Country: Pakistan



Event: Pearl-MUN 2003

Students:


Abdullah Behbehani, Social
Ahmad Al-Shammari, Defense and Vice-Ambassador
Besma Jilani, Human Rights
Khaled Al-Rubei, Security Council and Ambassador
Nasser Al-Qatami, Environmment




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Pakistan




The Pakistani National Anthem


Latin Transliteration

Pakistan


Pak sarzamin shad bad
Kishware haseen shad bad
Tunishane azmealishan
arze Pakistan
Markazeyaqin shadbad.
Pak sarzamin ka nizam
quwate akhuwati awam

Qaum, mulk, Sultanat
Painda ta binda bad shad,
bad man zele murad.
Parchame sitarao hilat
Rahbare tarraqio ka mal

Tarjumane mazishane hal jane istaqbal
Sayyai, khudae zul jalal.


English:

Blessed be the sacred land,
Happy be the bounteous realm,
Symbol of high resolve, Land of Pakistan.
Blessed be thou citadel of faith.

The Order of this Sacred Land
Is the might of the brotherhood of the people.
May the nation, the country, and the State
Shine in glory everlasting.

Blessed be the goal of our ambition.
This flag of the Crescent and the Star
Leads the way to progress and perfection,
Interpreter of our past, glory of our present,

Inspiration of our future,
Symbol of Almighty's protection.








Country Profile


Political Structure (Ahmed):

Pakistan is a country of that is a Federal Government, which General Pervez Musharraf is its president. It is formerly called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The biggest parties are the PML-Q, PPPP, and the MMA, the PML-Q is the most influential and after that comes the PPPP, and the MMA finally. The suffrage age is 18.

Pakistan’s parliament is called the Majlis-e-Shoora, which consists of 100 senators indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve for a four-year term. However, the National Assembly consists of 342 seats, formerly 217. Some seats are classified for certain groups of people, such as sixty seats represent women; ten seats represent minorities. The members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms.

President Musharraf has altered the constitution to give him more power. He added to his title of president the title of Chief Executive meaning head of the government. The Supreme Court ratified his new title and position. Therefore, he exercises the powers of the head of the government. He also appointed an 8-member National Security Council that serves as the supreme governing body.

The Judicial System is both the Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president) and the Federal Islamic, or Shari'a, Court.

 

Natural Resources [Muneera]:

Due to Pakistan’s diverse topography its natural resources are divergent. Amongst Pakistan’s natural resources are its land, natural gas reserves, petroleum, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, and limestone. Many of these resources are not found in abundance or are of low quality such as its petroleum and coal. Pakistan’s agricultural resources and imports are a main source of its GDP and they make up for its lack of natural resources. Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Pakistan’s agricultural resources are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton, eggs, and rice.

 

Geography [Ahmed]:

Pakistan is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north. The geographic coordinates are 30° 0' N, 70° 0' E. Pakistan is slightly less than twice the size of California. The land boundaries are a total of six thousand seven hundred and seventy four kilo meters. Distributed as: Afghanistan 2,430 km. China 523 km. India 2,912 km. Iran 909 km. The coastline is 1,046 km. Pakistani Kashmir includes Gilgit and the Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass.

 

Cultural Factors [Abdulla]:

As of July 2002, Pakistan's population had increased to 147,663,429. Since 97% of Pakistan’s population is Muslim, Islam is considered to be its official religion, whereas 77% are Sunni and 23% are Shi’a. The remaining 3% of the population are devoted to the Christian religion, or Hindu. Pakistan’s official language is Urdu, although a small percentage of Pakistan’s population uses it as a first language. The most frequently used dialects of Pakistani language are Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant), Pashtu, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, English and Burushaski. Pakistan is rich with cultural and many different ethnic groups that include Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants).

There are conflicts between different groups in Pakistan, as they don’t all get along. Pakistan allows the Muslim Muhajir to migrate to Pakistan to protect them from the Hindu neighbor India. Pakistan is rich with cultural and many different ethnic groups that include Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (which are immigrants of that came from India). Pakistan is quite proud of its cultural history.

