Country: The Republic of Cuba

Event: AMMUN 2003

Students:


1: Disarmament: Ahmad Shammari, Vice-Ambassador
2: Political/Decol: Besma Behbehani
3: Legal: Amna Al-Sager, Ambassador
4: ECOSOC: Fahad Al-Rushaid,

 

 

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The Cuban National Anthem


Cuba
Al combate corred bayameses
que la patria os comtempla orgullosa
no temais una muerte gloriosa
que morir por la patria es vivir

En cadenas vivir es morir
en afrenta y oprobio sumidos
del clarin escuchad el sonido
a las armas valientes corred.

English:

Hasten to battle, men of Bayamo,
For the homeland looks proudly to you.
You do not fear a glorious death,
Because to die for the country is to live.

To live in chains
Is to live in dishonour and ignominy.
Hear the clarion call,
Hasten, brave ones, to battle!

 


The Republic of Cuba

 




 

 

COUNTRY PROFILE

 

Political Structure: Basma

Cuba’s political structure is a dictatorial one, Fidel Castro is a dictator holding all supreme positions.

In 1992, Cuba was defined as a unique communist republic by the Cuban constitution. The supreme power is in the hand of Cuba’s president, Fidel Castro, who is chief of state, head of government, president of the Council of State of the National Assembly of People’s Power, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, and commander of the armed forces. He controls not only national affair, but every aspect of a Cuban’s life. However, some control and power is consumed by a group of people. Such as, the National Assembly of People’s Power and the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC). Since 1965, Fidel Castro has been the leader of the Communist Party of Cuba which is the only individual political party which forces all others.

Even though the Communist Party of Cuba chooses all candidates for the National Assembly of People’s Power, voting is still practiced. The National Assembly of People’s Power has 589 deputies elected for five-year terms. All citizens aged 16 or over are entitled to vote. The executive power lies in the hand of the Council of Ministers. Fidel Castro is president of both the executive and legislative assemblies. The voting procedures were made just to stop the US from pressurizing them into being democratic.

Although Communism, was intended as a blueprint for a no classes, society where everyone is equal, in which the workers controlled the state and everyone consumed equally and only as necessary, the accomplishment of the ideology involved enormous social and economic difficulty. These difficulties offered the opportunity for aggressive and power-hungry leaders to establish an elite and all-powerful ruling class, which was disguised as a vehicle through which equality and industrial prominence would be achieved. Thus, is the purpose of voting in which even though, Fidel makes all the decisions.

The political ideology of Communism is that everyone should get an equal amount of everything. Also, they despise Capitalists because they are their extreme fouls and opposites. They see the world in need of being communist and are living the injustices of Capitalism. The dream of Communism is that after years, the government will no longer exist, but the people will rule themselves.

Cuba is against the Israeli troops in Palestine, and against the war against Iraq.

 

Geography: Amna

Cuba is a Caribbean island. It is located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, it is 150 km south of Key West, Florida. Its area in whole is 110,860 sq. km that is occupied completely by land, which is slightly smaller than Pennsylvania. Cuba’s geographic coordinates are 21 30 N, 80 00 W. Its only borders are with the US Naval base in Guantanamo Bay, which is considered US territories but still belong to Cuba (has been leased by the US to Cuba).

Since Cuba is an island it is completely surrounded by water and has a coastline of 3,735 km. Cuba enjoys a beautiful tropical climate that is moderated by trade winds, Its dry season is between November April, and has a rather rainy season during May through October. This made it vulnerable for tourists. (a reason why Cuba is absorbing tourists)

Cuba’s land is 33.04% arable land, 59.35% other, and has a total of 7.61% of permanent crops. In Cuba the east coast suffers from hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year), droughts are common in Cuba as well.

Since Cuba is very close to the US, many of the Cubans illegally immigrate to the US.

 

Natural Resources: Fahad

Cuba’ fertile soil is home to the world’s best sugar and tobacco that is used to make the world’s finest cigars. A wide variety of other crops are also grown in Cuba’s soil most of which is used to feed its people. Cuba also has a wide range of mineral reserves including 10% of the nickel deposits in the world. Other mineral reserves include those of chromate, copper, iron, manganese, gold, silver, sulfur, cobalt, pyrites, gypsum, asbestos, oil, salt, sand, clay, and limestone. Some crude oil deposits are also found in Northern Cuba. All the resources still cannot face the US embargo on Cuba.

Cuba can manufacture some goods on its own. However, due to the embargo, their manufacturing industrial business is collapsing due to low demand and buyers.

 

Culture facts: Amna

With a Population of 11,263,429 citizens, Cuba has a population growth of 0.34%. For every 1000 citizens, there are approximately 11.87 births and 7.38 deaths. A citizen of Cuba is referred to as a Cuban. Most Cubans live until they are about 76.8 years of age, but women in Cuba seem to live a bit longer until they are about 79.36 years of age while men usually die when they’re about 74.38 years of age.

Cuba, like the majority of other countries, has more than one type of ethnic group among its people. In fact in Cuba there are 4 ethnic groups, mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, and Chinese 1%. There are also many different religions in Cuba, the main religion is supposedly Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming power, other religions that are practiced in Cuba are: Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented. The main language used in Cuba is Spanish, and it is the official language. Cubans are well educated and 97% of the citizens above the age of 15 are capable of reading and writing.

Cubans still are immigrating illegally to the US. They attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas. In 2002, approximately 2,500 Cubans were found trying to pass the channels of Florida. The US Coast Guard seized about 60% of these migrants. Cubans also find and use unofficial routes to enter the US.

24% of Cubans work in agriculture, 25% in industry, and 51% find other services to work in. 473,031 telephone lines were in use in Cuba in the year 2000, and 2,994 mobile phones were in use in the year 1997. 120,000 citizens were found to use the internet in the year 2002.

