Country: Switzerland


Event: AMMUN 2003

Students:

Fatima Abdul-Kareem, Commission One, Disarmament
Sara Al-Muzani, Commission Two, Political/Decolonial
Laila Barghouti, Commission Three, Legal




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Switzerland




The Swiss National Anthem


Switzerland

Original German Words

Trittst im Morgenrot daher,
Seh' ich dich im Strahlenmeer,
Dich, du Hocherhabener, Herrlicher!
Wenn der Alpen Firn sich rötet,
Betet, freie Schweizer, betet.
Eure fromme Seele ahnt (repeat)
Gott im hehren Vaterland!
Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland!

Kommst im Abendglühn daher,
Find' ich dich im Sternenheer,
Dich, du Menschenfreundlicher, Liebender!
In des Himmels lichten Räumen
Kann ich froh und selig träumen;
Denn die fromme Seele ahnt (repeat)
Gott im hehren Vaterland!
Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland!

Ziehst im Nebelflor daher,
Such' ich dich im Wolkenmeer,
Dich, du Unergründlicher, Ewiger!
Aus dem grauen Luftgebilde
Bricht die Sonne klar und milde,
Und die fromme Seele ahnt (repeat)
Gott im hehren Vaterland!
Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland!

Fährst im wilden Sturm daher,
Bist du selbst uns Hort und Wehr,
Du, allmächtig Waltender, Rettender!
In Gewitternacht und Grauen
Laßt uns kindlich ihm vertrauen!
Ja, die fromme Seele ahnt (repeat)
Gott im hehren Vaterland!
Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland!


Original French Words

Sur nos monts, quand le soleil
Annoce un brilliant réveil,
Et prédit d'un plus beau jour Le retour,
Les beautés de la patrie
Parlent à l'âme attendrie;
Au ciel montent plus joyeux, (repeat)
Les accents d'un cœur pieux,
Les accents émus d'un cœur pieux.

Lorsqu'un doux rayon du soir
Joue encore dans le bois noir,
Le cœur se sent plus heureux près de Dieu
Loin des vain bruits de la plaine
L'âme en paix est plus sereine;
Au ciel montent plus joyeux,(repeat)
Les accents d'un cœur pieux,
Les accents émus d'un cœur pieux.

Lorsque dans la sombre nuit
La foudre éclate avec bruit,
Notre cœur pressent encore le Dieu fort.
Dans l'orage et la détresse,
Il est notre forteresse.
Offrons-Lui de cœurs pieux (repeat)
Dieu nous bénira des cieux,
Dieu nous bénira du hauts des cieux.

Des grand monts vient le secours,
Suisse! espère en Dieu toujours!
Garde la foi des aïeux, vis comme eux!
Sur l'autel de la partrie
Met tes biens, ton cœurs, ta vie!
C'est le trésor précieux (repeat)
Que Dieu nous bénira des cieux,
Que Dieu nous bénira du hauts des cieux.


Original Italian Words

Quando il ciel di porpora
Nuovo dì colora,
Te rivela aurora,
Ô Signor!
Nel tripudio del matino
A Te grato io m'inchino:
Libertà, concordia, amor, (repeat)
All' Elvezia serba ognor. (repeat)

Se di stelle è un giubilo
La celeste sfera,
Te ritrovo a sera,
Ô Signor!
Nella notte silenziosa
L'alma mia in Te riposa:
Libertà, concordia, amor, (repeat)
All' Elvezia serba ognor. (repeat)

Quando tristi velano
Atre nubi il cielo,
Te presente anelo,
Ô Signor!
Se m'ascondi la Tua luce,
Il mio spirito a Te m'adduce:
Libertà, concordia, amor, (repeat)
All' Elvezia serba ognor. (repeat)

Quando rugge e strepita
Impetuoso il nembo,
M'è ostel Tuo grembo,
Ô Signor!

In ti fido, onnipossente:
Deh, proteggi nostra gente:
Libertà, concordia, amor, (repeat)
All' Elvezia serba ognor. (repeat)


Original Surselvisch Words

Cu las pezzas dal sulegl
Splendureschan bein marvegl,
Ves jeu Tei, sublim Signur,
Creatur!
Cu las brischan dall' aurora,
Ura, liber Svizzer, ura!
Ti has lu in sentiment, (repeat)
De tiu Bab sul firmament,
De tiu Bab, tiu Bab, sul firmament.

