Event: AMMUN 2003
Students:Disarmament: Khaled Al-Rubei, Ambassador Political/Decol: Mishal Al-Rashoud Legal: Nasser Al-Aujan ECOSOC: Altaf Al-Dukair, Vice-Ambassador
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2003-2004 Team page
Political Structure: (Mishal)
The French Republic is run by a civil law system. It is composed of three branches; an executive branch, which consists of the chief of state, President Jacques Chirac, and the head of government, Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin. President Jacques Chirac makes the decisions and holds all the power. The president is elected every 5 years by popular vote and the prime minister is nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president. The second branch is the legislative branch; the parliament consists of the Senate, there are 321 seats - 296 for metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad. The members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve nine-year terms. The national assembly consists of 577 seats and members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. Finally the last branch is the judicial branch; the judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary. Three members are appointed to the Constitutional Council by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate.
The political parties in France are the Citizen and Republican Movement, Democratic and European Social Rally, French Communist Party, Left Radical Party, Liberal Democracy, Rally for France, Rally for the Republic, Socialist Party, Union for French Democracy, and the Union for a Popular Movement.
France is located in Western Europe. It’s covered by 545,630 sq. km of land and 1,400 sq. km of water adding up to a total are of 546,030 sq. km. Its total land boundary is 2889 km, and it borders Andorra 56.6 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, and Switzerland 573 km. France has a coastline of 3,427 km. Its terrain is mostly flat planes and hills in the north and west, and the remainder is covered by mountains, Pyrenees in south and the Alps in east. France suffers from numerous natural hazards which are flooding, avalanches, midwinter windstorms, drought, forest fires in south near the Mediterranean, and there has been some forest damages due to acid rain.
Natural Resources: (Altaf)
France has a beneficial amount of natural and agricultural resources. France’s natural resources consists of: Coal, iron, ore, bauxite, zinc, potash, timber (is the most important natural resource in France), fish, deposits of antimony, magnesium, pyrites, tungsten, salt, radioactive materials and lead. However, France’s agriculture consists of various products like: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes, beef, dairy products and fish. The agricultural production goes up to 14.7 million hectors of plains that cover 27% of the total area of France.
Cultural Factors (Naser) :
France has a population of 60,180,529 person (2003 est.), the population growth rate is at 0.42% (2003 est.), and the death rate is currently at 9.05-deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.). The life expectancy of a Frenchman is 75.63 years, and a French woman 83.11 years. The number of people infected with the HIV virus is 100,000 (2001 est.), which the rate equals 0.3% (2001 est.). France is a country of variety and equality, there is a diverse ethnic groups including: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities.
The French are proud of their language, although there exists other languages in France such as: Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, and Flemish. The different religions existing in France are Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, and unaffiliated 4%. France has and is a destination for many both legal and illegal immigrants from many countries of the world, mainly the North African countries. The immigration rate is 0.66 migrant(s) /1,000 population (2003 est.).
France has one of the best militaries of the world. It consists of three branches: The army, which includes marines, the navy, which includes naval air, and the air force which includes air defense and the National Gendarmerie. After the United States, France is the greatest military spender, spending an approximate $46.5 billion on its military or 2.6% of its GDP (2000). As a result of that France has the 4th largest air force (personnel), the 3rd largest naval force (personnel) and the 12th largest army (personnel).
For the last few years France has been increasing its military spending; in 1997 the spending was $39.2 billion or 2.4% of its GDP. France is also interested in expanding it military aspirations, for France along with Germany proposed to create a military branch to the EU, though currently this issue is a very controversial issue. France is also a major exporter of weaponry and conventional arms. France exports an estimated $1,288 million in conventional arms. Even though France is the 3rd most exporter of arms in the world it has a very strict arms export control system.
France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960. Today its nuclear arsenals, although in reduction, remains very significant. The French reason for owning them is to have the will and the capacity to deter an adversary. France is such a loyal nation to all the protocols and treaties it has signed that since the end of the Cold War, France is the only nuclear weapon State having dismantled all its test site facilities and given independent international experts access to its nuclear test sites.
Currently France has only one modern (made in the last decade) aircraft carrier the "Charles De Gualle". However, France will increase its Navy power significantly until 2015 adding a total of 80 warships, 130 naval aircraft and five commandos units
In France they use 2 currencies, which are the Euro (EUR) and French franc (FRF). However, the Euro is widely used all around France, therefore France currently uses the Euro and not the French Franc. France is one of the world’s most highly developed countries and is one of the four West European trillion-dollar economies and is the world’s number four economic powers in terms of GDP. Thus, making it the largest industrial country in Western Europe. However, persistently high unemployment is posing as a major problem for the government.
France has a sensible agricultural resource (3%), large industrial base (26%) and a highly skilled work force. A dynamic services sector accounts for an increasingly large share of economic activity is 71%. France has a GDP of $1.54 trillion (2002 est.). Which is the sixth largest GDP after the US, Japan, China, India and Germany.
Manufacturing (16%), construction (4%) and energy generation account (3%), is part of France’s GDP. Its wide-ranging manufacturing base includes steel, aluminum, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, rail transport equipment, telecommunications equipment and aerospace (civil and military). Manufacturing accounts for most exports of goods and for around three-quarters of total exports of goods and services. In 2000 exports of goods and services amounted to 29% of GDP. France’s GDP growth is 1% (2002 est.).
France’s government had partially or fully TAKEN OVER many large companies, banks and insurers, THEN IT SOLD MANY OFF, but IT still keeps large stakes in several leading firms including Air France, France Telecom, and Renault, and still remains dominant in some sectors, partially the power, public transport and defense industries. The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition.