Article 54: of constitution
The socialist state, that bases its activity and educates the people in the scientific materialistic conception of the universe, recognizes and guarantees the freedom of conscience, the individual right to profess any religious belief and to practice, within the confines of the law, the religion of his preference.

This article shows that Cubans by law have the right to exercise any religion they like. However, some are not. But as a result of the Pope’s visit, there has been a widening revival of religion in all sectors of the state. However, dissidents (including religious activists and clergy) continue to be imprisoned and  harassed for their religious faith.

Because religion is not a part of the ideal Communist society, the Cuban government has limited and discouraged its practice. As a result, the Christians of Cuba have been creative in finding ways to  express their religious beliefs. Small churches have formed through lay people willing to open up their homes for meetings. Some of these groups have grown to be very large, but in general, house churches tend to be small. There are estimated to be at least 5,000 house churches throughout Cuba. There are reports, however, that pastors are often routinely questioned and detained for several days, but the spiritual movement seems unstoppable and a great religious momentum has swept the country

The Racism is not found in Cuba. Due to intermarried families, racism has been abolished. However, as mentioned, religious discrimination is found by the government.

 

Defense: Ahmad

The military now is just a fraction of what it was before. Cuba now is not active in spreading communism as before. It is not a pure communist as before too. When the Soviet Union collapsed and Moscow stopped the Cuban aid 1993 , the army grew weaker.

Cuba military branches are Revolutionary Armed Forces FAR including Revolutionary Army ER, Revolutionary Navy MGR, Air and Air defense Forces DAAFAR, Territorial Militia Troops, Youth Labor Army.

17 years old is the military manpower age. Cuba has a manpower fit for military service 1,932,967 Males and Females 1,875,412. Military manpower availability males: 3120702 and females: 3,049,927 military fit for military service 1,932,967 males and Female 1,875,412. Cuba spends 4% of its GDP on military.

An American invasion would not occur due to agreements by the US and Cuba. However, an American invasion would not be retaliated, because Cuba now is literally defenseless due to its old weaponry and the embargo. Also, the soldiers would need food to fight, and food is scarce.

 

Economy: Fahad

Since the communist party headed by Fidel Castro rules Cuba the economy is strictly a command economy; in which the government decides what is produced how its produced and to whom it shall be distribute. As the primary player in the economy, the government is failing in increasing enterprise efficiency, and alleviating serious shortages of food. The living standards for the average Cuban remain very low if compared with standards in 1990. This was caused by the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the reduction of aid from the USSR and the decrease in trade with it as well. Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP) fell at least 35 percent between 1983 and 1993, with the steepest decline between 1990 and 1993. From 1989 to 1992, imports fell from $8 billion to $2.2 billion. To stop the economic crisis, in 1993 and 1994 the government introduced a few market-oriented reforms, including opening to tourism, allowing foreign investment, legalizing the dollar, and authorizing self-employment for some 150 occupations. This resulted in some economic growth after a few years of decline.

Cuba’s major trading partners are their allies. The most important one was the Soviet Union because they supported them with weapons. More than 80 per cent of Cuba’s exports and 66 per cent of its imports were to the USSR. But due to the embargo the supply decreased. And then due to the USSR collapse the supply.

China is suspected to being providing Cuba with weapons along with Russia. The sanctions however, is giving them a great deal of pain. Today, Russia is an important trading partner still, but other countries, such as Canada, Spain, and Mexico, are Cuban main trading partners. Trade with Latin America has been an important growth area, rising from 7 % of Cuba’s foreign trade in 1990 to 20 % in 1994.

Cuba finally took some large steps towards having some part of a market economy in the mid 1990’s in order to develop a better economy. The liberalized farmers’ markets introduced in 1994 for example, and the benefit of these markets were to stabilize prices of farming goods, expand legal consumption alternatives, and reduce black market prices. Income taxes were also introduced in Cuba in 1996. These taxes reduced the number of self-employed people in the island.

Since that time the GDP have increasingly grown in Cuba until the year 2000 resulting in a better economy. The year 2001 was unfortunate for Cuba, the economy went back to decline cause by high oil prices, hurricanes and the eleventh of September which negatively affected the tourism industry. The year 2002 followed a similar decline caused mostly by strong hurricanes passing by Cuba. At this time Cuba has a GPD of $25.9 billion, and a real growth rate of 0%. The GDP is divided into agriculture 8%, industry 35%, and the remaining 58% goes to services.

Cuba’s main exports are sugar that is 75% of the export earnings, minerals, citrus fruit, tobacco, fish, and livestock. The main imports on the other hand are oil food machinery and chemicals. The former USSR used to be a very important trading partner to Cuba, it used to buy up to 80% of Cuba’s exports and sell to Cuba more than 60% of its imports. Russia today remains to be an important trading partner to Cuba in addition to some other countries such as Canada, Spain, and Mexico. Trading with Latin America countries such as Venezuela has also played an important role in for the growth of the economy.

 

View on World Problems: Ahmad

Cuba is part of the along list of organizations like CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interlope, IOC, IOM

Cuba allies are Iraq, Iran, North Korea, China, and any US hating country. The relationship to Russia is undefined and unclear.

However, its enemies are US and their adherents. Cuba hates the US for its egregious actions toward it. For example, Castro assassination attempts, interventions in the Cuba’s government actions, and supports of anti Castro rebel and Cuban exiles, embargo on Cuba, blocking of Soviet military assistance. All those actions have made Cuba irate with the US. Then when Bush asked to curtail the embargo and tighten it, Cuba blew up in the UN, causing the international community to stand with it against the whole embargo idea.

Cuba has a weak military compared to the good times of 1970-1980. At that time, Cuba had military soviet assistance that made there military very strong that the US feared it. At 1980, it had the most weapons it could get. It also had the strongest air force in Latin America. Cuba did not keep its military to rest a day without a war, they sent their troops all over the world to spread communism. Cuban soldiers helped rebellions in Venezuela, Nicaragua, Bolivia, Grenada and many more. The Cuban soldiers fought Somalia’s backing up Ethiopia.