Cu il serendent sulegl
Resplendescha da smarvegl,
Anflel Tei, miu Creatur,
Amatur!
Vesel nundumbreirlas steilas,
Tarlischontas sco candeilas.
Jeu hai lu in sentiment, (repeat)
De tiu Bab sul firmament,
De tiu Bab, tiu Bab, sul firmament.

Cu orcans sut il sulegl
Mettan tut en discavegl,
Stai cun mei, o Directeur,
Salvatur!
Els orcans ils pli sgarscheivels.
Su cun Tiu agid statteivels.
Jeu hai lu in sentiment, (repeat)
De tiu Bab sul firmament,
De tiu Bab, tiu Bab, sul firmament.


Original Ladinisch Words

In l'aurora la daman
At cognuoscha bain l'uman,
Spiert etern Dominatur,
Toutpussant!
Cur ils munts stragluschansura,
Ura, liber Svizzer, ura!
Tia orma sainta ferm, (repeat)
Dieu in tschêl, il Bap etern!
Dieu in tschêl il Bap, il Bap etern!

Eir la saira in splendur
Da las stailas in l'azur
Tai chattain nus, creatur,
Toutpussant!
Cur cha 'l firmamaint sclarescha
In noss cours fidanza crescha.
Tia orma sainta ferm, (repeat)
Dieu in tschêl, il Bap etern!
Dieu in tschêl il Bap, il Bap etern!

Tü a nus nun est zoppà
Cur il tschêl in nüvlas sta,
Tü imperscrutabel spiert,
Toutpussant!
Tschêl e terra t'obedeschan
Vents e nüvlas secundeschan.
Tia orma sainta ferm, (repeat)
Dieu in tschêl, il Bap etern!
Dieu in tschêl il Bap, il Bap etern!
Eir l'orcan plü furius
Nun at muossa main a nus,
Sco il dirigent dal muond,
Tuotpussant!
Eir in tempirals terribels
Sun teis vorderns bain visibels.
Tia orma sainta ferm, (repeat)
Dieu in tschêl, il Bap etern!
Dieu in tschêl il Bap, il Bap etern!


English:

When the morning skies grow red
And o'er us their radiance shed,
Thou, O Lord, appeareth in their light.
When the Alps glow bright with splendour,
Pray to God, to Him surrender,
For you feel and understand, (repeat)
That He dwelleth in this land. (repeat)

In the sunset Thou art nigh
And beyond the starry sky,
Thou, O loving Father, ever near.
When to Heaven we are departing,
Joy and bliss Thou'lt be imparting,
For we feel and understand (repeat)
That Thou dwellest in this land. (repeat)

When dark clouds enshroud the hills
And gray mist the valley fills,
Yet Thou art not hidden from Thy sons.
Pierce the gloom in which we cower
With Thy sunshine's cleansing power
Then we'll feel and understand (repeat)
That God dwelleth in this land. (repeat)



 



Country Profile



Political Structure (Sarah Al-Muzaini)

Switzerland is a federal republic; its official name is the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland's constitution was ratified on 29 May, 1874. The country's capital is Bern. Its government is made up of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches. The Executive Branch is led by the President (since 1 January 2003, Pascal Couchepin), who is both head of government and chief of state. There is also a Vice President (since 1 January 2003, Ruth Meltzer), and a Federal Council, or cabinet, which is elected by the Federal Assembly usually from among its own members for a four-year term. In the Legislative Branch, the members of the bicameral Federal Assembly and the National Council are elected by a popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms. Finally, the Judicial Branch is the country's Federal Supreme Court; judges are elected for six-year terms by the Federal Assembly. The Swiss constitution is based on a civil, or customary, law system wherein strict enforcement of government laws is compulsory (except in the case of federal decrees). The Swiss government generally respects ICJ jurisdiction.

 

Geography (Fatma Al-Abdul-kareem)

Switzerland is a rich nation located in western Europe. Switzerland is a landlocked country that has some lakes and rivers, such as the Rhine, as its boundaries. Italy is to the south, France is to the west, Liechtenstein and Austria are to the east, and Germany is to the north of Switzerland. Switzerland has an area of about 41,290 sq. km, including land and water. Switzerland's climate is generally cool, and cold in the winter (during the year, temperatures range between approximately -3° and 28°. Switzerland has cold, cloudy, and wet winters, while summers are warm, cloudy, and humid with occasional showers. The topography of Switzerland is made up of mountain ranges, like the Alps and the Jura, and a plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes in the center of the country. The country's elevation extremes are Lake Maggiore 195 m for the lowest point, and Dufourspitze 4,634 m for the highest point. Natural hazards in Switzerland include avalanches, landslides, and flash floods.