France’s Labor force is 26.6 million (2001 est.). Service (71%), industry (25%), Agriculture (4%) are the Labor forces by occupation (1997). France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social justice by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare.
However, France’s government has lowered income taxes and introduced measures to boost employment. France’s government hasn’t accomplished much when it comes to reforming and simplifying the pensions of administrative procedures, ridged labor market, and restrictive system of government. Unfortunately the tax burden still remains one of the highest in Europe. Even though France is still in debt, its economy is still remaining quite stable. France’s budget consists of revenues ($286 billion), expenditures: $330 billion, including capital expenditures of $23 billion (2002 est.).
One of France’s most important industries is Car manufacturing. France’s main import partners are: European Union 58.6%, Germany 16.7%, Benelux 7.0%, Italy 9.1%, UK 7.5%, US 8.9% (EST.2001). Their import commodities are: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics and chemicals. France gains an import sum of $303.7 billion (est.2002). France’s main export partners are: the European Union 61.3%, Germany 14.7%, UK 9.8%, Spain 9.6%, Italy 8.8%, US 8.8% (est. 2001). France gains an export sum of $307.8 billion (est. 2002). France’s export commodities are: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel and beverages.
France is also the number one tourist location in the world.
Views on World Problems: (Khaled)
France is one of the greatest countries in the world; it has a thriving economy, a great military and it is one of the most influential countries in the world. Franc is a leading superpower in Europe because of its size, location, strong economy, membership in European organizations, strong military posture, and active diplomacy. For years now France has been trying to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the EU and its role in common European defense as already stated in "defense". France is interested in increasing its defense and military forces because it strives to become a more influential nation.
Its relations with all European nations are very strong, it has an especially strong relation with Germany since both have common interests and both have very similar foreign polices.
Another sector of the world where France has had many relations with is the Middle East. France's history with the Middle East is a very long one, since the days of the Holy Roman Empire. France used to have a very large role in the Middle East since many of its nation's were former colonies. Now France has a SOMEWHAT limited role in the Middle East as a result of many different things. For one thing France was a great supporter of the nation of Israel supplying it with military and technical support, although later when Charles De Gaulle became president their policy on Israel had changed. This was on of the hindrances that ruined its relations with the Arabs. Another hindrance was the fact that France was a colonial power there and also the Algerian war of independence. In Middle East peace negotiations France also never managed to play an important role. France had hoped that by taking a moderate path and not strongly supporting either side, the Israeli or the Arabic, France could become central to the peace process. In truth peace negotiations between Israel, the Palestinians, and the Arab powers have almost always involved representatives of the US or the USSR, but France has always been excluded. In Camp David the French played no role. The French foreign minister complained that a separate peace between Israel and Egypt would not benefit Middle East peace, but none of the leaders involved were particularly concerned about what the French government thought. The Oslo Accords, the Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty, and others were all negotiated and written with no contribution at all from France. When France does try to intervene it is looked on as unhelpful by the US and Israel, and these nations have rejected all major French peace proposals. The only issue that France really had a part in was the issue of Iraq, but again none of its proposals were actually implemented, it was only postponing the inevitable. France is trying to improve its relations with Syria.
France plays a significant role in Africa too, especially in its former colonies. It has a significant role through aid programs, commercial activities, military agreements, and cultural impact. In 2002 and 2003, France participated in military interventions in Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia and the in the Democratic Republic of Congo, helping in the evacuation of foreign residents and the protection of civilians.
France's role in Asia is mostly an economic one. It has economic relations with Japan, China and other South Asian nations. France is also seeking to broaden its commercial presence in China and will pose a competitive challenge to US. business, particularly in aerospace, high-tech, and luxury markets. In Southeast Asia, France was the author of the Paris Accords, which ended the conflict in Cambodia.
To describe the relations between the United States and France, the best thing to call them is active and cordial. Mutual visits by high-level officials are conducted on a regular basis. Bilateral contact at the cabinet level has been active. France and the United States share common values and have "similar" policies on "most" political, economic, and security issues. Though there are many differences which are discussed frankly. Most of the time when France disagrees with the United States, the US considers France to be an irritation and goes on as it has planned, so France as a traditional ally rarely disagrees or disputes with the US. For the last few years its relations with the US has not been at their best, disputes such as Iraq and the EU's influence have hindered their relations.
France as a member of the UN plays a large role (or tries to :P) in most of the issues of the world., and what makes France an even stronger power is the fact that it is a permanent member of the UN. France's has been trying to improve it relations with its former colonies all around the world. France is a member of many important organizations such as the UN, EU, NATO, G-8. It is a member in many other organizations; ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WADB (non-regional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC.
During the late 17 century, the French Empire arose and explorations, supported by Francis I, started and competition between the English began. Louis XIV had aggressive foreign policies, and under his reign the French culture flourished. At the end of his reign, Louis faced many problems such as debts, religion, war, and deaths. The state faced many financial problems, the debt increased, and the economy worsened. In the 18 century, literacy grew, and a new movement, the Enlightenment, emerged. The crisis escalated against the monarchy, rebels appeared because of the financial debt, the bad foreign policy, and Louis’s bad reputation. Louis XVI’s main accomplishment is the help in the American Revolution to help defeat their archenemy, Great Britain.