There could be another reason being Cuba’s low activity. It could be because the US growing anti-terrorism war. And Cuba is afraid to be a victim of it.

 

History: Basma

In 1850, Cuba struggled for 50 years to gain its independence from the Spanish colony, and in 1895, Jose Marti was the hero who defeated the independence. On February 15 of 1898, the USS Marine sunk in Havana Harbor due to an unresolved explosion which entered America the battle of Cuba and Spain. Hence, in December America dominated Cuba as Spain resigned it in the Treaty of Paris. On May 20 of 1902, America granted Cuba its independence, however preserved its right to interfere in its stability under the Platt Amendment. In 1903, an agreement was made for leasing the Guantanamo Bay to America, but it wasn’t affirmed until 1934, were the Amendment was disregarded.

On May of 1960 in Washington, Salvador Diaz-Verson presented corroborative testimony of Castro's early links with the growing anti-Americanism of the Soviet Union before the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security. Diaz-Verson testified about the destruction by the Castro forces of the files he had created and meticulously maintained on Cuban communists throughout Latin America on behalf of the Anti-Communist League of Cuba. This criminal act, which was widely reported by foreign newspaper correspondents in Havana the following day on January 27, 1959, revealed the destruction of the Diaz-Verson archives more than one year before President Eisenhower's directive approving covert action against the Castro regime in March of 1960. Justifiably in fear of his life, Diaz-Verson fled into exile on March 19, 1959.

Whether or not Fidel Castro was a "card carrying" member of the Communist Party became the litmus test by which US. actions toward Cuba were determined. Castro's communist affiliations with the Third International for Latin America were not unknown, in the events of the so-called Bogotazo, ample evidence was readily available providing proof that Castro was an enemy agent of the Soviet Union intent on defeating the United States. As early as mid 1957, former Assistant Sof State for American Republic Affairs, Spruille Braden, who also served as US. ambassador to Cuba from 1943 to 1945, gave an interview to the Washington weekly, Human Events, citing Fidel Castro's communist activities. Contrary to America's security interests in Latin America, it became US. policy to abandon a friendly government in Cuba, fail to support a viable alternative to Castro, and to prematurely recognize the Castro government which was widely portrayed as a non-communist product of a democratic revolution.

Followed by Fidel Castro’s victory in 1959, Cuba was held together under his rule ever since. The Cubans (and Soviets) emphasized what they had perceived to be a growing threat of US. invasion throughout 1961-62, the Russians stressed their desire to deter an American attack on Cuba and later to get US. assurances against an invasion, and the Americans highlighted concerns over Cuban subversion and threats to US. security allegedly presented by a Cuban-Soviet military tie confirmed by the secret installation of Soviet strategic nuclear missiles in Cuba.  As the three sides attempted to integrate these perspectives at Havana, the most interesting new element was Castro's declarations that the Cubans had accepted the Soviet offer of missile deployment not to defend Cuba, but to strengthen the camp of Socialism in the global correlation of forces. He now believed that the main Soviet motivation had been to shore up Moscow's then very weak position in the strategic nuclear balance with the United States.  Moreover, he acknowledged that he had, in 1962, believed Soviet propaganda about being stronger than the United States in missiles, and indeed only now at the Havana conference had come to realize how weak the Soviet Union was then. "If I had known," he said, "I would have counseled prudence."

In 1990, Cuba faced a severe economic recession, caused by the withdrawal of previous Soviet support worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Now, Cuba is slowly recovering from it. The Soviets were loaning Cuba the money so that they would support them with their communist revolution that was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during 1960 and 1980.

Havana charges that US. policies encourage the practice growing practice of smuggling illegal immigrants, particularly the 1966 Cuban Adjustment Act, which allows Cubans who reach US. shores to avoid deportation. Washington, meanwhile, claims that Cuba has put up barriers to legal and orderly migration to the United States. Such difficulties have prompted thousands to risk the dangerous passage trip through the Florida Straits on rickety boats.

 

 

 

POLICY STATEMENTS


Committee: Disarmament:


1. The containment of the risk of nuclear proliferation in North Korea.

North Korea is a pain in the US’s neck for a long time. And due to its assumed Nuclear Weapons, their problem is growing tenser. As bush commented at the United States policy toward North Korea: "I have directed my national security team to undertake serious discussions with North Korea on a broad agenda to include: improved implementation of the Agreed Framework relating to North Korea's nuclear activities; verifiable constraints on North Korea's missile programs and a ban on its missile exports; and a less threatening conventional military posture."

The problem started in 1998. when North Korea’s confessed having nuclear weapons and that it will not disarm them. The United States, South Korea, and Japan are afraid that they will use them incorrectly, either by destroying there lands or selling those weapons to terrorists.

North Korea is an enemy to the United States, an ally to China. This makes Cuba an indirect ally to North Korea. Cuba will support North Korea by all means just to piss the US. In addition, North Korea getting an agreement that would stop the US from attacking it is good to Cuba because the agreement will make the US weaker. Also two countries could wander freely attacking the US. Cuba is with north Korea playing with its toys as much as it wants.

 

2. The trade-off between the trend of increasing military expenditure and development, and the resultant effect on international peace.

The issue definition is trying to balance the rising military spending and the country’s development spending to come with a good result on international peace." The US is using more than 30% of the GDP on military expenditures. This is Billions of their budgets going to weapons while poor countries are suffering and hungry for a cent worth bread crumb. The US defecate for the war is half trillion due to the war now.

North Korea is also a problem of that too. The country’s GDP is $22 billion; approximately more than 90% goes to the military. What is left to the people?