 

Natural Resources (Sarah Al-Muzaini)

Water is the chief natural resource of Switzerland. The main source of water is runoff from the considerable annual rain that falls in the Alps. An important balance [?] is the melt water from the country’s hundreds of glaciers. The Swiss have long harnessed the strength of falling water for productive uses. Long ago, torrents turned waterwheels that powered mills and machinery. Today, the flow is captured by hundreds of hydroelectric power services, which provide 60 percent of the country’s domestic electricity.

Mineral resources are not abundant in Switzerland. Besides small deposits of iron and manganese ores, salt, granite, limestone, and other stones used for construction are the only abundant mineral resources with commercial value. About 11% of Switzerland’s land is used for agriculture, while 30% of the country is covered by forests. Steep land is the principal obstacle to farming development. The mountainous landscape is, however, central to the country’s famous tourism industry, one of Switzerland’s most important revenue sources.

 

Cultural Factors (Laila Barghouti)

Of Switzerland's population of 7.1 million people, the main languages spoken are German, French, Italian, and Romansch. The main religion is Christianity. The average life expectancy in Switzerland is 76 years for men and 82 years for woman. Maternal and infant mortality are low. A popular motto is "Unity, yes; uniformity, no." Swiss are very proud of their environment and have a long tradition of freedom. They value sobriety, economy, tolerance, promptness, and a sense of responsibility. They are very proud of their neutrality and promotion of world wide peace.

The Swiss have a deep-rooted respect for material wealth, and are generally known for conservative and neat attire. For instance, in business meetings, men tend to wear suits and ties, woman suits or dresses. In daily life, gifts are not to be exchanged and small gifts with your company logo are acceptable. Nowadays, women are becoming more and more involved in business and public life in Switzerland, though the banking and finance industries continue to be dominated by men. Since Switzerland has no natural resources, education and knowledge have become very important resources. Therefore Switzerland claims to have one of the world's best education systems. In Switzerland, most children go to public schools, since private schools usually are expensive.

 

Defense (Fatma Al-Abdul-kareem)

Switzerland is a peaceful country. Switzerland has a population that contains 7,318,638 people. The Swiss security forces are composed of about 1,834,638 men who are over twenty years old; this is 1/7 of Switzerland's population. The security forces have several branches, which are the Air Force, the Frontier Guards, and the Fortification Guards. The money spent for the defense forces is about $2.548 billion.

 

Economy (Laila Barghouti)

The currency used today in Switzerland is the Swiss Franc; its exchange rate with the US. dollar is 1.5586. The average annual income in Switzerland is $38,330. Switzerland is a wealthy and stable modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita GPD larger than that of the big western European economies. The Swiss GDP is 360 billion Swiss Francs. Switzerland opted for a reliable policy for free trade and openness to the world. Switzerland has a tradition of entering into partnerships with other countries to export products and services of high value added content. This is the basis for Switzerland's healthy balance of payments and high standard of living. One half of Switzerland's GDP today comes from foreign trade. Swiss export merchandise includes machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, and agriculture products; export partners are Germany, France, Italy, the UK, the United States, and Japan. Import merchandise includes chemicals, vehicles, metals, textiles, and agriculture products; import partners are Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands, and the United States.

The Swiss economy is divided into three sectors: agriculture, industry, and services. The principle cash crops are sugar beat, potatoes, and wheat. Even though less than 10% of the Swiss work in the primary sector, it is strongly supported by the government. Industry, which includes mining, manufacturing, power-generation, and construction, employs about 40% of the population. The main products of the secondary sector are machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, and jewelry. More than half of the Swiss population works in services, mainly banking, insurance, and tourism. Banking is one of the most important businesses of the Swiss tertiary sector because Swiss markets account for a significant share of international financial dealings. The insurance business is also highly developed; Swiss companies are represented throughout the world. The Swiss earn considerable income from tourism both in the summer and the winter.

 

View of World Problems (Sarah Al-Muzaini)

Switzerland's independence and neutrality have long been honored by the major European powers. Switzerland was also not directly involved in either World War I or World War II. The increased political and economic integration of Europe over the past half-century, as well as Switzerland's role in many UN and international organizations, has strengthened Switzerland's ties with its neighbors. Swiss companies share substantial business relationships with many of Switzerland's neighbors in Europe and countries outside of Europe. Switzerland maintains generally neutral relations with foreign countries. However, Switzerland did not officially become a UN-member until 2002. Switzerland remains active in many UN and other international organizations, while retaining a strong commitment to neutrality.