In 1789, after the crumbling of the monarchy and the French Revolution, the French massively reorganized their political structure. In 1795 distributed power between a two-chambered legislature and a five-man executive, known as the Directory. On November 9, 1799, Bonaparte’s troops forced members of the legislature to vest state power in a new provisional government, soon to be called the Consulate. Napoleon created an empire stretching from Spain to Poland. In 1813 the empire crumbled and Napoleon was exiled to Elba. In the 19th Century, As in Britain, industrialization in France began in the textile industry. It then spread to heavy industry, especially iron, which became the dominant industrial sector by the mid-19th century. In 1871, the third republic was created, it paid France’s debts, reassured the public, and rebuild the army.
In 1914, the World War started and Germany seized Belgium and intended to encircle and capture Paris, while the French army was deployed near the German border. The French recognized what the Germans intend to do and redeployed in the capital. The Anglo-French army defeated Germany in 1918 and ended the wars. The aftermath of the war was low birthrates. In 1939, after the German invasion of Poland, England and France declared war against Germany. France was occupied by Germany in 1940 and liberated 4 years later.
The Fourth Republic was born with a new constitution and a parliamentary regime. Charles De Gaulle resigned and spent 12 years in exile. After WWII, France had inflation, and in 1951 joined the ECSC, which later on transformed to the EEC, then to EC. Decolonization began, and weakened the Empire, and in 1954 the independence movement for independence of Algeria.
The Fifth Republic emerged with a new constitution and Charles De Gaulle was named president. De Gaulle maintained good relations with the old colonies and granted Algeria its independence. There was an election seven years later which was the first election in which the French public may elect a president by direct ballot. President de Gaulle won the re-election. In April 1969, President de Gaulle's government conducted a national referendum on the creation of 21 regions with limited political powers. The government's proposals were rejected, and de Gaulle resigned. Following him as president of France have been Gaullist Georges Pompidou (1969-74), Independent Republican Valery Giscard d'Estaing (1974-81), Socialist Francis Mitterrand (1981-95), and neo-Gaullist Jacques Chirac (first elected in spring 1995 and reelected in 2002).
General Assembly Committee One - Disarmament and International Security:
1. The containment of the risk of nuclear proliferation in North Korea.
According to the UN, last year North Korea announced that it was using plutonium in arms and it also announced its withdrawal from the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. This caused a great alarm in the international community, after many years of peace talks and diplomacy North Korea for the second time withdrew from the non-proliferation treaty.
France plays a very large role in this issue, since the EU is an executive board member in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO). When North Korea announced its nuclear development programs all the members of KEDO agreed that North Korea’s nuclear weapons program is a shared challenge to all responsible states. France was one of the EU members that refused to establish diplomatic relations with North Korea. The French government has urged North Korea to take immediate measures to comply with its international non-proliferation commitments, end its nuclear weapons program and do so "in a an verifiable manner because the EU and France are convinced of the importance of verification in this kind of matter" as stated by the French secretary of foreign affairs. France also thinks that this matter should not compromise the recent progress in the peace process in the Korean peninsula.
Regardless of what North Korea is stating it MUST stop its nuclear program if it was truly an advocator of peace. France as a member of the EU, G-8 and the UN cannot tolerate the actions of North Korea, all of these organizations have condemned North Korea with the backing of France. France also condemns North Korea for violating many of the commitments it is bound too so directly, especially the UN. France as a nation diplomacy and democracy cannot accept what North Korea is doing since this is a serious matter because of its global implications and also its regional implications. The tension sparked by this matter is not limited to that region alone, even though France is far away from Korea, it has a profound concern.
2. The trade-off between the trend of increasing military expenditure and development, and the resultant effect on international peace.
I spoke with the French ambassador. I quoted him exactly and followed his recommendations throughout the debate. Generally, France would like to have developing nations decrease their military expenditures unless they have a dire need to defensively arm themselves. France, itself, though with a robust military, has kept its expenditures relatively low for a superpower.
3. Maintenance of international security: good neighborliness, stability and development in West Africa
West Africa is one of the most important regions of the world to France, for most of West African Nations were former colonies of France. It plays a significant role in Africa. It has aid programs, commercial activities, and military agreements. France believes that it is its responsibility to help its ex-colonies. According to the UN, France has been involved in many military interventions to assure stability in west Africa. It sent troops to Liberia, Cote D'Ivoire and DR Congo. France is also holds an economic interest in west African nations such as Gabon and Angola for Angola is not a French speaking country, but it is rich in oil and diamonds, and has drawn the biggest investment by the French oil company TotalFinaElf in Western Africa.
The biggest major concerns for France in West Africa are Liberia and Cote D'Ivoire. In Liberia France has commended Charles Taylor for his handing of power and believes that peace is going to be achieved. It is also trying to accelerate the process by sending food aid. In Cote D'Ivoire France is increasing its presence and is leading a UN peacekeeping mission.
General Assembly Committee Two – Special Political and Decolonization:
1. The role of UNRWA (United Nations Relief Work Agency for Palestine) and other relief agencies in the possible creation of a Palestinian state, and their role in current host refugee countries should the right to return not be established.
France strongly believes that the international community should donate generously to UNRWA in order to support its work with the Palestinians. Donations should be in the form of monetary funds and loans as well as contributions of personnel with relevant professional expertise. When a Palestinian State is established it will be of the utmost importance for the population to become self sufficient as soon as possible and the Palestinian people will need a great deal of support in this regard. UNRWA should continue to provide the assistance until the Palestinian State institutions are fully established and functioning.
Should the refugees not be granted the right to return to the 1948 territories nor the 1967 territories then the only viable solution is that the host refugee countries or any other willing country grant a citizenship status to those refugees.