Cuba is alarmed by the arms race between enemies like Pakistan and India. Cuba due to its incapability to be in the arms race (embargo result) is afraid to be the victim of the race winners.

Cuba would stand with getting a limit for the GDP to be exercised on military. This will get the US less into militarizing and creating it weaker. Also, it would get Cuba’s enemies less threatening.

 

3. Maintenance of international security: good neighborliness, stability and development in West Africa

Cuba has always been a communist spreader in Africa. It has aided rebels against government and started wars between socialism against capitalism examples are Somalia war with Ethiopia. However, those are all east Africa. West Africa is a big problem because mass genocide occurred there. In fact, the biggest genocide occurred in Rwanda.

Cuba had some trade relations with Uganda in the past. "President Yoweri Museveni's Political Assistant Moses Byaruhanga should have some humility, honesty and seriousness about what he calls "a vision for Uganda.

Byaruhanga cannot have forgotten the NRM's disastrous barter trade deals with Cuba and former Yugoslavia in the late '80s. Is this the same economic "vision" he is talking about, or did something change along the way?"

ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States is the shareholder of resolving this problem. The most recent event occurring in West Africa is Liberia’s civil war which caused mass murders and human suffering.

Cuba’s policy towards the West Africa peace problem is unclear. However, due to the low communism in Africa, Cuba would pay any country that is communist to fight the others.

 

 

2: Political/Decol: Besma Behbehani


1. The role of UNRWA and other relief agencies in the possible creation of a Palestinian state, and their role in current host refugee countries should the right to return not be established.

As Palestine had frozen its efforts in the peace process, the brutal campaign against the Palestinian people continued. The Israeli Government, through its actions, had destroyed all prospects for peace and declared all accords null and void.  It had denied the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people, including the right to self-determination, and destroyed Palestinian infrastructures. The role of UNRWA is to continue the support of delivering the necessary services to Palestinian refugees.

Cuba calls on the donor community to help UNWRA overcome the present severe financial crisis, in order for it to continue its vital humanitarian work, the work of civil society organizations is also appreciated.  Cuba urges the Division for Palestinian Rights to continue its annual training programs, which benefit the staff of the Palestinian Authority. Cuba also requests the committee to continue to exert all efforts to promote the realization of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people, to support the Middle East peace process and to organize international support for aiding the Palestinian people. The Committee, would request all states to participate in the work for a comprehensive, just and lasting settlement of the situation of Palestinian republic.

 

2. The conflict between national sovereignty and the right of the international community to intervene in the domestic affairs of other countries.

The principle of sovereignty holds that states should be equal in privileges, even if they are unequal in wealth and power. According to the theory of sovereignty, the first privilege of a state is the integrity of its territory. The term intervention also seems to imply the involvement of external actors in the internal affairs of a country without that government express approval. Thus, it is not intervention when the United Nations sends peacekeeping troops to a country at the government's request or when a government accepts strict conditions by international financial institutions. However, historically, the right to intervene has been exercised by the dominant and powerful countries.

Cuba strongly emphasis that the committee must make sure that the international community prevents powerful countries from intervening in the internal affairs of weaker nations, unless it involves human rights threatening, and with the approval of the country. Cuba notes that the US tendency when dealing with a non-superpower state is to disparage its needs and attempt to intimidate it. That is how Kennedy dealt with Cuba in 1962, and that is how the United States is dealing with Iraq today, and that is how Cuba stand on Iraq. Cuba thinks that the US should not interfere with any other country, and leave each country independent.

"That would be the moment to eliminate such danger forever through an act of clear self-defense, however harsh and terrible the solution would be, for there is no other."

 

3. The division of Iraq and the possible establishment of political autonomy along religious and national lines.

The major issue all countries are aware of, is how to solve Iraq’s problem regarding it’s division and conflicts with the Sunni’s, Shii’s, and Kurds and other ethnic groups such as, Arab, Kurds, Turkomans, Assyrians, and other. Moreover, who will rule Iraq, what kind of government, and who will lead. Because the Sunni’s are the first-class citizens, Shii’s are the second-class citizens, and Kurds are the third, Cuba highly thinks these 3 groups should be divided and each have it’s own area, government, and ruler, best chosen by the people. However, a treaty must be made among these countries in which it preserves each group’s right with no interfere and threatens to neighbors.

Cuba is strictly against and pissed of the idea of the full support of the US to Iraq, because of its hatred with the US. However, Cuba thinks that if the US wants to fully accomplish its mission, then, it should sign a treaty in front of the entire world regarding its word on not taking over Iraq, and fast finish its work over there and get out. Moreover, Cuba thinks that Iraq’s enormous oil resources will solve the problem, in which it is fairly divided between each nation, the 3 major ethnic groups, Sunnis, Shii’s, and Kurds, and that it will facilitate the successful creation of a decentralized federal system of government.

 

 

3. Legal: Amna Al-Sager, Ambassador


1. Measures to legally combat international terrorism and the growth of supra-national terrorist groups.

For the past 40 years, Cuba has been a victim to countless numbers of terrorist attacks. That is why Cuba has tried it best to tighten border control and has been fairly successful in that act. Cuba condemns these terrorist groups for their immoral acts that are extremely selfish and insensitive. The anti-terrorism law passed on 20 December 2001 by the National Assembly of People’s Power of the Republic of Cuba is especially worthy of note. This law defines acts of international terrorism as offenses, listing all those terrorism-related offenses that are punishable under the law and specifies the scope of the punishment in each case, which is commensurate with the seriousness of the offense. Cuba’s position on the subject of international terrorism is also based on an ethical principle: the clear condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and demonstrations, wherever, by whomever and for whatever reason they may be committed. Cuba also categorically condemns any act or action, independently of who promotes it or carries it out, that may be intended to encourage, support, finance or cover up any terrorist act, method or practice. Thus, Cuba’s legal system enables it to prevent and restrain terrorism and prosecute and punish anyone who commits terrorist acts or is associated with such acts.