 

History (Fatma Al-Abdul-kareem)

A Celtic tribe, called the Helvetians, lived in Switzerland between [dates]. They were conquered by Julius Caesar, in BCE 58. Switzerland then became a province of the Roman empire. By CE 400 two Germanic tribes settled there, and in CE 500 they were conquered. Those people then increased the amount of occupied land and became powerful and big [ak]. However, that tribe then broke apart during the 800s; Switzerland became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 962 (the northern part of Switzerland, called Burgundy, joined the Holy Roman Empire in 1033). By the 1200s the Habsburg family had gained control over the Holy Roman Empire; in 1273 Rudolf I became the first Habsburg family member to rule that state. In 1291 three regions of the Holy Roman Empire decided to get their independence. Switzerland won three wars between 1315 and 1388.

By the 1470s Switzerland has become a European power. In 1648 the Holy Roman Empire recognized Switzerland as an independent country. In 1798 the French occupied Switzerland. In 1920 the city of Geneva was made the first headquarters of the League of Nations; it was an honor for Swiss to be the headquarters of this organization. In 1960 Switzerland helped form the European Free Trade Association. In 1971 women won voting rights. Today, Switzerland avoids membership in international organizations that might endanger or compromise its neutrality.

 

 

 

Switzerland: Policy Statements


Disarmament Committee (Fatma Al Abdul-kareem)

1. The containment of the risk of nuclear proliferation in North Korea.

The containment of nuclear weapons and mass destruction weapons should be in action. This produces a risk of having a race for being armed and that is not a good thing for all the nations, it makes countries aggressive and hostile while they could be peaceful and calm and focused on their goals not wars. If every country wanted to possess, or did possess, nuclear weapons the world will be a disaster from the wars and losses of people that would happen.

It is the position of Switzerland that for the best interest of North Korea is to eliminate its supply of WMD because they are not doing anything accept a risk and fear for other countries that do not posses these weapons and don't have the ability to.

 

2. The trade-off between the trend of increasing military expenditure and development, and the resultant effect on international peace.

Military expenditures are increasing by every single minute we talk in, it is an issue that must be solved, because millions and billions of dollars, pounds, euros are spent on military devices that are only been kept for a day that may then be used if necessarily needed to. The race in which countries are running in is affecting the international peace of the countries around it. The effect of national peace and security in the worlds regions.

Switzerland believes large amounts of money spent and that are being used not helpfully for the country's other investments, where mostly a third of its income is devoted to weapons purchases, and investing in the development of military technology. These issues are becoming a problem and should be solved by good reasoning to have decrease the amounts of money spent and invested in military devices.

 

3. Maintenance of international security: good neighborliness, stability and development in West Africa.

International security is a thing that should and always be exact in because it is a big and heavy issue. It affects a lot of things like the stability of a country that doesn't have the maintenance of security internationally around it. International security contains of good neighbors like countries that help solve conflicts, give donations, and be friends with you. The stability and development of countries in West Africa. These countries have a conflict that is around arming. Along with that these countries have a lot of diseases spreading which further makes this situation harder and harder.

Switzerland hopes that some kind of solution would happen to lessen and decrease the situation of decrease the spreading and makes the relationships of these countries strengthen up so they could combine in forces in a mutual benefit.

 

 

Special Political and Decolonization Commission Two (Sara Al-Muzaini)

1. The role of UNRWA (United Nations Relief Work Agency for Palestine) and other relief agencies in the possible creation of a Palestinian state, and their role in current host refugee countries should the right to return not be established.

The role of UNRWA and related organizations is to facilitate the creation of a Palestinian state in order to end the territorial conflict that has been going on for many years between Palestinians and the Israelis. If an organization reaches an effective solution, then this will end the large amount of deaths of innocent lives. This problem causes a lot of damage to the country itself as well as the living state of many citizens. This conflict must be solved as soon as possible in order to create a better life for everyone and so that both countries will then be able to start a new life and to progress.

Switzerland feels that this issue should be solved in the near future in order to create a better life for everyone. However, in order to resolve this conflict a lot of work is required from the UNRWA and other similar organizations. Meaning, that more effective resolutions should be presented that offer a fair part to both sides. Then, the best solution is the one that will be carried out. However, these organizations should discuss and meet together in order to come up with a solution that everyone agrees with. Therefore, Switzerland supports these organizations because Switzerland strongly believes that both the Palestinian and Israeli people deserve to have their own country and to carry out life normally without any problems. Also, Switzerland greatly supports the fact that the children from both countries should be educated and should live in healthy conditions; and this war that has been going on reflects on the life of these children and the education they get. Children shouldn’t be concerned whether they will have less classmates in class today due to some deaths. They shouldn’t be scared about their family members and the people they care about. The children need to live a healthy and normal environment as well as focus on their education and not on other disturbing issues. In the end, this problem should be solved as soon as possible for everyone's advantage.

