The former Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic which is known as Turkmenistan in the present day has five administrative divisions: Ahal Welayaty in its capital Ashgabat, Balkan Welayaty in Balkanabat, Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty in Turkmenabat, and Mary Welayaty. It became independent in the 27th of October 1991 from the Soviet Union. Its legal system is based on the civil law system.
The current chief of state is President Saparmurat Niyazov who is also the chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers. He was first elected on 27 October 1990, during the first presidential election that occurred, then re-elected on 21st of June 1992. The Assembly then elected him president for life on the 28th December 1999, during a session of the People’s Council (Halk Malahaty). The president is also the head of government. Presidents are elected through a popular vote and are elected for five-year term. The cabinet is the Council of Ministers, which is chosen by the president, so is the deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers. For the legislative branch there is two parliamentary bodies, one is the unicameral People's Council (Halk Maslahaty), which has more than 100 seats. Some of the seats are elected by a popular vote and the rest are appointed by the chief of state, they meet at least once every year. And there is a unicameral Assembly (Majlis), which has 50 seats, which are elected through a popular vote for five-year duration. All the elected candidates were pre-approved by the president. Most of the elected officials were member of the Democratic party of Turkmenistan (DPT). The judicial branch is only consisted by the Supreme Court were all the judges are appointed by the president.
The only official political party is the DPT, which is led by the president. Official opposing parties were small and outlawed, they either existed underground or outside the country. The two main opposing parties are the Gundogar and the Erkin party, which have been exiled. The former Foreign Minister Boris Shikhumradov led Gundogar until getting arrested and then imprisoned for the November 25 2002 attempt to assassin the president. Erkin was led by another Foreign Minister Abdy Kuliev and was based outside of Moscow.
Geography: Nasser Al-Qatami
Turkmenistan is a desert country with concentrated agriculture in oases. It also has huge gas and oil resources. In fact it has the 5th largest reserves in the world in gas resources. Turkmenistan has half of it wet land (irrigated) planted with cotton. The amount of cotton it has made the world’s 10th largest cotton producer. Turkmenistan also has grain and livestock. Oil, gas and cotton made up 86% of the export commodities. This indicates that Turkmenistan depends a lot on its agriculture products.
The location of Turkmenistan is Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan. The geographical coordinates are 40 00 N, 60 00 E. The total area is 488,100 sq. km and has no water area. It has a huge land boundary with Iran which is about 1000 KM. The climate is subtropical desert. The natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt.
Natural Resources: Nasser Al-Qatami
The most curious of the Central Asian republics, Turkmenistan resembles an Arab Gulf state without the money. It's the second largest Central Asian country, but four-fifths of it consists of an inhospitable lunar-like desert called the Karakum which conceals unexploited oil and gas deposits. The country is sparsely populated and its people, the Turkomen, are only a generation or two removed from being nomads. Turkmenistan is as much a culture as a country since the Turkomen have never formed a real nation and have allowed their cities to become predominantly populated by other peoples. They place most esteem on a rural life revolving around their famous, traditionally patterned carpets, their ceremonies, hospitality and fleet Akhal-Teke horses.
For the nomadic Turkomen the only piece of furniture worth having was a carpet or three. Easily transportable, the carpets served not just as floor coverings, but as wall linings for the yurt, providing a highly decorative form of insulation. Turkomen textiles artisans have gone quite commercial over the last hundred years: Most 'Bukhara' rugs, so called because they were mostly sold, not made, in Bukhara - are made by Turkomen. These days the swish Ashghabat Carpet Museum or the Tolkuchka market are good places to see these mostly red, mostly geometric, entirely beautiful rugs.
Surprisingly for a country that is mostly uncultivable desert, some of the more interesting Turkomen dishes are vegetarian. Herb-filled pastries and cornmeal pancakes are common in the markets. Porridges with mung beans, or of cornmeal and pumpkin, or of rice, milk and yoghurt, can make a meal. The Turkomen also make a tasty meatless plov (pilaf) with dried fruit.. Economic and political stagnation has had a major effect on Turkmenistan's food industry. Restaurants are scarce and the fare is generally miserable.