Cuba has always been willing to cooperate in the judicial sphere, and is willing to even increase its cooperation, and believes that every country in the world who wishes for increasing cooperation and the development of the world concerning this issue should do the same. Cuba believes that the United Nations has a large role to play in preventing and combating international terrorism. Cuba also notes that it has become obvious that neither terrorism nor any of the other serious problems that threatens human race can be resolved by the use of force. Violence only generates more violence. Intolerance produces more intolerance. When extreme measures are used to create fear, all that does is create hatred, regardless of what the ultimate purpose of such actions may be.

 

2. International regulations dealing with the use and misuse of genetic engineering and screening.

For every issue, there are good sides and bad sides, as with the issue of genetic engineering and screening. Many countries can benefit from genetic engineering when it comes to agriculture, pesticides, and the increasing of crops. But when it comes to the point where genetic engineering and screening is used in determining people’s traits or characteristic or even when it comes to cloning people, Cuba is against this issue.

Cuba believes that no man should interfere with the creation of God. If everyone’s traits and characteristic were altered, people would all be the same. There would be no diversity in opinion and no democracy. If cloning of humans was practiced, there would be no purpose for other humans (reproduction) and that would ruin the purpose of humans on earth. Cuba believes that genetic engineering and screening of humans is ethnically wrong except in severe cases, such as when a woman cannot reproduce. Cuba also believes that the World Health Organization (WHO) should strictly supervise all implementations in this area.

 

3. Defining and modifying the rights of prisoners of war and the scope of extradition law.

Since Cuba has signed the Geneva Convention, Cuba strongly believes in the clauses it possesses. Cuba believes that prisoners of War deserve to be treated in a humane way and condemns all acts by the United States in which it is holding Prisoners in Guantanamo Bay. They are not receiving their rights and Cuba cannot do anything about it even if it is in Cuba, but it is still a US based camp. Cuba, being the host to the most inhumane and cruel US military Base in the world is against the issue of imprisoning people without charging them of the crime they are imprisoned for.

Cuba believes that all countries should sign the Geneva Convention and should implement it. A UN resolution should also be created to implement the Geneva Convention and amended slightly to make sure that the clauses agree with all nations

 

 

4: ECOSOC: Fahad Al-Rushaid, Vice-Ambassador


1. The role of the UN, WHO, and other NGOs in clearly defining and implementing global strategies regarding the use of tobacco, bearing in mind any economic impacts of decisions taken.

This issue can be explained further as creating regulations and strategies by the UN and its organizations to deal with the problem of the use of tobacco, and its effects. Cuba first of all does not believe that all the use of tobacco is to be deeply concerned about. Tobacco is not fatal, but it can cause disease if used over a long period of time. So if a person is not addicted to smoking it is not deadly and it would not likely cause diseases instead the major cause of lung and heart diseases is nicotine which is a chemical added to some tobacco to make a smoker addicted to smoking. This makes tobacco itself harmless, but the chemicals added by American companies such as Phillip Morris and other companies harmful and cause heart and lung diseases. Cuba believes that before the UN implements global strategies it should consider the fact that tobacco itself isn’t as harmful as the chemicals in cigarettes. The UN’s strategies should be concentrated on this fact in order not to harm the economies of countries that grow tobacco such as Cuba. Finally Cuba asks the UN not to compromise health for economic welfare because a life saved here can cause a life to starve on the other hand.

 

2. The role of the United Nations system in supporting the efforts of African countries to achieve sustainable development.

Cuba supports all the efforts of the UN in supporting the efforts of African countries to achieve sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Cuba is not concerned much with this issue but Cuba supports all the support of the economic factor the UN gives everywhere. Cuba is one of the nations that are financially poor because of the US trade embargo on Cuba. Cuba urges the UN to support it and end this embargo.

 

3. Strengthening the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations.

First of all the word emergency in the title of this issue can be expressed as natural disasters such as earthquakes floods, volcanoes, hurricanes and/or wars and diseases. This issue greatly concerns Cuba for more than one reason first of all because of the series of hurricanes that stroked the beautiful island of Cuba. In addition Cuba is in a long-term economic war with the United States as long as it forces its Trade embargo on our nation. Cuba strongly supports strengthening the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance because Cuba always believes in the true aspects of human rights. Cuba also supports this assistance because of the great benefits that countries such as Cuba itself would benefit.

 



RESOLUTIONS

Issue: The trade-off between the trend of increasing military expenditure and development, and the resultant effect on international peace

Submitter: CUBA Ahmad Al Shammari

COMMISSION: Disarmament


Condemns the fact that according to United Nations estimates, the cost of universal access to basic health care services would be 25 billion dollars a year, that is 3% of the 800 billion dollars currently devoted to military expenditures,

Recalling that according to the World Bank "the millennium development goals will not be met without additional aid and warns that absolute poverty will increase in Africa. in sub-Saharan Africa, the numbers in poverty will rise from 315m to 404," says IMF/World Bank meeting in Washington, Steve Shifferes,

Aware that according to the UNICEF, Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Somalia and Yemen has for many years spent more on their military than they have on their people's education and health,

Further Noting that United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has estimated that redirecting just one quarter of developing countries' military expenditure could have provided the additional resources to implement most of the year 2000 program: primary health care for all, immunization of all children, elimination of severe malnutrition, provision of safe drinking water for all, universal primary education, reduction of illiteracy, and family planning.