2. The conflict between national sovereignty and the right of the international community to intervene in the domestic affairs of other countries
France believes that countries should not interfere with another country’s national sovereignty except under certain conditions. The first condition is that the country is causing a threat to world peace. The second condition is that the invading country must have a legitimate reason and have proof to back up that reason that the other country is and is capable of being a threat to world peace. If no proof is provided the country must not invade. Another important issue is that the United Nations must have a primary role in trying to prevent conflicts and in the case of conflicts, the UN should also be heavily involved in the post conflict affairs.
3. The division of Iraq and the possible establishment of political autonomy along religious and national lines.
France believes that Iraq must be ruled by one government, a divided Iraq is not constructive for the country and for the region. There are numerous minority groups and they all want to gain power over Iraq. A major issue is whether the Kurds will be granted their own country, which certain nations are against. Another issue is who will gain power over Iraq, the Sunni’s or the Shias which are the majority, or some other minority group.
In France’s view the only feasible solution is to establish democratic elections and integrate all ethnic groups. Each minority must have limited self-rule in a federation system ruled by a central government. Iraq’s leader must be chosen by the people and we must insure equal rights to all groups of the population.
General Assembly Three – Legal
1. Measures to legally combat international terrorism and the growth of supra-national terrorist groups.
Defining terrorism as "The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons." War is a cruel and ineffective measure to solve the problem of terrorism. Nations who start a war on a certain country because of a minority of terrorists are themselves causing terrorism. Because of this minority of terrorists, fathers are killed children are separated from their mothers; people are raped from their home. War cause families to break up, countries to be destroyed, and the world of politics to separate.
The only way to combat terrorism and these terrorist groups is, according to the EU Trade Commission, through legal measures. Every nation of the world must work together to capture these groups and networks. These terrorists, according to Bundessliga Directative Foreign Policy Studies, must be prosecuted and fairly trilled according to the law of the country that captured them, with the blessings of the country he belongs to.
2. International regulations dealing with the use and misuse of genetic engineering and screening.
Defining genetic engineering as "Scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins." The French Republic is 100%, according to BBC that France has refused to ratify the EU decision of giving approval to three types of genetically modified maize, against genetic engineering; the European Union, according to CNN, is against the cloning of humans. The republic is, also, against DNA screening and the changing of the genes, we consider it as discrimination and it is forbidden for doctors are playing the role of God.
3. Defining and modifying the rights of prisoners of war and the scope of extradition law.
Defining prisoner of war as "A person taken by or surrendering to enemy forces in wartime." France, according to The French Foreign Policy Institution urges and encourages each and every country at war and has acquired any prisoners to abide and follow the Geneva Convention, which was established by, according to the UN, International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August, 1949, and entered force 21 October 1950. Any country that does not abide by this convention should be harshly convicted and prosecuted by an international law. The nations of the world in 1949 created these rule and regulations and rights of prisoners of wars. These rules must be tolerated.
General Assembly Four – ECOSOC:
1) The role of the UN, WHO, and other NGOs in clearly defining and implementing global strategies regarding the use of Tobacco, bearing in mind any economic impacts of decisions taken.
Tobacco is a drug epidemic that could be easily addicted to, thus leading to cancer, health problems and even death. It could also lead to the collapse of the entire economy and development. Unfortunately, there is no country in the world that doesn’t have people addicted to drugs.
However, the French President Jacques Chirac has promised a national crackdown on smoking as part of a five-year 500 million euro ($900 million) campaign against cancer. This year an average of 15 percent tax rise is expected to produce around 1 billion euro ($1.8 billion). The health ministry statistics show that while smoking has fallen by around 11 per cent in the last decade and continuous young people are being drawn to the habit. A study showed recently that Women smokers are to pay the price in France, because smoking is often associated with images of beautiful women, with female deaths from lung cancer set to rocket in coming years. In the French habit, the study by national health watchdog (INVS) predicted that 12,000 women would die from lung cancer each year from 2015, six times as many as in 1980. Already between the years 1980 and 2000 the number of female deaths from lung cancer more than doubled, while male deaths from the disease, a bigger killer in France than any other cancer, increased by just fewer than 50 percent.
However, men still account for the vast majority of deaths from lung cancer in France; 22,600 men died from it in the year 2000 compared to 4,500 women, with 80 percent of cases seen smoking-related. The INVS study found French men have a higher death rate from all types of cancer than anywhere else in the European Union. France's healthy diet and reputable health care still means the country boasts one of the highest life expectancies in the world; an average of 82.5 years for women and 75 years for men.
One survey said that 2.68 percent of France's GDP was being spent on social problems caused by alcohol and tobacco. The French defense budget this year accounts for just 2.05 percent of GDP. The survey, by Professor Pierre Kopp of Paris' Sorbonne University, noted that out of the 529,640 deaths recorded in 1997, 42,963 of them were a result of alcohol, 41,777 of them was a result of tobacco and 547 deaths were a result of illegal drugs. The world's annual death toll from smoking-related diseases could more than double by 2030, to about 10 million people a year, says a report out Tuesday from the World Bank and the World Health Organization. In all, about 1 billion people will die from smoking-related diseases during the 21st century if current smoking levels keep up. About 1.1 billion now smoke, more than one in six people worldwide. In France, nearly 84 billion cigarettes were sold last year. That is down from 95.8 billion 10 years ago, according to government statistics, but the sales of rolling tobacco nearly doubled during the same period. And about 60,000 people died of tobacco-related diseases, the leading cause of unnatural deaths in France. Yet the 1991 French law against tobacco is one of Europe's strictest. The law bans all tobacco advertising from magazines, newspapers, television, Billboards and cinemas. The French government retains a 2.7% interest in the combined company, whose revenue totaled $2.38 billion in 1999. France supports the UN and various organizations such as: WHO’s, FCTC, ITGA, FAO, ILO, NGO, WTO, WGO, CNCT and the FDI organization in trying to end the war on Tobacco and its addiction to it once and for all.