 

2. The conflict between national sovereignty and the right of the international community to intervene in the domestic affairs of other countries.

Every country has a right to have its own policies and rules. Therefore, each country is allowed to carry out its own dominion as long as no citizens are having their rights taken from them. Nowadays, however a lot of countries tend to take away their citizens rights by trying to eliminate as much terrorism groups and plans as possible. Other times, countries tend to make wrong actions instead of right ones. This causes other countries to interfere due to the wrong decisions and create conflicts between each other. However, in order to solve this problem a guideline should be provided by the UN in order to eliminate as many countries' wrong-doings as possible, which will then abolish the interference of other countries and the creation of problems.

Switzerland is a neutral country. Therefore, it tries not to interfere with the actions of any country. It respects other countries choices and decisions in order not to violate national sovereignty. However, Switzerland believes that a lot of countries have created problems for a lot of innocent citizens by making the wrong decisions. It believes that a guideline by the UN should be created. However, this guideline should be only to help countries in making the right decisions. It may contain some suggestions and solutions to some issues. In the end however, each country is entitled to make its own decisions. If countries follow this effective guideline, then the countries will be providing their citizens with the life they deserve. This way, national sovereignty is not being violated, the guideline just helps countries in leading them in the right direction and this will make life better for a lot of citizens and even help countries that have been insolvent due to the making of wrong decisions.

 

 

Legal Commission (Laila Barghouti)

1. Measures to legally combat international terrorism and the growth of supra-national terrorist groups.

The question of a definition of terrorism has haunted the debate among states for decades. The UN member states still have no agreed-upon definition. They, including Switzerland, agreed to a terminology of terrorism, which is that it is "an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by semi-clandestine individuals, group or state actors for criminal or political reasons, whereby—in contrast to assassination—the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators."

Terrorism has been a major concern for Switzerland for a considerable length of time. Switzerland has deployed all the means at its disposal to prevent financial and logistical support for terrorist groups. As one of the major financial centers of the world, Switzerland wants to see more ambitious international standards developed to counter flows of criminal money. Switzerland became a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and was actively involved in drafting the FATF's 40 recommendations on measures to fight money laundering. These recommendations constitute the internationally recognized standard for the measures, which a country must take to fight money laundering effectively. Switzerland has integrated them entirely within its own legal order. It also has supported the adoption of the specific recommendations of the FATF on fighting terrorism. Measures that are taken by Switzerland to combat terrorism include:
· Adhere to the UN Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings.
· Ratify the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
· Implement the special recommendations aimed at strengthening the fight against the financing of terrorism which were adopted by the FATF following the attacks of 11 September 2001
· Link all Swiss missions abroad to the EVA system (automated system for issuing visas) with a view to combating more efficiently the falsification of documents
· The next revision of the Swiss Penal Code (PC) will include provisions for placing prime responsibility on legal entities for certain violations (criminal organizations, money laundering, corruption of Swiss public officials, granting of advantage, corruption of foreign public officials).

Switzerland became party to the Convention of the Council of Europe on the suppression of terrorism. It is also party to 10 of the 12 conventions and protocols concluded at the United Nations to fight terrorism. Switzerland has also concluded bilateral co-operation agreements in police matters with all its neighboring countries and is cooperating especially closely with them to combat, for example, trafficking in human beings, money laundering, and extremism. Today, Switzerland is already working closely with foreign police authorities through Interpol or via liaison officers of the Federal Office of Police posted in various European countries and in the United States. Switzerland is also carrying out several actions to combat terrorism within the framework of a number of international organizations. For example, it has supported the publication by the World Health Organization (WHO) of a manual on public health measures to take in the event of biological or chemical attack. Finally, Switzerland actively supports the action plans and work in progress in the area of combating terrorism at the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, and at the Council of Europe.