Further Recalls that according to Patricia Adams in Odious Debt, " that Africa's poorest country, Ethiopia, spent nearly nine per cent of its GNP on arms — more than twice that spent on education and eight times that spent on health care. Other war-torn African countries such as Angola and Mozambique spent up to half the public budget on the war effort",

Condemns the fact that according to the UNICEF high military expenditures leads to budget deficit reductions and non-development expenditures. This seems an extremely short-sighted policy,

1. Creates a committee called the MEAD (Military Expenditure Authorized Decrease committee that will be under the United Nations Budget Committee which will:
A. Have experts of all expertise needed with diverse nationalities. All chosen by the UN.
B. Have the HQ in Geneva.
C. Use a budget will be derived from the IMF and the UNBC;

2. Resolves that there will be requirements for entering the MEAD committee which are:
A. Each country should make an absolute cap of 5% of countries GDP on military expenditures
B. The MEAD will judge whether the country is allowed to enter or not based on some other requirements needed afterwards;

3. Assures that the MEAD will do the following:
A. Give out matching grants of money for each 1% increase in the Health or Education in the Country’s GDP
i. the increases matching grants will start be measured from 2002
ii. if a country increases 1% in either the educational or health service’s GDP, the MEAD will pay for another 1%,
iii. those sums of money will be given BY the UNICEF and WHO, where they will OVERSEE THE USAGE BY that country
B. Judge whether government are entitled to get matching grants by many criteria such as
i. Financial needs
ii. Military needs
C. Grant a yearly award for any country that increases its educational GDP or the Health Service GDP more than 5%, this award will be a million dollars
D. Come up with new ideas to develop countries;
E. Grant special exceptions to this cap based on military necessity,

4. Further assures that any country that will not lower or adjust its military expenditures on at most 5%, the MEAD will do the following steps:
A. Issue Warnings from the MEAD on the consequences of the country’s neglecting to comply,
i. The MEAD will cut aid from the IMF/World Bank organizations,
ii. The MEAD will expel the country from the MEAD committees;

5. Requests that the WHO and the UNICEF to build projects and improve health care and education in countries by using the checks given to those countries. The steps of development will be:
A. Specialized committees in the WHO and UNICEF; they will research what is needed in those countries.
B. The planning committees in both the UNICEF and WHO; they will plan the implementation of projects fulfilling those needs,
C. The WHO and the UNICEF committees that are involved in the plan. the plan will be implemented if and only if the country agrees to have the WHO and UNICEF build it.

 

 

Delegation: Cuba

Delegate: Basma Behbehani

Issue: The division of Iraq and the possible establishment of political autonomy along religious and national lines.

Commission Two: Decolonization


Defines the division of Iraq, as the 3 major ethnic groups have their own area/country,

Further Defines political autonomy, as political independence, in which all ethnic groups’ religion and practices would be separately independent,

Bearing in Mind the conflicts between Sunni’s, Shii’s, and Kurds that have threatened neighbors,

Having considered that Iraqis have a strong sense of nationalism, a fair educated populace, and a good developed economy (than Afghan),

Viewing With Appreciation all countries that are against the war of Iraq, and supporting US,

Deeply concerned on the fact that the US is still in Iraq and yet have not solved the government problem and that it might want to take over Iraq’s oil resources,

Taking in Consideration the division of the 3 major ethnic groups will highly decrease the conflicts in Iraq and threat to neighbors,

1. Calls upon all countries to support and help Iraq with it’s division by supporting such organization;

2. Declares that the Iraqi Division Committee (IDC) will include:
A. A General Assembly Committee:
1. 10 country members
2. Assigned by the United Nations Secretary General
3. These members will not be permanent but will serve a 2 year term
B. Members from The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund and Interpol

3. Notes that the committee will
A. Have its headquarters in France
B. Hold meetings every 3 months and have an emergency meeting whenever the President finds it’s important to do so
C. Have a president President will be assigned in rotation as to ensure fairness

4. Affirms that this committee will upon being established will:
A. Define the importance of Iraq’s division
B. Create and update a list of the ethnic groups’ plans of how they’ll live alone in which they’ll start their own country

5. Resolves that IDC will be :
A. Consisted of political experts that are familiar with current state of Iraq
B. In charge of:
I. dividing the country fairly,
II. They’ll divide the country according to the ethnic group,
a. The size will be according to the population,
III. voting:
a. Each group will have a leader chosen by the people via fair voting,
IV. Preventing any interference between groups,
V. Developing Iraq,
VI. Monitoring all actions taken by representatives, and is able to intervene if necessary

6. Further Resolves that each country:
A. Will be responsible of creating their own money and economy,
B. Will create its own military forces;

7. States that IDC will be in charge of making sure:
A. Each country minds its own business
B. If a country violates the rules they’ll receive a penalty just as any other country that threaten its neighbor;

8. Insures that IDC will make sure that each country runs normally just as any other peacekeeping country;

9. Urges all representatives to maintain peace and to work for the benefit of the country not the group;

10. Emphasizes other countries to send any political experts to IDC to help in Iraq’s development.

 

 

Delegation: Cuba

Delegate: Amna Al-Sager

Question of: Defining and modifying the rights of prisoners of war and the scope of extradition law.

Committee Three: Legal

Defines terrorism as a crime and all that are accused of terrorism as people accused of a crime,

Defines undefined persons {meaning whom?}, according to m-w.com, as people that are being accused of crimes and are being held and imprisoned inhumanely without the right of a fair trial,

Defines extradition law as the legal surrender of a fugitive to the jurisdiction of another state, country, government for trial, as defined by dictionary.com,

Reminds all nations that the War against terrorism is an official War and all who are accused or are involved with this issue have been described as POWs or people in a supposed war against terrorism,

Notes that extradition laws only deal with criminals and fugitives, as stated by dictionary.com,

Points out that the more legal definition of Extradition, as defined by the ‘Letric Law Library’, is "The surrender by one state to another of a person charged with a crime. This surrender is made in response to the demand of the latter state that the accused be returned to face the charge,"

Condemns the use of old-fashioned torture techniques to force confessions out of prisoners being held without charge at the Guantanamo Bay military prison, as stated by Makka Time,