2) The role of the United Nations system in supporting the efforts of African countries to achieve sustainable development.
The United Nations Division for Development defined sustainable development as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The NEPAD presents a bold and clear version of how Africa is assuming responsibility for its development and full integration into the world economy. The United Nations and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development have adopted NEPAD as the basis upon which to build future relations with Africa. If Africa is to develop in a sustainable manner, additional resources firm both domestic and external sources, will be needed.
On April 1st 2003, the European Union and its member states made available 13.5 billion euro of additional grant resources to the European Development Fund (9th EDF), 80% of which will go to Africa over the next five years. However, France’s direct bilateral assistance to Africa was approximately 2.340 billion euro in 2002 has pledged to increase ODA from 0.32% of its GDP in 2001 to 0.50% in 2007 and 0.70% in 2012 with 50% of additional aid targeting Africa; thus the ODA for Africa is expected to reach 3 billion euro in 2003. Germany and France are ready to support the Court’s establishment in it’s ratified the African Court of Human and People’s rights. France supports the OHADA, which promotes the introduction and application of IHADA uniform law in 16 countries and intends to ease its progress. France’s commitment to cancel about 10 billion euro for HIPC African countries is nearly half of this amount is related to additional bilateral debt forgiveness that partly takes the form of debt swaps as a source of financing in support of PRSPs. France supports the United Nations and organizations such as: AAP, NEPAD, OCED, ADIHR, UNDP and ECOWAS for its commitment in supporting the efforts of African countries to achieve sustainable development.
3) Strengthening the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations.
Mankind has been facing many natural disasters, earthquakes, floods, wars, diseases, deaths, the collapse of social structures and economic destruction. Thus, all nations should address ways to strengthen the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the UN.
Jean-David Levitte (ambassador of France to the United States) who spoke on behalf of the European Union said, "Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, (UNHCR) had undertaken very trying tasks in the last years. The watchword was now "security" because civilians were targeted as was the humanitarian work itself, when it was counter to a government's aims.
A protocol should be developed to the Convention on the safety of United Nations personnel, to extend it and include all those who worked in humanitarian operations. High-risk operations should involve the entire humanitarian community in activities such as training and providing state-of-the-art communications equipment. Certain safeguards for humanitarian assistance must be strengthened, he continued. Armed elements must not be allowed into refugee camps, and the locations of the camps must be away from any areas in which they were endangered. Victims who had lost their homes merited protection as a basic human right, preferably through the multi-agency approach under the coordination of the Emergency Relief Coordinator. Humanitarian assistance must not be used for political ends and the dialogue for easing victims' circumstances must ever be strengthened. The dialogue should include the enlistment of donor countries. New sources of support must be sought out in the private sector and new partnerships must be forged, as for example in the communications sector. Noting that some groups required special protection, such as refugee omen and children.
The demands on the UNHCR were so varied that an emergency response cell should be established. The High Commissioner was now in charge of 22.3 million refugees, some who had fled violence but others who had been displaced by climatic catastrophes. The UNHCR should propose measures combining emergency relief with development programs. The UNHCR was holding consultations on the Geneva Convention as part of its fiftieth anniversary commemoration. That was timely because the quality of asylum had deteriorated to a disappointing level. The European Union would be part of the consultations, which would reaffirm the 1951 Convention and its protocol. The consultations would also try to define norms applicable in instances of massive refugee influxes. Disparities in prioritizing groups for assistance made the process even more difficult. A European Fund for Refugees had been set up to help relocate and repatriate displaced people. The Fund could also be used in emergency situations."
France has had many natural disasters such as: slides, floods, extreme temperatures, windstorms, wild fire, etc. Thus aids the United Nations in strengthening the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the UN. due the various life-threatening disasters that the world should be prepared to overcome. France is also with this issue, because France believes that all nations should be prepared for any emergencies, natural or human emergencies.
