Country: the Vatican (the Holy See)
Pearl MUN 2003
Student: Sara Al DalaliLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2002-2003 Team page
For more than a thousand years, until the mid 19th century, popes ruled portions of the Italian peninsula, when many of the papal states were seized by the newly United Kingdom of Italy. In 1870, the popes territories were assured when Rome itself was united. Disputes between Italy and a series of prisoner popes were resolved by three Lateran Treaties in 1929, which established what is called today the Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism a special status in Italy. In 1984, a treaty took place between Italy and the Holy See which modified the earlier treaty provisions, including the primacy of Roman Catholicism as the Italian State religion.
The Vatican City is governed by the pope, who has absolute executive, legislative and judicial powers. The government type of the City is ecclesiastical, meaning its religious or in other words churchly. Itís capital is the Vatican City, the Vatican City gained itís independence on February 11th 1929. The national holiday is on the 22nd of October, which is the coronation day of Pope John Paul the II. The constitution of the Vatican City is the Apostolic constitution of 1967 which was effective on the 1st of March 1968. The legal system is based on cannon law and revision to it. The chief of state is Pope John Paul II, the pope is elected for life by the college of cardinals. The cabinet is the Pontifical Commission, which is appointed by the pope. The legislative branch is exercised in the Unicameral Pontifical Commission. While the Judicial branch is practiced in three tribunals responsible for civil and criminal matters within the Vatican City, three other tribunals rule a issue pertaining to the Holy See. The Judicial duties were established on the 1St. of May 1946.
The Vatican City is a stable country since it does not have any conflicts with any countries. The Vatican City is a friend of everyone.
The Vatican City is situated in southern Europe, the City is an enclave in Rome, Italy. Vatican Cityís total area is about 0.44 sq. km. The climate of the City is temperate. Mild, rainy winters take place from September to May, while hot, dry summers take place from May to September.
The Vatican City has a total area of about 0.44 sq. km. It is often compared to the Washington DC Mall, the city is about 0.7 times the size of the mall. and thatís why the Vatican City has no natural resources . The natural resources are said to be the popes blessings.
The Vatican city is not at all a self sufficient country since all of its facilities are taken from other countries mostly Italy.
According to July 2002 est. the Vatican cityís population is 900 people. The Vatican City is comprised of several ethnic groups which are Italians, Swiss and other ethnic groups. While the Roman Catholic is the one and only religion in the Vatican City. Various languages are spoken in the Vatican City such as Italian, Latin, French and many other languages.
Throughout the Renaissance music formed a central element in the activities of the curia ( tribe in early Rome) and added a flavor to religious life and artistic life. The singers and composers of the papal choir, recruited at first from northern Europe , but in the 16th century mainly from Spain and Italy. They appeared in the Vatican Palace at daily services and In the Sistine Chapel for greater occasions. They performed both the traditional Middle Ages chants using magnificent chant manuscripts. In the course of the 16th century, the authorities became dissatisfied with the traditional melodies. Palestrina (Italian composer known especially for his Masses) and others were commissioned to revise the Gregorian chants, and the new versions printed by Medici Press in Rome, provided the music that popes hear every day for centuries. Meanwhile, music flourished in other Roman institutions as well, like the Choir of Saint Peterís ,which was reconstituted by Julius II in 1513, and where Palestrina served as Maestro Di Cappella.
The Vatican city has one military branch called the Swiss Guards Corps, locally known as "Corpo della guardia svizzera". Defense is the responsibility of Italy. Swiss papal guards are posted at entrances to the Vatican City to protect the pope and provide security. The Vatican City is not a member in any alliance concerning defense because of its incredibly small size.
The currency used in The Vatican City is the Euro. The Vatican City does not have any debts since it is a very small country it depends on Italy for most of its matters, The Vatican is an observer in the World Trade Organization, it is also a member of the International Telecommunication Union.