Appalled by the inhumane treatment in Guantanamo, as stated by BBC new, proven by the fact that They cited physical abuse and sleep deprivation, and also pointed to a number of deaths and attempted suicides in custody,

Applauds the US for trying to solve the issue or terrorism and trying to protect the world from terrorists, as said by Castro, but is sad to say that the US is taking,

Notes that the former President of the US, Jimmy Carter, according to Jonathon Pitsburn's interview with CNN, agrees with Castro regarding the wrongness of what is happening in Guantanamo Bay,

Deeply Saddened by the large number of Palestinians, as stated by Al-Jazeera news, that are being secretly imprisoned in Israeli military bases and are treated without the slightest sense of sympathy,

Draws attention to "A broad coalition of former US federal judges, diplomats, military officials and human rights advocates, As stated by Makka Time, who have urged the Supreme Court to review the case of the detainees held at Guantanamo Bay and elsewhere in the name of terrorism",

Further Notes the importance of the clauses that deal with POWs from the Geneva Convention, as stated by the Press Secretary of the White House, and the vitality of following these clauses,

1. Urges all nations who haven’t signed the Geneva Convention to do so and follow all clauses that deal with TRUE POWs,

2. Resolves the formation of a Sub Organization under the UNHRC called the United Nations Prisoners of War and Suspects sub-organization (UNPOWS) which will:
A. Have the place of its headquarters decided once this resolution passes;
B. Have two branches in each continent;
C. Have enough staff members including observers for the trials of accused individuals;
D. Receive detailed monthly reports from countries regarding citizens that were not able to be tracked down and are suspected to be imprisoned in another country, after the country has already done the following:
I. Investigated in every way possible the location of the individual within the country,
II. Interviewed relatives and friends of the individual to help find the status of the individual’s life to help find him/her,
III. Researched where the individual was last seen and contact the country, asking them to cooperate in finding this individual,
E. Assign investigators to investigate the location of the missing individuals,
F. Negotiate with the country holding POWs to send investigators to make sure that all POWs are receiving their rights as stated by the Geneva Convention,
G. Report any countries that don’t agree or violate the rights they signed to on the Geneva Convention to the Security Council to take action;
H. Send investigators to military bases or camps that hold accused criminals and make sure that they are treated humanely as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
I. Submit a monthly report to the secretary General and the Security Council regarding all issues and trials that the UNPOWS has dealt with during that month;

3. Further resolves that the UNPOWS will hold a meeting in its headquarters to:
A. Discuss and solve all arising issues including the expansion of the sub-organization;
B. Discuss certain trials that seem to be unfair or biased,
C. Discuss the need of a re-trial of cases that seemed to be unfair and biased and send a report regarding the re-trial to the secretary General,
D. Discuss incentives to be given to cooperating countries,

4. Calls upon the formation of a Universal Extradition Law that will:
A. Apply to criminals that are located and captured outside their country of citizenship,
B. Be structured as follows,
I. Allow countries that request the return of their captured citizen to retrieve that citizen immediately if they accept the conditions that they must give them a fair trial in front of their court of justice, under the observation of a UN observer who will determine the fairness of the trial, and then they are allowed to sentence the person as seen suitable;
II. Make sure that the country that is holding a captured prisoner HOLD (this wording makes sure they can't simply IGNORE the crime) a fair trial for the person under their court of justice with the observation of a UN observer no more than two weeks after the date of capture;
III. Make sure that the hosting country treats the prisoners humanely and applies the clauses stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights regarding the treatment of these individuals,

5. Further requests that all prisoners who are being imprisoned outside their country without the right to a fair trial as a result of suspicion are to be defined as individuals accused of a crime, in order for the universal extradition law to apply upon them.

 

 

Delegation: Cuba

Delegate: Fahad Al-Rushaid

Question of: The role of the UN, WHO, and other NGOs in clearly defining and implementing global strategies regarding the use of tobacco, bearing in mind any economic impacts of decisions taken.

Commission: ECOSOC

Defining global strategies as worldwide solutions that would positively affect all nations,

Bearing in mind that differences do occur between different kinds of tobacco quoting the WHO "Differences between health effects of cigarette and cigar smoking do exist,"

Noting that all strategies shall not in any way cause any economic impacts,

Noting that only the extensive use or the addiction to tobacco is harmful,

Acknowledging that some kinds of tobacco can be used in order to quit some more harmful kinds of tobacco quoting the WHO "heavy smokers should be advised to switch to cigars,"

Taking into consideration that it is American companies such Philip Morris and others whom are causing addiction to their cigarettes resulting in the extensive use of the cigarettes further resulting in harmful lung diseases.

1. Calls upon the World Health Organization (WHO) to form a sub organization regarding the use of tobacco (funds of this organization will be from the taxes forced on tobacco) with the following tasks:
A) To clearly specify the kinds of tobacco that are harmful,
B) To clearly show in what ways and amounts would each kind of tobacco become harmful,
C) To continue studies involving links between smoking and lung cancer because this issue has not been proven yet;

2. Clarifies that not all tobacco is harmful in small amounts, but the extensive use caused by addiction usually to cigarettes is harmful;

3. Urges all countries that have problems concerning tobacco to be a part of the sub-organization formed by the WHO;

 

 

 

Opening Speech

 

Disarmament: Ahmad


Hola

Cuba.. truly south America… a breeze tickles your face as you drink your cocktail.. and eat from the biggest buffet you can ever imagine or at least a crumb of bread and a slice of meat.. this is a dream of every Cuban…

Then we must ask ourselves why is Cuba like this. There is one reason that we should adhere to me. EMBARGO..!!! Cuba lost all its hope of trade and exchange to improve and make an economic change.