Forum: Disarmament: Khaled Al-Rubei
Issue: Maintenance of international security: good neighborliness, stability and development in West Africa
Commission One: Disarmament
Defines West Africa as a region of western Africa between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea,
Pointing out that according to Reuters the RUF (Revolutionary United Front) in Tongo Field in Liberia has carried out extensive illicit diamond mining and they are delaying the disarmament process of Liberia and intensifying the conflict,
Notes that according to Reuters "Ivory Coast cocoa beans supply has been tightened as a result of the cocoa being smuggled into Ghana to support rebel groups,"
Guided by the International Crisis Group April 2002 Report that "Liberia holds the key to regional stability,"
Deeply concerned about the financial difficulties that the ECOWAS forces continue to face such as the peace keeping ECOWAS troops that were supposed to replace French forces in Ivory Coast and they are yet to arrive as a result of lack of funds according to ECOWAS,
Alarmed by the fact that Charles Taylor is still playing a major role in Liberia for example he tried to loot revenues form diamonds and timber according to a UN panel monitoring sanctions against Liberia,
Further Notes that the UN has had many reports of rebels being funded by the illicit diamond trade in Sierra Leone according to UNAMSIL,
Deeply disturbed by the fact that the casualty count in the conflict of Liberia, Ivory Coast, Guinea and Sierra Leone is greater than 2,000,000 casualties,
Congratulates the efforts of the Security Council on the Oil-for-Food Iraq program which was a very efficient and successful program,
1. Requests that the Security Council impose "special" sanctions on the nations of Sierra Leone, Liberia and the Ivory Coast where these "special" sanctions will: A. Require the two nations of Sierra Leone and Liberia to stop importing diamonds and timber, B. Require the Ivory Coast to stop importing cocoa, C. Only allow the UN to sell the commodities for the nations;
2. Further Requests that the UN: A. Take the commodities and sell them, B. Create the West African Peace Fund (WAPF) from the profits of selling the diamonds and cocoa;
3. Resolves the formation of the West African Peace Organization (WAPO) which will be headquartered in NIGERIA (probably); it will: A. Insure peace and development in the region through: I. Employing peace keeping troops, II. Financially aiding governmental improvements, III. Overseeing democratic elections, IV. Helping the UN with its arms embargo, V. Include all ECOWAS members as its own members, B. End the exploitation of natural resources by rebel groups through: I. Employing troops, II. Blockading all illegal exports, III. Penalizing all firms who invest in illegal exports, IV. Penalizing nation who allow their borders be open to smugglers, C. Hold peace talks: I. Between different parties in a civil war or a conflict, II. That must involve rebel groups in them to insure all sides are being represented;
4. Further Requests that the WAPF will be distributed as such:A. 40% of the fund will go back to the nations for their own development, B. 60% of the fund will be used to fund WAPO, C. The 40% will not be spread evenly between the three nations but each nation will be given their share according to how much money was earned from their own commodity;
5. Calls Upon WAPO to send bi-annual reports to the UN where the Security Council will make sure that WAPO is operating in an unbiased and credible way;
6. Reminds that WAPO is not a UN organization but it is a regional organization that is affiliated with the UN;
7. Further Resolves that WAPO will: A. Only be a temporary UN affiliated organization, B. Become an independent regional organization and be integrated into ECOWAS when the UN Security Council finds that it is credible and unbiased in performing its duty;
8. Trusts that the "special" sanctions will be removed from the nations of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast after the WAPO is integrated into ECOWAS.
Delegate: Mishal S. Al Rashoud
Commission: GA Two,
Issue: The division of Iraq and the possible establishment of political autonomy along religious and national lines.
Stressing the need for the United Nations to play a key role in the reconstruction of Iraq, and that no one country can fulfill this role,
Emphasizing the importance of reestablishing the unity and effectiveness of international action to assist Iraq,
Notes with deep concern that Iraq is now in a state of chaos and political unrest and no new policies have been developed to effectively deal with this situation,
Bearing in mind that the current situation in Iraq has lead to an increase in terrorist attacks, internally and externally,
Noting with deep regret the delay in handing over more power and responsibility to Iraqi organizations, bodies, and institutions such as the Iraqi Governing Council and recently appointed ministers,
Aware of the fact that the training of the Iraqi National Army and Police Force must be accelerated in order to reestablish lasting security,
Realizing that an appropriate division of responsibilities more respectful of Iraqi sovereignty will be more effective in establishing domestic security,1) Resolves that the UN with the specific involvement of the UNDP lead the rebuilding of Iraq which would entail: A) the five permanent members of the Security Council playing an equal role in this effort while all other UN member states would be strongly encouraged to participate as much as possible in this process, 2) Further resolves that the Iraqi Governing Council and recently appointed ministers would be the guardians of Iraqi sovereignty during the transition period, and in a later proposed deadline an interim Iraqi government could be established based on these bodies with executive powers progressively transferred to it until a new government is elected such as: A) economic and budgetary activities, B) legislative authority, C) judicial powers, D) law enforcement authority
3) Proposes a personal envoy of the UN Secretary-General would be mandated to organize consultations with existing Iraqi institutions and the coalition authorities to gather support from the states of the region and this envoy would report back to the UN and: A) propose a timetable for the gradual transfer of powers to the interim government, B) recommend different means for completing this political transformation;
4) Further proposes that this deadline should provide all the stages of a constitutional process with the aim of presenting a draft text within a reasonable time frame in order that a general election could be envisioned as soon as possible in order to elect a government comprised of: A) all ethnic and religious groups with each minority have limited self-rule in a federation system ruled by a central government, B) a leader who is chosen by the people and who will insure equal rights to all groups of the population;
5) Advocates that as soon as Iraqi sovereignty is reestablished an international conference could be convened with the aim of reestablishing unity and effectiveness of international action to assist Iraq and this conference would deal with: A) all problems linked to the country’s reconstruction, B) security matters which will be made with the contributions of the future UN forces, I) the training of the police force and military, C) defining commitments concerning economic aid and other means to get the Iraqi administration functioning properly.
Delegate: Naser Al-Aujan
Country: Republic of France
G.A.: Three- Legal
Issue: Measures to legally combat international terrorism and the growth of supra-national terrorist groups.