 

Defense [Muneera]:

Pakistan's 610,000-member armed forces, the world's eighth largest military force, is well trained and disciplined. Within the Pakistani military are five branches, which are the National Guard, Navy, Army, Air Forces, and the Civil Armed Forces. There is a special branch that is the paramilitary/security force with the sole purpose of securing Pakistan’s political figures. The Pakistani military accepts male at the age of seventeen. The military spending in a dollar figure is about $2,545.5 million annually and due to these budget constraints and nation-building duties Pakistan's normal tough training pace has been condensed. If this does not change it will eventually have an impact on the equipped readiness of the Armed Forces, if this condensed training continues the Pakistani military will not be as powerful as it is. Pakistan has had an increasingly difficult time maintaining their aging fleet of US., Chinese, British, and French equipment. Due to the limited fiscal resources and various sanctions. The government’s efforts to modernize the armed forces have been significantly constrained.

Due to the near recent partition of Pakistan from India there are many disputes over boundaries and other issues. Such as an armed dispute over Kashmir’s status. Other conflicts include that over water-sharing the Indus River and the boundary of Rann of Kutch {where}. Pakistan has hold of nuclear weapons, and threatens to use them against India it is a deterrent against India's nuclear power. Pakistani leaders want to please both the Americans in their war on terror and the freedom fighters of Kashmir. Pakistan can fight India over Kashmir but in the end it will be along war that will divide the region into two sides and no one will win, but India does have a larger amount of nuclear weapons.

 

Economy [Saud]:

Pakistan as an impoverished and underdeveloped country suffers lack of foreign investment and a costly confrontation with neighboring India. The Musharaff government made significant inroads in macroeconomic reform; it completed an IMF short-term loan program for the first time and improved its standing with international creditors by increasing revenue collection and restraining the fiscal deficit in the 2001-2002 budget. While Pakistan has capitalized on its international standing after the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States by garnering substantial assistance from abroad, long-term prospects remain uncertain. GDP growth will continue to rely on crop performance; dependence on foreign oil leaves the import bill vulnerable to fluctuating oil prices; and foreign and domestic investors remain wary of committing to projects in Pakistan. Pakistani trade levels became worse after the terrorist attack on the Unite States in 2001.

Pakistan has a GDP of $299 billion (2001 est.), its GDP per Capita of $2,100 (2001 est.), and its GDP real growth rate is 3.3% (2001 est.), 26% is agriculture, 24% industry, and 50% services. Pakistan’s exports total an $8.8 billion (2001); the export commodities are textiles (garments, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, and other agricultural products. Pakistan’s export partners are US 24.8%, UK 6.5%, UAE 6.2%, Hong Kong 5.9%, Germany 5.6%, (2000). Pakistan’s imports equal $9.2 billion, the import commodities are machinery, petroleum, petroleum products, chemicals, transportation equipment, edible oils, grains, pulses, flour, its import partners are Kuwait 11.7%, UAE 10.7%, Saudi Arabia 10.5%, US 6%, Japan 5.6% (2000).

Pakistan has a debt of $31.5 billion but also receives $2 billion in economic aid, and 35% of the population is below the poverty line, and a labor force of 40.4 million and the unemployment rate is 6.3%. The official currency in Pakistan is the Pakistani Rupee (PKR), $1 US equals to PKR60.719 (2002).

 

Views on World Problems [Khaled]:

Pakistan is politically unstable. As a result of that instability Pakistan's foreign policy has been changing constantly in regards to many issues since the partition. However, one thing has never changed; its suspicious and hostile relations with India.

On June 1947, the British Government declared that it would give full dominion status to two successor states, India and Pakistan. With that separation came the arrangement that any states in the region of the former Indian Colony could freely join either India or Pakistan. With that arrangement the maharajah of Kashmir was undecided, but when armed tribesmen came into Kashmir from Pakistan the maharaja of Kashmir allowed Indian troops to enter the state. In exchange for military assistance in containing the revolt, the Kashmiri maharaja offered his allegiance to India. Indian troops occupied the eastern portion of Kashmir, and Pakistan took control of the eastern part. A year later, the UN arranged a cease-fire along a line dividing Kashmir.