Note: The Church relies almost totally on members for donations. By far the richest and, by population, "most Catholic" country is the United States. Thus, like the UN, the Vatican relies heavily on the USA but private members. However, since there are very, very few Americans high in the Church hierarchy, the US has very little influence on the Vatican or its policies. This is important because the United States membership is much more liberal than the current Pope. US believers, for example, would generally favor married priests. This struggle to get more influence, and a more liberal church, on the part of US believers, instead of a direct fight, has taken the form of an attempt to give "laity," non-priests, more a voice in the Church. So far the Papacy has managed to walk the dangerous line of continuing to assert central control from Rome without alienating believers so much that they simply stop giving (or switch churches). Thus, one can argue that the Vatican is one of the few countries, along with Israel, that influences the USA more than the reverse. [Dr. Dan]
Views On World Problems
The Vatican City has no enemies , it is a loyal friend to everyone. The Vatican City is an Observer in the United Nations, it is also an Observer in the World Health Organization. The City is also a member of various blocs and groupings such as the CE (observer), IAEA, ICFTU, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WToO (observer), WTrO (observer). One of the main issues that is gluing us to the TV these days is the war against Saddam, or operation Iraq freedom, Pope John Paul II has a very strong role in this matter for he is against this war so much. Pope John Paul II on Saturday the 22ND of March denounced the war against Iraq as threatening the "fate of humanity" in his first public comments on the US-led attacks. With his impassioned speeches and Vatican diplomacy, lobbied against war and in favor of a negotiated solution in the months before the conflict.
The history of the Vatican City as a papal residence dates from the 5th century, when, after Emperor Constantine I had built the basilica (A public building of ancient Rome which was used as a courtroom or assembly hall) of St. Peterís, Pope Symmachus built a palace nearby. The pope usually resided in the Lateran Palace until the "Babylonian captivity" in the 14th century. In Avignon, France. After the return of the papacy to Rome in 1377 the Vatican became usual residents. The renaissance popes, principally Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X, and Clement VII, were great supporters of the arts, it was they who began to assemble the great collections and to construct the wonderful galleries. Gregory XIII and Sixtus V spent huge sums on Vatican and also began the Quadrinal, a palace that served as the papal residence from the 17th and 18th century, was the Italian Royal Palace from 1870 to 1946, and is now the home of the president of Italy.
A- The question of rising water levels due to the effects of global warming.
Global warming is the gradual increase of the temperature of the earthís lower atmosphere, as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution. The temperature of the atmosphere near the earthís surface is warmed through a process called the greenhouse effect.
In 1998, a workshop was held at the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The subject of the workshop was Geosphere-Biosphere Ionterafctions and Climate. The workshop explained the causes and issues that are related with global warming and the people of the earth. The outcome of the workshop was that the Vatican would like more research done and know what needs to be done to help out the situation.
B. The question of controlling the spread of SARS and finding a cure for it .
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory illness that has been recently reported in Asia, North America and Europe, it is very deadly. SARS begins with a high fever, other symptoms include: headache, feelings of discomfort and body aches. The main way SARS is spread is by close person-to-person contact.
The Vatican City is not infected with SARS, therefore hasnít developed a policy towards it since it is a newly discovered disease. But the Vatican city is there to contribute to control this deadly disease from further spreading and affecting more and more people and further moving on to other countries
C. The question of securing food and water resources for nations in times of war and famine.
Wars are armed conflicts between states or nations (International War) or between factions within a state (Civil War) prosecuted by force and having the purpose of compelling the defeated side to do the will of the victor. Among the causes of war are the ideological, political, racial, economic and religious conflicts. In our world today the main causes of suffering are WARS. Many countries that are the victims of war may suffer from death and injury of citizens, damaged to property and infrastructure, refugee problems and much else. More over, many countries that have suffered from war need food and water in order to survive and that is one major issue concerning our world today.
The Vatican is very strongly an ANTI-WAR country. It believes in peace and security and strives to reach them. Pope John Paul II on behalf of the Vatican City said that war threatens humanityís hope for future. The Pope has talked to President Bush concerning the war against Iraq a couple of times urging him to not start war, but yet Bush disregards all the popes arguments. The Pope is very angry about it , he talked to both sides and tried to convince them to solve the situation in another way other than war but it brought no results. The Pope blames both sides for this war. He blames Iraq for not contributing with the UN weapons inspections, and the US for disregarding his arguments. However, the Vatican is there to help all its Roman Catholic brothers and others to promote Peace and Security around the world.