Turkmenistan has two military branches, the Ministry of Defense and the National Guard. The Ministry of Defense is responsible for Army, Air defense, Border troops, and internal troops. The expenditures of the army were 90 million dollars. Turkmenistan has no navy however it announced its intention to form navy/coast guard.
Currently the Caspian Sea Flotilla is divided between Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, is operating jointly under the command of Russia. Turkmenistan’s Minister of Defense Batyr Sarjayev met the Chinese Minister of Defense to build up good relations between the two countries. The Minister of defense said that Turkmenistan’s army is young and he hopes that they will learn more from the Chinese army’s experience. For armed forces it has 17,500 active men, and for the army it has 14,000 men and 702 T-72 Tanks. For the air force it has 3,000 men and 89 combat aircraft plus 200 in store.
The military however is not big enough to be depended on. Turkmenistan is still a new country and is working on advancing in military purposes as well as other aspects.
Turkmenistan is largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and huge gas and oil resources. Half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, which is one of the largest 10 producers. In the year 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error.
The GDP purchasing power parity is $26 billion. The GDP is 6 %. For the labor forces, which was estimated in 1996 is 2.34 million. Unemployment is quite high in Turkmenistan but it is improving and becoming better. Turkmenistan's economic status is becoming better by the minute.
Views on World Problems:
Turkmenistan belongs to the following international organizations: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer).
Turkmenistan is what you may call a "neutral" country. With enough reason and logic, you can get it on your side. As long as, human life, health, safety, full moral and physical development are in a good condition then it agrees. It will support any resolution that changes to the better.
Turkmenistan supports Iran over Turkey because it is an Islamic country and is strongly guided by Islam. It is also stronger and closer to Turkmenistan and Turkmenistan needs it support in every way possible. Turkmenistan would like countries to help it get its gas out since it is not advanced enough to do so on its own. They would that country to help and leave, not stay, like the USA.
The origins of the Turkomen may be traced back to the Oghuz confederation of nomadic pastoral tribes of the early Middle Ages, which lived in present-day Mongolia and around Lake Baikal in present-day southern Siberia. Known as the Nine Oghuz, this confederation was composed of Turkic-speaking peoples who formed the basis of powerful steppe empires in Inner Asia. In the second half of the eighth century, components of the Nine Oghuz migrated through Jungaria into Central Asia, and Arabic sources located them under the term Guzz in the area of the middle and lower Syrdariya in the eighth century. By the tenth century, the Oghuz had expanded west and north of the Aral Sea and into the steppe of present-day Kazakstan, absorbing not only Iranians but also Turks from the Kipchak and Karluk ethnolinguistic groups.
Much of what we know about the Turkomen from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries comes from Uzbek and Persian chronicles that record Turkomen raids and involvement in the political affairs of their sedentary neighbors. Beginning in the sixteenth century, most of the Turkomen tribes were divided among two Uzbek principalities: the Khanate (or amirate) of Khiva (centered along the lower Amu Darya in Khorazm) and the Khanate of Bukhoro (Bukhara). Uzbek khans and princes of both khanates customarily enlisted Turkomen military support in their intra and inter-khanate struggles and in campaigns against the Persians. Consequently, many Turkomen tribes migrated closer to the urban centers of the khanates, which came to depend heavily upon the Turkomen for their military forces. The height of Turkomen influence in the affairs of their sedentary neighbors came in the eighteenth century, when on several occasions (1743, 1767-70), the Yomud invaded and controlled Khorazm. From 1855 to 1867, a series of Yomud rebellions again shook the area. These hostilities and the punitive raids by Uzbek rulers resulted in the wide dispersal of the eastern Yomud group.
Commission One, Disarmament: Nasser Al-Qatami
Commission Two, Political/Decol: Bader Al-Mailem
1. The role of UNRWA (United Nations Relief Work Agency for Palestine) and other relief agencies in the possible creation of a Palestinian state, and their role in current host refugee countries should the right to return not be established.