 

2. International regulations dealing with use and misuse of genetic engineering and screening.

Many people have different opinions on cloning. Some people think it's great and we should go right ahead with any research we want to. Other people think it is a horrible idea and no should have anything to do with it. Most people take a moderate stance, somewhere in the middle. Switzerland refuses all research on the human embryo. It is forbidden to produce embryos for any purpose other than procreation. The Swiss constitution already prohibited the reproductive cloning of humans. Some of its concerns about cloning are that psychological harms is associated with a debased sense of individuality because it can degrade the quality of parenting and family life. Also, since life can be replicated so easily, human cloning could create the potential for people to be viewed as objects instead of as ends to themselves. In order to ban cloning, Switzerland became a party of the International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings. The parties this convention, including Switzerland, determined to adopt provisional measures at the national level to prevent potential dangers to the human dignity of the individual pending the adoption and entry into force of an international conversion against the reproductive cloning of human beings. The measures are: to develop the draft convention to include the following elements:
a) Ban reproductive cloning of human beings with no possibility of making any reservations.
b) Make actions to control other forms of human cloning by adopting a ban or imposing a moratorium or regulating them by means of national legislation.
c) To call those states that have not yet done so, pending the adoption and entry into force of an international convention against the reproductive cloning of human beings and their becoming party thereto, to adopt at the national level a prohibition against reproductive cloning of human beings.
d) To invite all parties to take into consideration the contributions of United Nations bodies and to closely involve the United Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural organization and the United Nation Conference on Trade and Development in the negotiations about banning human cloning.

Switzerland as a party of the convention adopted the above measures as a step to ban cloning.

 

3. Defining and modifying the rights of prisoners of war and the scope of extradition law.

The Geneva Conventions are a group of treaties, or written contracts, governing the treatment of members of the military, civilians and prisoners in times of war. There are four Geneva Conventions. They were adopted in 1949, and put into use in 1950. Switzerland was one of the founders of the convention and it is the depository country of the convention. The first convention provides protection to the wounded and sick members of the armed forces on land. The second provided protection to the wounded and sick members of the armed forces at sea. The third provides protection to the prisoners of war and the fourth to civilians. There are some violations of the Geneva Convention, such as
(1) Releasing photos, images, or video of POW's. ( violation of article 13 )
(2) The pressure for information on the POWs' hometowns (violation of article 17 )
(3) Some POWs were hooded, gagged, and bound, then shipped to temporary quarters at Camp X-Ray consisting of chain-link fences, with no protection from the elements. They were also denied access from the Red Cross. (violation of article 73 )

(4) The Human Right Watch (a non-governmental organization) says it would be better to concentrate on ensuring that the existing Geneva Conventions are upheld. That criticism came at the end of an international seminar at Harvard University, organized by the Swiss government. The seminar brought together over 60 specialists in humanitarian law, including military lawyers and diplomats. Switzerland, as the depository country of the Geneva Convention, has traditionally taken a keen interest in the upholding and application of humanitarian law. The head of the Swiss delegation in Harvard, Peter Maurer, said "I don’t think there is any major idea coming out of this meeting that the obligations under the Geneva Conventions should be questioned. There may be different views on how best to apply the Conventions, but there is no questioning of the principles. What we would rather see is a strong campaign to ensure that the existing Conventions are upheld. What we need now is pressure to really enforce them, not to rewrite them."

Above all, when the world's only superpower tries to step outside the Geneva Convention, it sends a terrible signal to other governments. It is a ready made excuse to avoid complying with humanitarian law.

 

 

 

Switzerland: Resolutions




Student: Fatma Al Abdul-kareem

Commission One: The Disarmament Commission

Issue: The Trade-off between the trend of increasing military expenditures and development, and the resultant effect on the international peace.

Defining international peace as the relation between two or more nations and the absence of war between them,

Believes that the increase of weapons and military expenses is not in the favor of any manufacturing country because other consumer countries won't deal with the increase of military expenses,

Expects the manufacturing nations to decrease the prices and expenses of military devices,

Aware of the extra loads that the manufacturing nations would have but appreciates the effort of decreasing the expenses,

Noting with deep concern that the increase of the US and Russian, African, and South Asian military expenditure between 1998 and 2000 raised up to 5% in real terms,

Observing the rapid increase of military expenditures in the world in approximately 1 year the difference has increased from 2.6% to 2.75% in years 1999 to year 2000,

Keeping in mind that the increase would affect the budget and GDP's of nations for example the US increases its military expenses to 37% in year 2000. Russian military expenditure has been extraordinary during the two years 1999–2000: roughly 44% in real terms,

1. Resolves the creation of an expertise weapon committee to decide the expenses as it see it reasonable, this organization would be a UN sub-organization called the (UNMEC), it stands for the united nation military expenses control:
A. Which organizes and sets international prices for all kinds of weapons internationally for all countries in it,
B. Distributes all around the important nations that use lots of military weapons to help them lower their expenses,
C. Have a number of weapon price tellers working for it to be more sufficient,
D. Has an office in the nation that is seen to need an office in;

2. Seeks to enlarge its offices until the nations are satisfied with its performance;

3. Further resolves that the offices would have supervisors and they will be continuing the process until they nations are satisfied with what they have reached with expense decisions;

4. Urges all nations that are interested in lowering their military device expenses to join this committee;

5. Encourages other countries to join in to have lower expenses for all countries, including it, when joining this organization.