D. The question creating a nuclear free zone in the Middle East.
The idea of establishing a nuclear free weapons zone in the Middle East was raised by Iran and Egypt in the 1970ís and has been endorsed by annual resolutions in the UN General Assembly since 1980. Syria had also made a proposal to the UN Security Council to help create a WMD free zone later ahead.
The Vatican City is with this idea of creating a WMD free zone since its main principle is peace. The Vatican believes that by creating such zone, a climate of confidence would be created and thus substantially contribute to the search of comprehensive peace in their region.
E. The question of guaranteeing human rights and alleviating suffering in Cuba.
Every single person living on Earth should have the right to Freedom, Justice and Equality. And every person should have the right to live in a secure place and sleep at night feeling safe and secure not worrying about anything except what he/she should wear in the morning, Nobody should suffer.
The Roman Catholic Church has been instrumental in delivering humanitarian assistance to Cuba, which has suffered shortages during a 34-year US economic embargo. Among US church freedom who have sponsored such aid missions is cardinal Bernard F. Law, who is a close ally of Cardinal Ortega and who sought ways to improve relations between the Vatican and Cuba . The Vatican's relations with Cuba are still delicate but improving because of the Catholic Churchís aid to the communist island.
Forum: General Assembly
Delegation: The Holy See (Vatican City)
Delegate: Sarah Al-Dalali
The Question of : Rising water levels due to global warming
Defining global warming as an effect caused by greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide , methane, nitrous oxide, and three synthetic substitutes,
Noting that greenhouse gases are very effective at destroying the ozone layer and can store over 270 times more heat than 1 regular carbon dioxide molecule causing rising global temperatures,
Realizing that rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea level, and change rainfall and other local climate conditions,
Recognizing that changing regional climate could change forests, crop income, and water supplies. It could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems and environments; deserts may expand and features of some national parks may be permanently altered,
Defining the Kyoto Protocol as an agreement that requires industrialized nations to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases according to specific targets and timetables,
Deeply alarmed by he fact that a UN panel of 2,000 scientists predicts temperatures will increase by as much as 10.8 degrees Fahrenheit the next 100 years, raising sea levels by up to 31 inches,
Proposing the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system as being a very efficient way to reduce global warming,
Deeply Disturbed that the threat is not only from rising water levels. Cyclones, hurricanes, droughts and other natural disasters are also believed to be associated with climate change,
1-Emphasizing on the importance of this devastating issue especially in nations surrounded with water;
2-Resolves the establishment of a sub-organization of the United Nations Environmental Protection Agency (UNEPA) called the United Nations Environmental Protection Agency Division for Monitoring Global Warming (UNEPADMGW) which will take place in Geneva, Switzerland. The UNEPADMGW will have rotating headquarters;
3-Further resolves that the UNEPADMGW will limit gas emissions for each country, limits will be based on the countryís: A. size, B. industrial activity, C. economy, D. population;
4-Adding that limits for gas emissions will be set based on scientific statistics so that the amount of gasses emitted is proportional to the percentages of gasses that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer;
5-Have resolved that the UNEPADMGW will provide alternatives for every possible greenhouse gas;
6-Further Adding that the UNEPADMGW will launch a campaign to increase awareness by mass media;
7-Encourages all nations concerned about this issue to take position in this summit.
Honorable Chair, fellow delegates and distinguished guests, Buon Giorno!
Greetings from the Vatican City. The land of Christianity, the land of artistic miracles, where exhibits range from ancient Egypt to Etruscancs, from Classical Greek to Imperial Rome, from ancient frescoes to the ingenious works of Raphael and Michaelangelo.
The Vatican City is here today to urge all its Christian Brothers to wake up and look at the many wars that have dotted the globe in these recent years causing a tremendous loss of life, action should be taken! Resolutions should be implemented! The Vatican hopes that this event would be a successful one in reaching an end to many issues that are holding our world back.