The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) was formed in 1950 and became the provider of basic education, health and social services to registered refugees, who currently are 3.5 million. 25% of them are still living in refugee camps in the West Bank, Gaza, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. Even though lacking a political permission UNRWA became, for refugees and host governments alike, the embodiment of international recognition and concern for the situation of Palestinian refugees. The Palestine Liberation Organization Executive Office of the Refugee Popular Committees has written a letter the UNRWA thanking it for all its aid 1. Several international human rights treaties deal with the freedom of movement, including the right of return such as The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 13(2); The 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 12(4); The 1963 Protocol IV to the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 3(2); The 1969 American Convention on Human Rights, Article 22(5); The 1981 Banjul Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, Article 12(2).
Turkmenistan believes that if the state is created, the UNRWA will not be stopped in the aid of Palestine, for an important reason. The reason is Palestine will not be working normally since it was just created. Turkmenistan also believes that UNRWA should no longer aid Palestine until it its stability as a state is steady. For the refugees situation Turkmenistan believes the only way this is resolved is if the refugees get full citizenship to the country they are currently at.
2. The conflict between national sovereignty and the right of the international community to intervene in the domestic affairs of other countries.
Sovereignty is the quality or authority of being independent and in charge of the conditions you live under. This means that no country has the right to intervene with any countries internal affairs. Every country is responsible for everything that occurs within it borders, and only it is responsible for it. So, no country has the right to intervene in any countries business, unless the country is in need to any kind of assistance, therefore it will ask a country to help it.
Turkmenistan believes that guideline should be established to identify the condition in which countries can intervene in other countries internal affairs. Turkmenistan also believes that the guidelines should be very strict, so national sovereignty would not be elapsed. The most important guideline to be established would be that only if the UN agrees that a country has the right to intervene for certain amount of time stated by the UN.
3. The division of Iraq and the possible establishment of political autonomy along religious and national lines.
Iraq was led by the regime of Saddam Hussein, until April 2003 where his regime was defeated. Currently its government is in transition. Iraq has several ethnic groups such as Arab, Kurds, Turkomans, Assyrians, and other. To achieve peace and stability these groups should have their own territories and their own representatives in the government. Turkmenistan supports the division of Iraq according to ethnic groups. Each group shall have its own state and it shall all be decided according to the population of each group.
However the natural resources each ethnic group has in its land belongs to all the Iraqi people, bearing in mind to which group it belongs to. Each state shall have as many governors it needs to represent it and the governors shall be chosen by the people.. Every decision the country makes will be made by the representatives by voting. The president must belong to the most populated group and the vice-president must belong to the second populated group.
Commission Three, Legal: Abdullah Behbehani
1. Measures to legally combat international terrorism and the growth of supra-national terrorist groups.
The international community continues to be threatened by terrorist groups wrecking havoc and causing destruction around the world. Unfortunately, no consensus has yet been reached regarding what defines a "terrorist" or a "terrorist group", and hence, the work of the international community in combating terrorism is becoming increasingly more difficult. The committee aims to devise methods to legally combat terrorism, but must first reach consensus regarding the controversy of the word.
Turkmenistan wants to make the world a terrorist-free place. Evidence of this doesn't have to refer to any facts or quotes, evidence for this is that it opened its lands for US military to trace down those responsible for the September 11th attacks., Al Qaeda.
"This country [Turkmenistan] has been cooperative on the global war on terrorism, for which we're grateful and appreciative," Rumsfeld said at a brief mid- day press conference here. He said Turkmenistan's significant contribution to the humanitarian effort in Afghanistan "has undoubtedly saved the lives of the Afghan people."
2. International regulations dealing with the use and misuse of genetic engineering and screening.
Turkmenistan is an Islamic country and Islam prohibits cloning, or "genetic engineering", therefore it does not support this whatsoever. It was also a signer of resolution A/c.6/57/L.3 Rev 1 which is against human cloning. Turkmenistan refuses to take any action or show any support towards human cloning and greatly urges all countries not to do so. God is the only the creator.