 

 

SUBJECT OF RESOLUTION: The conflict between national sovereignty and the right of the international community to intervene in the domestic affairs of other countries.

SUBMITTED TO: Special Political and Decolonization Commission

SUBMITTED BY: Confederation of Switzerland (Sarah Al-Muzaini)

Defines "national sovereignty" as the right of a state to carry out its own regulations, and authority, that is complete independence in all its decisions,

Further defines that no country has the right to violate national sovereignty, meaning to tell a country what to do. However, it sometimes may be a country's government that has made a wrong decision causing harm to the citizens and when other countries interfere that’s what causes problems. Unfortunately, a lot of conflicts have been created due to the violation of National Sovereignty,

Applauds the UN's various actions and countries that have tried to solve this issue,

Deeply disturbed of the fact that many resolutions concerning other issues tend to violate national sovereignty and that not many countries realize that, which only causes more problems,

Alarmed by the fact that more than half the countries in the world have some conflicts with other countries (whether minor or major) due to the violation of national sovereignty and telling other countries what to do,

Keeping in mind that any solution, even if minor, is always a start to make the world a better place, as well as making it peaceful,

1. Resolves that a UN Sub-Organization be created and will be called the National Sovereignty Guidelines Organization (NSGO), which shall:
A. Hold a meeting in Bern, Switzerland, which will allow any country willing to prevent any conflicts between countries and to end problems to attend, and which shall:
I. discuss the importance of this issue and why it must be solved as soon as possible,
II. discuss the importance of national sovereignty and remind countries not to violate it,
III. discuss some conflicts between countries that occurred due to the isolation of national sovereignty;

2. Further resolves that in the meeting, countries shall:
A. Agree on the amount of the branches for the sub-organization that should be placed and where, possibly at least one branch per continent,
B. Agree on the fact that each branch will have its own team of specialists who will:
I. observe countries relations and keeping track of any changes in their relations that will be presented to the NSGO at the yearly meeting, which will, if the problems have decreased, discuss the progress being made by the organization,
II. make sure that these countries do not violate national sovereignty;

3. Emphasizes that this organization will develop a non-binding guideline that offers different solutions to different problems, which will allow each country to choose the best solution for its own problem and the solution will be to benefit everyone;

4. Reassures that this guideline will be presented by all the countries wishing to join the NSGO and will not violate any country in any way;

5. Encourages all countries to vote for this resolution in order to stop the conflicts that have been taking place for everyone's advantage.

 

 

Forum: Legal

Submitted by: Switzerland

Question of: International regulations dealing with use and misuse of genetic engineering and screening.

Defining "human cloning" as human asexual reproduction in which genetic material from one person is artificially transferred into a human, thereby beginning the life of a new human individual who has only one parent,

Noting that the world's population is 6,333,109,297 according to U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center,

Recalling the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational. Scientific and cultural Organization on November 1997, and in particular article 11 thereof, which states that practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as the human cloning should not be permitted,

Noting with deep concern that scientists agree that such attempts pose a massive risk of producing children who are stillborn, unhealthy, or severely disabled,

Keeping in mind that because it is an asexual form of reproduction, cloning confounds the meaning of "father" and "mother" and confuses the identity of any cloned child,

Fully aware of the potential for human cloning and genetic enhancement to destroy natural, biological processes as with natural selection,

Fully alarmed that effort to create human beings by cloning mark a decisive step toward turning human reproduction into a manufacturing process in which children are made in laboratories,

Concerned about the serious difficulties of a medical, physical, psychological and social nature that human cloning may be imply for the individuals involved, and it may cause the exploitation of woman,

Deeply concerned that human could be created to create a race of war super fighters to take over the world, and created for a sole organ and then killed

Understanding that we cannot possibly understand all the human rights violations that could occur if these practices became common

Seeking to promote scientific and technical progress in the fields of biology and genetics in a manner respectful of human rights,