Ladies and Gentleman, you cannot make a man eat if its hands are tied and sealed. Cuba stands with its hands sealed, but it never lost hope from the UN. For even if there is a terrorist nation there among them…. Always good will always defeat evil.

 

Political/Deloc: Basma


How easy is it for you to build a new house, to sit in it relaxed, drink your cocktail, and feel the breeze from your window? It might be easy for you to do that, but it ISN’t for Iraqis. Honorable delegates, Hola! (..say how are you, in Spanish), it is not whether I said or did it is whether it have been solved, and it’s not being solved as long as Iraqi ethnic groups are in constant conflict. From the heart of every Cuban, Cuba alacrity looks deep inside your thoughtful hearts to share this moment in aiding Iraq with its division to stop the horror preventing us from building a cauzzy house.

Gracious,

 

Legal: Amna Al-Sager


Hola!

Honorable delegates, I would like to ask you all to close your eyes for a minute. Imagine you are in a beautiful garden. You see this magnificent bed of roses. The roses are so gorgeous, full of life and so vibrant, but to your surprise, in between these stunning roses you see a dreadful, twisted weed. This weed assassinates all the beauty of the bed of roses. It makes it look so dismal.

Honorable delegates this weed is violating our beliefs and our policies, this weed is a place where people are sent with no hope of returning. This weed is where people are tortured, where people are left until they die. The person who planted this weed does not want to remove it. Honorable delegates, this weed is immoral, and should be removed from its roots to make sure that it will never grow again. Cuba spreads its greeting among all nations present today and hopes that together, we will be able to remove all the weeds that are growing and destroying our gardens.

Thank you

 

 

ECOSOC: Fahad

Hola!


Fellow delegates, honorable guests, and most distinguished chair.

Greetings from the country of peace, the country that respects the true aspects of human of rights, unlike are next-door neighbor, the biggest island in the West Indies, the country that has once defeated the red white and blue in the bay of pigs and is up till today suffering from a trade embargo forced by that country. It is this country’s soil that is home to the finest sugar and the most beloved Havana cigars. From the country whom Fidel Castro is its greatest leader, The Communist Republic Of Cuba welcomes you all and would like to point out the sadness it expresses for being the soil in which the most inhumane and cruel military base stands freely.

We gather here today to seek solutions for economic political environmental and various other issues.

Cuba asks of all the countries gathered here today to set there differences aside and work on solving the problems that the world is facing in this resent day of age. Together we can do it!

Thank you,

 

 

 

Statement of Delegates



Ahmad Al Shammari, Disarmament

In the Disarmament committee, Cuba was one of the most revered and respected delegates. It was always with constant attacks and retorts to the US speeches. In one case, it destroyed a whole resolution, and made sure only the co submitters who wrote the resolution are the only one voting. In addition, Cuba did make "excellent speeches" going for the resolution. In the North Korean issue, Cuba made sure that the resolution submitted by Japan pass. It made sure that the 4 parties sign the treaty. It also made sure that the resolution is well explained and replied to the whole attacks fully. Political/decol: Basma Behbehani In the political/decol committee, Cuba was respected a lot. At the beginning Cuba faced some troubles with the resolution it became a main co-submitter to, when North Korea wasn’t listening to Cuba’s ideas and changes for the resolution. However, at the assembly, North Korea regretted all it have done to Cuba, whereas Cuba sent amendments that have corrected the entire resolution and made it pass. Cuba received 12 notes from different countries congratulating it on its work with the resolution and excellent speeches. Cuba also became a main-submitter, to a great resolution that had many signatures to. However, it didn’t pass, because the chair changes his mind about the resolution, due to them wanting to only discuss unifying Iraq not dividing it.

 

Besma Behbehani, Decolonization

In the political/decol committee, Cuba was respected a lot. At the beginning Cuba faced some troubles with the resolution it became a main co-submitter to, when North Korea wasn’t listening to Cuba’s ideas and changes for the resolution. However, at the assembly, North Korea regretted all it have done to Cuba, whereas Cuba sent amendments that have corrected the entire resolution and made it pass. Cuba received 12 notes from different countries congratulating it on its work with the resolution and excellent speeches. Cuba also became a main-submitter, to a great resolution that had many signatures to. However, it didn’t pass, because the chair changes his mind about the resolution, due to them wanting to only discuss unifying Iraq not dividing it.

 

Amna Al-Sager, Ambassador and Legal

In the Legal committee (GA 3), the Cuban delegate managed to get 18 signatures to pass her resolution as main submitter, but unfortunately the chair did not pick Cuba’s resolution to be debated in the GA. Nonetheless, the Cuban delegate in the legal committee made the conference a truly memorable one by causing some excitement in the GA as a result of continuously attacking the delegate of the United States of America and referring to the US and its military base in Guantanamo Bay as the "weed". During the opening speeches Cuba made a truly rich speech attacking the US that received an amazing reaction by all other delegates that were present. The delegate of Cuba livened the assembly by holding a Cuban cigar, which is a symbol of Cuba and received several warnings concerning the cigar. It was a especially tense event and I really enjoyed representing Cuba.

 

Fahed Al-Rushaid, ECOSOC

The ECOSOC was a catastrophe for Cuba, the first day, which was Lobbying, and merging Cuba failed to become a main submitter due to the evil and unfair votes of the submitters of the resolution. Although Cuba played a leading role in gathering the submitters of the resolution and later selecting the proper clauses the Egyptian school students ganged up against it and did not vote for Cuba to become main submitter. Later the following sessions the chair, co-chair and the secretary general failed to keep control of the Ecosoc delegates. However Cuba was successful in doing two things. The first was to fail a resolution submitted by the U.K and the U.S.A that was terrible, and the delegation of Cuba convinced most delegates that the resolution was all wishes and did nothing. The second thing Cuba was successful in doing was to pass the resolution it was the main co-submitter of, and was able to convince all nations that the growth of tobacco shall no stop.