3. Defining and modifying the rights of prisoners of war and the scope of extradition law.
Turkmenistan hasn't been separated from the Soviet Union from a long time ago. It is a new country. Alleged accusations of not treating prisoners the right way is denied by Turkmenistan since it follows the Geneva Convention rules and does not violate any. The tiny, insignificant amount of people that were treated badly weren't enforced by the government, and they aren't even worth mentioning and cannot be held against Turkmenistan, for every country has its flaws. Turkmenistan is working on any problems it might have and is willing to do anything that is right. Turkmenistan believes that prisoners of war should be given their rights.
Committee One: Political
Issue: The containment of the risk of nuclear proliferation in North Korea
Noting with deep concern that North Korea has developed weapons, Taepodong-2 missiles with a range of up to 6,000 kilometers;
Alarmed by the fact North Korea has threatened to wage war against any country that forcefully sends weapons inspectors into it;
Aware that a North Korean spokesman has said that North Korea is successfully reprocessing more than 8,000 spent fuel rods at the final phase as we sent interim information to the U.S. and other countries concerned early in March after resuming our nuclear activities from December last year;
1) Resolvesthat the UN will hold a talks between North Korea, the United States and all other influential countries with the aim of disarming North Korea and sending inspectors into North Korea
2) Further resolvesthat the talks will entail a nonagression treaty between the United States and North Korea in order to ensure no acts of aggression will come from each side as long as North Korea agrees to disarm or at least allow UN weapons inspectors into its lands
3) Calls Upon the UN to hold a tribunal for international crimes against North Korea that will: a) Address any crimes North Korea has committed and come up with a verdict and this verdict will be sent to the Security Council to come up with the appropriate punishment for North Korea b) Come up with a way to prevent such acts from occurring again
4) Urges all allied countries to North Korea to try its best to persuade North Korea to disarm or allow inspectors into its lands for the sake of world peace .
Committee Two: Political/Decolonization
Issue: The division of Iraq and the possible establishment of political autonomy along religious and national lines.
Defining political autonomy as political independence in other words a limited form of self-government, like in the US. states have a certain autonomy, which allows them to make their own laws regarding local matters, in international affairs, the Palestinians have been promised autonomy in Gaza, formerly occupied by Israel, autonomy does not usually extend to control over foreign affairs,
Bearing in mind Iraq has various ethnic groups, such as Arabs, Kurdish, Turkomen, Assyrian, and others,
Deeply concerned with minorities since a civil war may happen, after many attempts happened like the assassination of Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al- Hakim,
Considering that some of the assassinations were not attempted at Americans, just like what happened to Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al- Hakim, according to William O. Beeman, Director of Middle East Studies at Brown University,
Keeping in mind that the removal of Saddam Hussein without the most careful political and social engineering may result in the breaking apart of Iraq into warring factions that would battle each other for decades, according to past encounters were the Sunnis (Saddam's religion) fought against the Shia in many places in the world,
Notes that the assassination of Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim in Najaf on August 28 is the opening volley in the coming Iraqi Civil War, and past actions such as the bombing of the Kurds during the first gulf war, and the removal of imperative rights from each group (language, education …etc.),
Knowing the distinct identity Iraqi Turkomans is still not officially recognized, they do not figure in national census and linguistic rights are denied even in places where they form the majority of the population, repression under Saddam Hussein’s government is directed at all opposition, distinctive ethnic and religious minorities were specially targeted, lading the violations of the linguistic, cultural and property rights of the Turkomans, according to what Saddam and his regime have done to them while Saddam Hussein’s regime was ruling,