Defining legally as "In a legal manner," and defining legal as "One that is in accord with certain rules or laws,"
Defining terrorism as "The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons,"
Noting that according to Greg Miller, Los Angeles Times nearly 10% of the prison population at the US. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba were deemed to be of no intelligence,
Aware of that according to an officer at Guantanamo Bay Maximum Security Prison Many Guantanamo Bay prisoners are farmers,
Bearing in mind that according to the British Broadcasting Center (BBC) members of the European Parliament urge the United States Government to give Guantanamo Bay detainees a fair trail,
Regretting that according to the Guardian Daily Newspaper US refuses to give Guantanamo terrorists suspects a fair trail,
Recognizing that according to the American Broadcasting Center (ABC) about 660 prisoners are in Guantanamo Bay prison, they have not been tried or convicted of any offense but are being held as part of what the US calls its war on terror,
Noting that according to the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) Guantanamo Bay prisoners have no rights, not even human rights,
1. Resolves the creations of a UN sub-committee called the United Nations Committee to Legally Combat Terrorism (UNCLCT), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland;
2. Further Resolves that the members of the UNCLCT will consist of 2 members from each UN member country, and its main goals are to: A. Amend the UN charter, B. Amend the Human Rights charter, C. Create a data base regarding terrorism and terrorists from information form member countries, D. Help draft new international laws regarding terrorism;
3. Resolves the formation of the International Court of Terrorism (ICT) which will become a part of the ICJ and will be headquartered in The Hague;
4. Further Resolves that the ICT will consist of 6 judges, each three will be elected by the GA every two years, and its main goals are to: A. Help draft new international laws regarding terrorism, B. Prosecute any terrorist which has been captured by any UN member country, C. Prosecute any country suspected of housing terrorism, D. Hold a special session to instantly resolve any terrorism related dispute that is not resolved within one year;
5. Decides that the UNCLCT and the ICT will both draft an international law regarding terrorism during 6 months, which will include: A. The rights of terrorists that have been captured before being prosecuted, B. The sentence that the captured terrorist will get after proven guilty of the crime of terrorism, C. The place of imprisonment of the terrorist;
6. Further decides that the law created by the ICT and the UNCLCT will be posted on the internet of the official United Nations Website (http://www.un.org), and print simplified versions of this law on pamphlets and distribute them in member counties;
7. Notes that the UNCLCT will publics a monthly "Terrorism Black List" that will include: A. Countries suspected of helping terrorist groups and encouraging terrorism, B. Countries that have been proven to house terrorist organization, it will be proven through: I. When a UN member state suspects another country of terrorism, the UNCLCT will send agents, with the countries approval, to inspect the claims, II. An ICT trial will be held between the suspecting nation and the suspected nation, III The 6 judges will decide based on the evidence presented will whether the suspected nation is a nation that houses terrorism, IV. No action will be taken before the suspected nation is formally charged with housing terrorism, C. Countries that do not cooperate with the UNCLCT and the ICT, D. Countries that do not abide by the International Terrorism Law;
8. Further Notes that the Terrorism Black List will be publish on the UN web page and the UNCLCT will send this list to every country and send it to their permanent mission to the UN.
Delegate: Altaf Al-Dukair
Question of: The role of the United Nations system in supporting the efforts of African countries to achieve sustainable development.
Defining sustainable development according to the Brundtland report, as a global approach "that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs",
According to Nelson Mendella, "I dream of the realization of the unity of Africa, whereby its leaders combine in their efforts to solve the problems of this continent. I dream of our vast deserts, of our forests, of all our great wildernesses",
According to deputy senate president, Dr. Mantu, "Corruption is the biggest problem in the World and we Africans are greedily corrupt. The whole thing is not worth it and not until people say no to it then there is no way forward,"
Noting the efforts of the SADA, NEPAD, W.B.O, WHO and many other nations who are dedicated in resolving disputed issues in Africa,
Noting with deep concern that children in Africa are not able to continue elementary or even preschool; and are dropping out of school at an abnormally fast rate, according to WB,
According to the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2003, South Africa’s CPI 2003 score is 4.4 and is ranked the 48th most corrupt government,
Alarmed by the deteriorating Economic condition and excessive poverty in Africa,
Taking into concideration the slow process of developmment in Africa and the increasing number of undeveloped countries,
1) Recommends the further establishment of an organization called the UNASDA (United Nations Aid in Sustainable Development in Africa), and this organization should be carried out by: A) Assigning a head quarter in Africa, Nigeria, New York and Geneva B) Maintaining the accounts of each African country in the World Bank Organization through the selected experts, C) Establishing a sub-committee of 15 trained mediators to be: i) Experts to follow though legal doctrines to maintain the efficiency of the accounts of each African county, ii) Experts with at least 10 years of experience in a similar field and mediation skills are required,
2) Resolves that if 2 countries are involved in dispute, they should: A) Request for a mediation that both parties must request, B) Submit their financial records to the UN to keep them updated on their current situations, C) Submit a health record of the countries in question,
3) Urges that if 2 countries agree to mediation it would be carried out by: A) Receive an increase, in WHO funding, which will be decided by the WHO and the ICJ sub-committee, (WRONG VERB) B) Receive an agreement upon settlement of their internal and external dispute, C) Violation in terms of agreement by any of the conflicting partners results in the following: i) All additional funding to the country that violates the agreement would be cut, ii) The matter would be referred to the Security Council, regarding whether it’s a national or civil dispute, to further attempt to resolve this conflict,
4) Calls upon the collaberation of the two conflicting sides and the mediation comitte,
5) Further resolves that IF either/both countries that refuses to take place in mediation, then arbitration would be carried out by: A) Someone deciding in Geneva to submit in arbitration, B) If/when both countries agree to arbitration, to arbitrator will further attempt to resolve this issue, C) Limit time span for arbitration;
6) Strongly urges that either/both sides that do not agree to arbitration, it would affect the either/ both countries by: A) If the governments of either/both countries don’t agree, then there will be Economic embargo, B) If neither the government nor the rebels agree to arbitration, all funds to both countries will be cut, C) If either side does not follow the arbiter’s instructions, it would be referred to the Security Council,
7) Appreciating the efforts of the panel, which are staffed UN representatives, UN Aid representatives, the IMF and WBO representatives, by providing up to half percent of their countries GDP for the most improved corrupt countries.
