodities, which are machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, and transport equipment.
View on world problems:
Turkey is a member of numerous worldwide organizations including ADB; Asian Development Bank, BIS; Bank for International Settlements, BSEC; Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, CE; council of Europe, CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research, EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, EBRD; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, ECE; Economic Commission for Europe, ECO; Economic Co-operation Organization, EU; European Union, FAO Food and Agriculture Organization, IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency, ICAO; International Civil Aviation Organization, ICRM International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IDB Islamic Development Bank, IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development, IHO; International Hydrographic Organization, IOM; International Maritime Organization, OAS; Organization of American states, OIC; Organization of the Islamic Conference, OPCW; Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, UNIKOM; United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission and WTO; World Tourism Organization.
And still Turkey is trying to gains membership in the EU (Which thinks that because turkey is a Muslim country it cannot form one country with the EU). Turkey has been a member of NATO for 58 years and ha further negotiations with the EU to eliminate this relation.
Cyprus: There are two peoples of Cyprus the Turkish Cypriots numbering about 200,000 and the Greek Cypriots numbering and 500.000. The Turkish Cypriots are mainly Muslims and the Greek Cypriots are mainly adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church. Cyprus has never been part of the Greek state. It lies 40 miles from the coast of Turkey, and Turkish people have inhabited the island since the 12th century. Cyprus is 250 miles from the nearest Greek island (Rhodes), and Athens is 460 miles away.
No solution to the Cyprus problem will work unless it is freely accepted by the inhabitants of the island who will have to live with it. Otherwise, there will be bloodshed again and there could be war between Turkey and Greece. There is therefore no point in trying to put pressure on Greece or Turkey to force either or both of the parties in Cyprus to accept the unacceptable.
The most important of these issues is international acceptance of the Greek Cypriot regime as the government of all Cyprus and refusal to recognize the right of the Turkish Cypriots to establish their own state. It is therefore necessary to look in some detail at the reasons why the present situation has arisen and why, in consequence, both sides and particularly the less numerous Turkish Cypriots need reliable safeguards for their future.
Greek Cypriots often claim that the Turkish Cypriots withdrew voluntarily from their positions in the state, but this is not correct. They were excluded by threats to their personal safely. Turkish-Cypriots had become refugees in their own land.
"Turkey intervened to protect the lives and property of the Turkish-Cypriots, and to its credit it had done just that. In the 12 years since, there have been no killings and no massacres" Lord Willis (Lab.) House of Lords 17th December 1986 (Hansard, col.223)
By resolution 889 (1993) the Security Council "welcomes the declare support of the Government of Turkey for the package of confidence-building measures."
Greek Cypriots claim that today dreams of ENOSIS are dead. This is improbable so long as the Greek Orthodox Church has power and influence, but even if it were true the Turkish Cypriots have as much reasons to fear Greek Cypriots as Greek domination.
1) The question of rising water levels due to the effect of global warming.
The idea that global warming would melt the ice caps and flood coastal cities seems to be mere science fiction. A slight increase in temperature -- whether natural or mankind induced is not likely to lead to a massive melting of the earth ice caps, as sometimes claimed in the media. Also, sea-level rises over the centuries relate more to warmer and thus expanding oceans, not to melting ice caps. Which causes the disappearance of many islands and some coasts. Global warming and its adverse affects on humanity are of its great concern to Turkey and we are supporting the global efforts in eliminating the use of hazardous chemical materials damaging the environment and atmosphere.
2) The question of controlling the spread of SARS virus, and finding a cure.
Turkish Health Authorities are concerned that illegal immigrants entering the country from the Far East may carry the SARS virus with them into Turkey. Medical experts have issued a call for any illegal migrants from the Far East who are detained in Turkey to be placed into quarantine until there health status is determined. Due to the timely measures of Turkish Health Ministry; we have not recorded any SARS case in Turkey yet. We hope the loss of lives from this unknown virus could be avoided and a decisive treatment of this syndrome could be discovered before it is too late.
3) The question of securing food and water for nations in times of war and famine.
It is pathetic to observe millions of people including babies, children, and the elderly are passing away of starvation and famine every year in the globe because of malnutrition and continuing wars, while on the other hand so many foodstuff are unnecessarily wasted in the developed and industrialized countries. We believe countries should concentrate their efforts to use their resources optimally and by decreasing the level of their armaments, should contribute to the elimination of starvation and poverty in the undeveloped part of our globe.
4) The question of creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East.
It is our sincere hope and conviction that the complete dismantling of all nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons worldwide could be achieved so that the globe, and all mankind could have a safer atmosphere.
5) The question of guarantying human rights and elevating suffering in Cuba.
Respect of human rights is prerequisites of all religions. A peaceful world can only be attained through respecting human rights of each individual in our planet, disregarding her/his race, religion, believes, etc. The issue of human rights concerns Turkey greatly because it is the excuse the EU is using against Turkey entering it. We hope and want to prove that we care about human rights and want to assure human rights all over the world.
Turkey, birthplace of the Ottoman Empire, is enriched with culture, and arts. The Ottoman principality became the strongest state within the Islamic world by the 14th century. To this day Turkey beholds some of the greatest Islamic masterpieces in the Middle East.