Believing that if Iraq is separated into three parts, Turkomans and Kurds in the north, Arab Sunni in the center, and the Arab Shia in the south, since this is how it is divided in the present time,
According to Jay Garners quotes and others: "That's our role, humanitarian aid. All those tiles are going to be fit by the Iraqi people - at the end of that mosaic hopefully you have a democratic government or a government that at least expresses the freely-elected will of the people. The first thing I think is you don't try to build it in the image of your own country; you open it to the people and you begin a dialogue with the people and let them begin a dialogue with themselves...as you do that, the leaders will emerge and I think they'll take charge;"
Further noting that according to Jay Garner, successful arbiter of the Kurdish state in Northern Iraq: "A democratic Iraq means an Iraq in which all adult citizens have the right to choose their leaders and the mechanisms by which those who lead will exercise the authority entrusted to them; a free and democratic Iraq also means a place where citizens have the right to hear different opinions, voiced openly and legally through a free press and institutions of a free civil society, and respect for the rule of law; building such a democratic system in Iraq may be a lengthy and difficult process, for which we in the international community of democracies must be prepared to offer our support when needed; the democracy that emerges, however, must be and will be the creation of the Iraqi peoples, reflecting their needs and desires,"
1. Resolves a new sub-organization (United Nations Iraqi Development Organization) from the Un shall be created just for the Iraqi issue and the removed after it has done all its duties: A. It will be consisted of political experts, that are familiar with current state of Iraq, B. They shall be responsible in dividing the country: I. They’ll divide it according to the ethnic groups, a. The groups will not be fully-independent, b. The size of the land shall be according to the population, c. All states shall be lead by the country, however any decision taken by the country dealing with a state must be approved by the representatives, C. They shall be responsible for making votes for each group: I. Elections will be held in public places, II. Each group shall have candidates made of pairs, III. The presidents and Vice-president shall be chosen separately, IV. To make sure everyone able to vote votes, D. They will assign all winning members place in the central government: I. The central government will play a big part in the countries decisions, E. They will also stop any intervention inappropriate between any groups, F. They shall help in the development of Iraq in all areas, G. It shall also be monitoring all of the actions that are taken by the representatives, and is able to intervene if necessary, H. They shall assist the central government in drafting a constitution: I. (part of H) All laws must be approved by each group, II. All laws must not be unfair to any group, III. All laws will not include anything that opposes a group belief;
2. Further resolves that the president, and vice-president shall be chosen according to the number of the population (the highest number of population will choose the president, and the second highest will choose the Vice-president);
3. Requests that the army shall be co-lead by one of the representatives of each state, in order to prevent any miss use of weapons;
4. States that the country shall be run by the President and all candidates that are chosen, and the laws shall be rewritten by the members of each group in order to make suitable for all groups;
5. Further states that all of the countries resources and income shall be separated fairly to each group, A. According to population, B. According to need, C. If a state needs to develop any of its services then it shall receive more just for the services: I. This will all be monitored by the UNIDO;
6. Urges all representatives that are to be selected to maintain peace and to work for the benefit of the country not the group;
7. Asks countries to send any political experts to the UNIDO to aid in the development of Iraq;
8. Resolves that all of the points above will be reflected in a new Iraqi Constitution which will guarantee the rights and limited autonomy as described above.
Abdulla Behbehani, Ambassador
Commission 3: Legal
The question of: Defining and modifying the rights of prisoners of war and the scope of extradition law.