Determined to prevent as a matter of urgency such an attack on the human dignity of the individual,

1) Affirms the creation of the Anti-cloning Organization (ACO), which will:
a) Consist of all countries working against cloning and all other countries wishing to join this organization,
b) Head quarters will be located in Geneva, Switzerland, however, the organization will have 4 branches in Asia, 2 in Africa, 2 in Europe, and 6 in South and North America,
c) The headquarters will be elected by members of the organization,
d) Higher number of scientists to work on applying this resolution,
e) Assign workers that will be responsible for the following clauses,
f) Consist of small group which will spread public awareness,
g) Determine the salaries of the staff,

2) Recommends that the task of the ACO, for a start, will:
a) Hold talks and demonstrations and also online socialize activities to bring together ideas and also ideals to people,
b) Publish monthly flyers and procures from recycled paper that are given to citizens for free to enlighten them about the risks of cloning,

3) Requests the professional scientists that are assigned by the ACO to do the following:
a) Follow that progress in scientific and biotechnological developments in the field of genetic and reproductive medicine in order to provide a comparative updated study of trends in the field and their implications,
b) Do researches on alternative technologies such as adult stem cell research,

4) Further Request schools to make workshops for the students to teach them bout cloning and its risks. AOC can help in sending professionals to the schools to hold these workshops.

5) Encourages states and other entities to direct funds that might have been used for humane cloning technologies to pressing global issues in developing countries such as famine, desertification, infant mortality and diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS)

6) Solemnly affirms that every member in the ACO should have a legislation that contains the following clauses:
a) No person or entity, public or private, shall:
i) Perform or attempt to perform human cloning;
ii) Participate in an attempt to perform human cloning;
iii) Ship or receive the product of human cloning for any purpose;
iv) Import the product of human cloning for any purpose;

7) Calls Upon for the investigators that will be part of the ACO, these investigators are to receive from every country number of births and deaths that occurred in each month. Any suspecting in number of births or missing births or deaths in hospitals records, ACO will investigate in that country it permitted to make sure that no one is cloning illegally,

8) Declares accordingly that:
a) Any person who commits an act in violation of the above clauses shall be punished with minimum of 10 years in prison,
b) Any person or entity that commits an act in violation of the above clauses that involves the derivation of money gain shall be subject to a civil penalty of the greater of:
i) One million dollar; or
ii) And amount equal to twice the amount of the gross money they gained;

 

 

 

Switzerland: Opening Speech



Switzerland, a financial center of the world and a steadfast champion of world peace, tenders a warm salute to all nations.

Switzerland expresses its thanks to all countries that seek to resolve global problems, defend national sovereignty, and protect the rights of the individual citizen. Switzerland supports any organization willing to make our world into a better place for all. Therefore, Switzerland participates in many UN organizations, and hopes to work in harmony with other countries. Hopefully, by the end of this session, important solutions will be agreed upon and more countries will agree to work together and respect each other's rights.







Statements of Delegates




Fatma, Political:


To our trip to Jordan for the AMMUN conference, we learned how to be self independent. We had fun at night and got to know some Jordanians. They were very polite and kind. As for the conferences, they were very interesting because there was a lot of discussing and everyone took part in them. The Swiss delegation talked a lot in the assemblies and made good neutral points. That was a very nice and unforgetful trip. I hope to go back to Jordan for another AMMUN conference soon.



Sarah, Decolonial and Ambassador:


During the AMMUN conference, a lot of participants benefited greatly. They benefited by meeting new people and making friends as well as expressing and listening to different point of views and even discuss politely. It was a very rewarding and great experience because the conferences were most successful and the trip to Jordan was very exciting. Each delegate and ambassador was given a chance to talk and present his/her ideas and point of views. Also, when a lot of delegates worked to together, they came up with very effective and strong resolutions. This definitely showed that teamwork is one of the main keys in solving even the smallest problems. As for the touring in Jordan, it wouldn’t have been as fun or interesting if it hadn’t been for the delegates hospitality and their kindness. I hope that I will take part in another AMMUN conference because it was very enjoyable.



Laila, Legal:


AMMUN was different from KSSA. First of all, people that were in AMMUN came from many different countries. However, in KSSA, delegates came from different schools and one country. I learned a lot of things that deal with different world issues. I even learned how to convince people to vote for certain resolutions. It was very successful because the delegates there knew their issues and resolutions very well. As for KSSA, most of the delegates fought even for the wrong things. The chair was very fair and the delegates were all polite. They all made sure that our trip to Jordan interesting.