Commission 1, Khaled Al-Rubei
Honorable chair, fellow delegates,
Voltaire once said
"Each player must accept the cards life deals him or her: but once they are in hand, he or she alone must decide how to play the cards in order to win the game"
The game? West Africa's stability. The Players? The West African nations. Honorable delegates the West African nations must be able to have the power to solve their own problems if there is a continual dependency on aid it will without a doubt weaken them economically and politically yet we still hold a great moral obligation towards them. We must surely help them economically, but we, the international community, must only be the dealers in the game we can only give them hints and support them it is our job and our duty to make sure West Africa can come up with a mechanism to be self dependent. So honorable delegates it is our duty and our obligation to make sure that everyone is a winner in the game.
Commission Two, Decolonial, Mishal Al-Rashoud
Honorable Delegates, Most distinguished chair
France is honored to be here today in front of you to try and solve some vary important issues affecting the world today. However France is sorry to say that the issue of dividing Iraq would not be on our agenda today had it not been for a certain country which interfered with Iraq’s national sovereignty causing many innocent deaths and war.
However, this is now PAST TENSE, and we need to work together to one REBUILDING IRAQ, which….. Rebuilding Iraq needs to be a joint issue, and no country has the means to do so alone or state to have the legitimacy to do so. The united nations need to be the key factor in this issue. Our actions must be guided by principles, and we must act in the will of dialogue and tolerance.
Commission Three, Legal, Nasser Al-Aujan
Bonjour Madame e Monsieur,
Imagine you are sitting at a diner table under the light of the moon, the fresh warm breeze of air stroking your face. Imagine you are sipping a glass of one of the finest champagnes watching the garcon curve and serve you a piece of cheese. Imagine you tear a piece of freshly baked baguette and allow it to melt in your mouth and enjoy its taste. Imagine you look out at the horizon and find the Eiffel Tower tearing the skies. You know that you are living in a reality, not in a dream. You know that you are experiencing a fine dinner in one of the loveliest and most spectacular cities of the world. Paris, France. Your dream … Your reality …
ECOSOC, Altaf Al-Dukair
Honorable chair, fellow delegates and most distinguished guests,
From the land of passions and fidelity, where all dreams come true. From the land of prosperity, arts and fashion. To the chimes of the bells of Notre Dame, up to the breath taking view of the Eiffel Tower and down to the wonderful streets of Paris. France greets you.
Ladies and gentlemen, in Africa, half of its population lives on less than one US. dollar per day. Poverty, illiteracy, HIV/AIDS, civil wars and corrupt governance all add up to the situation that has been aptly called the ‘African Tragedy’. France hopes that all nations would aid Africa in passing through this long tunnel to see a new light.
GA(1), Khaled Al-Rubei, Ambassador
In GA (1) France had a very productive assembly. The issues ranged from the threat of nuclear prolifiration in North Korea to the stability in West Africa. During lobbying and merging France lead the African nations and submitted its resolution backed by Geunia, Serria Leone, Nigria, and many other nations. In the North Korean issue France backed Japan on its effort in dismantling North Korea’s nuclear weapons. Duing the assmbley France spoke as co-submitter for Japan’s resolution which was the first resolution to be passsed. When debating France’s resolution France spoke and yeilded to Guenia, the assembly was convinced with the resolution that no one spoke against it and it passed nearly unanimously.
GA (2) Mishal Al-Rashoud,
In the AMMUN event I had a very productive time in the lobying and merging session. I came out as a main-submitter on an issue I did not right a resolution on, I achieved this with my very smart and adequate speaking skills. I also achieved being a main-co submitter. In the issue I passed my resolution which was on the UNRWA’s role in creating a Palestinian state, and Turkmeniistan and I passed a resolution I was a main-co on which was about establishing an Iraqi government. I was kind of disapointed with the quality of debate. Had it not been for Al-Bayan students the whole event would have been very inactive and tasteless.
GA (3) Naser Al-Aujuan, The AMMUN Event held in Amman, Jordan was one of the most successful events I ever participated in. France in the Third General Assembly merged successfully, for it was the main-submitter on the the terrorism issue, backed by most of the European nations, including Spain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Russia, Norway, and Italy. Although the chairs were alittle bias towards their schools, France’s resolution was chosen to be debated and passed with an overwhelming majority after a benifisal debate, which most delegates talked for including Isreal and Palestinian National Authority.
ECOSOC Altaf Al-Dukair, The AMMUN Event, which was held in Amman, Jodan, was truly a succesful one. The coubtry for France consisted of 4 deligates: Khaled Al- Rubie, the Ambassidor, Altaf Al-Dukair, the Vice Ambassidor, Nasser Al- Aujan who was in the the Third Assembly, Socual committee and last but not least, Mishal Rushoud where he was in the Second Assembly, Political/ Decol. In the ECOSOC Assembly, at first lobbying and merging was a total catastrophe, due to the chair being not only biast, but unexperienced. They sided for their schools while being predjudice towards the Al-Bayan students. After the nightmeare that was lobbying and merging, the next day the event was held in the Intercontinental Hotel itself. It was imprtersive and benifisial, but the deligates of ECOSOC sided and voted for wrong and unmeaningful resolutions. France was a main subitter for one resoltion and a main co-subbmitter for the next. I debated continusiosly for resoltions that would hopefully pass and some resolutions that would hopefully fail. France proved a very useful point about sustainable developement in Africa, where I single handedly changed many deligates’ minds about voting against these resolutions. It was my first time in the ECOSOC Assembly and hopefully it won’t be my last.