Realizing that prisoners of war are human beings,
Simply noticing that prisoners of war are being mistreated and not given their rights,
Guided By the Geneva Convention and abiding to its rules that say; no prisoner of war is to be treated unfairly, unfairly meaning; I)Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture, II)taking of hostages, III)outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment,
Recalling the Guantanamo Bay incident where prisoners are being held and treated unfairly by the United States of America,
Referring the Turkmenistan/Russia incident whereas Russia is not giving the POW's their rights,
Expecting all countries to respect and obey the Geneva Convention,
Seeking full awareness of the problem at hand,
1. Declares the creation of a new organization which will be called Prisoners of War Matters (POWM) which will be under the direct supervision of the UN, this organization will consist of ALL UN members and will be represented by one person chosen by the country itself;
2. Requests that all countries normal jail cells specified only for prisoners of war and that’s where the prisoners will be held;
3. Affirms that when POW's are captured, the capturing country have to officially announce their capture, contact their representative in the POWM and give all facts including; number of POW's, reason of capture, health status of each prisoner… etc., and the job of these representatives is make sure that their military: A. Give the POW's clean food and water; B. Give consequences to those that cause problems; C. Do whatever necessary regarding any extraordinary actions by the POW's excluding physical contact;
4. Declares that a special team of UN experts are to be sent with the agreement of the representatives of the country that is holding POW's every time a country captures, if the country does not agree, the country is to be kicked out of the POWM and their POW's are subject to any violence and "unfair" treatment, these experts will make sure that POW's are being treated fairly;
5. Proclaims that these experts are to do nothing but what has been stated in clause 2, they are NOT part of the capturing country and will ONLY transport POW's if asked, the capturing countries cannot have any contact with these POW's without the supervision of these UN experts;
6. Calls upon the Red Cross as well as the Red Crescent to be present at where POW's are being held and shall give all the medical attention to the prisoners as they will heal the wounded and make sure the healthy stay healthy;
7. Declares that annual meetings are to be held at the POWM at least once a year, or every time necessary, to discuss the present situations as well as bring up new rules and treatments if needed;
8. Further requests that all members of the POWM are to meet beforehand and negotiate on how they want their POW's to be treated;
9. Expresses its hope on this issue.
Nasser Al-Qatami, Commission One
Bader Al-Mailem, Commission Two
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests. On behalf of Turkmenistan I would like to welcome you all to this meeting that we hope shall bring peace to us all. We are country that starts it day in the name of god and ends with it.
From the highest peak to the lowest point in our beloved we land we have tried to forget our brothers in Iraq, but we can’t, because they are part of us. We are like a body when any part is hurt the rest of the body will fight for it. Let us work together to give Iraq its rights. The only reason we are hear is to solve problems and spread peace, and that is exactly what Turkmenistan wants to do here today. Turkmenistan will do all its best to unravel this issue. Turkmenistan wants to remind all delegations hear what we are working for.
Thank you and I hope you’ll make the right choice.
Abdullah Behbehani, Commission Three
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, Turkmenistan is appalled by everything that has been going on in this world today. We are a peaceful country and would like to see nothing but peace in this world. The Mighty Allah brought us down to this earth to build it and construct it, not to build and destroy… We would like the world to keep on building and Inshallah we will not destroy any more. Ladies and gentlemen, the world is wounded and the medicine is your hand. Please stretch out your hand in aid and cooperate in curing the world. Thank you.
Commission One: Nasser Al-Qatami
This was, by far, the best event I have yet attended as I emerged as a second from main submitter. I even made a couple of speeches. One of the most important things I learned from this event, though, was to do my work on time. While the rest of our group went to visit historic Petra, I had to stay in the hotel and work on my resolution. The next day my work was good enough that I almost worked as the main submitter. I spoke two or three times in my committee.
Commission Two: Bader Al-Mailem
In my point of view Turkmenistan had a very successful event in the AMMUN event. As the delegate of Turkmenistan in GA2, I had our resolution passed, with 24 for and only 16 against. It was a very good debate we had two of the most powerful countries against us, that were US and UK. Thanks to aid from France, Canada, and Japan we were able to get it passed. We played a good role in many debates concerning many issues, and we tried to make sure that only the best resolutions passed. In the end it was a very good event for Turkmenistan and we were able to prove to them that Turkmenistan plays a role in this world.
Commission Three: Abdullah Behbehani
This was my first attempt at being an ambassador. I believed, perhaps prematurely, that this would be a fairly easy task, but my group had several members all of whom were inexperienced. I set for myself a very difficult task as Turkmenistan had to write a resolution on countries violating national sovereignty. How can you write a resolution about preventing countries from breaking the UN charter without writing a resolution that itself violates that charter? None of the resolutions successfully answered this riddle, and this made writing about this issue particularly difficult. For our country, I was quite proud of the performance of Bader who emerged as main submitter and came up with a good plan for solving the problems of our Turkoman brothers in Iraq.