Kashmir has led to many conflicting issues and obstacles between the two nations such as the 1970 Indo-Pakistani war when India invaded East Pakistan, now known as Bangladesh, and the 1965 war. The tension between the two nations has fluctuated ever since the 1970 war ended and President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India, in July 1972. From then on the two nations have either had a changing relation they would either be in good relations or in conflict. The major conflict in the 1980’s arose over nuclear testing it was an issue in 1998 too.

Recently the largest obstacle preventing peace has been terrorism or "freedom-fighting," depending on one's definition. A deadly raid on the Indian parliament that New Delhi blamed on Pakistani militants, a charge Islamabad denied, has been a huge setback and other more recent bombings. It took 18-months after the parliament bombings for Pakistan and India to restore diplomatic and transportation links. India has been asking Pakistan not to harbor terrorists and to not promote terrorist actions while Pakistan has been denying that it ever promoted or harbored a terrorist, and has urged India to return Pakistani prisoners held in Kashmir.

Another world problem, which had substantial long-term effects on Pakistan’s relationship with the international community, is the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Pakistani people have long been supporters of Afghanistan especially during the Soviet invasion. This support has cost them relations with Iran and Russia, but it had also gained them an ally; the U.S.A. China as a strong ally of Pakistan supported it during that time.

The issue of Afghanistan arose again in 2001; at the beginning there was tension between Pakistan and the US. (which at that time had already had problems with Musharaf.) The United States has condemned Pakistan many times for harboring Afghani fugitives. Pakistan denied those allegations and gained back the trust of the United States after it captured Khalid Sheikh Mohammed the alleged mastermind of the Sept 11th attacks.

The US has always played a part in Indo-Pakistani relations by promoting peace, imposing sanctions, and stop aid to both countries. Even though Pakistan has been trying to gain US support, Pakistan does not consider the US as a reliable ally for many reasons; its suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war, for imposing sanctions, and for not supporting Pakistan in other issues, such as the holding of nuclear arms. But nonetheless Pakistan does need the support of the US.

The Pakistani population has been strongly against the war on Iraq, so Pakistan voted against the UN resolution that legitimized it. However, recently Pakistan has been improving its relations with the US by agreeing to send troops to Iraq.

A strong regional ally of Pakistan has always been the People's Republic of China. Ever since the Sino-Indian war, China and Pakistan have had very good relations. China has provided Pakistan with technical, diplomatic, economic and military aid.

As a member of the Organization of Islamic Union the problem of Palestine is an important issue to Pakistan. Pakistan supports the road map to peace.

Other than the OIC, Pakistan is a member of the UN, the FAO, Interpol, and the WHO. It is also an observer in ASEAN and the OAS. More importantly, currently Pakistan is in the Security Council of the UN. This opportunity has given Pakistan a chance to highlight its views on world problems and bring situations such as Kashmir to the table again.

 

History [Abdulla]:

Traditionally, Pakistan and India were not divisible and share a common heritage. On the other hand, the majority of the population in today's Pakistan follow Islam, unlike that of India. Otherwise, though, one cannot easily distinguish Pakistan from India.

Today's Pakistan came into existence as a dominion within the Commonwealth in August 1947, with Jinnah as governor-general and Liaquat Ali Khan as prime minister. With West and East Pakistan separated by more than 1,000 miles of Indian Territory and with the major portion of the wealth and resources of the British heritage passing to India, Pakistan's survival seemed to hang in the balance. Of all the well-organized provinces of British India, only the comparatively backward areas of Sindh, Balochistan, and the North-West Frontier came to Pakistan intact. The Punjab and Bengal were divided, and Kashmir became disputed territory. Economically, the situation seemed almost hopeless; the new frontier cut off Pakistani raw materials from the Indian factories, disrupting industry, commerce, and agriculture. The partition and the movement of refugees were accompanied by terrible massacres for which both communities were responsible. India remained openly unfriendly; its economic superiority expressed itself in a virtual blockade. The dispute over Kashmir brought the two countries to the verge of war; and India's command of the headwork controlling the water supplies to Pakistan's eastern canal colonies gave it an additional economic weapon. The resulting friction, by obstructing the process of sharing the assets inherited from the British raj (according to plans previously agreed), further handicapped Pakistan.

 

 

 

Pakistan: Policy Statements



Disarmament: [Muneera]

1. Effective international arrangements to assist non-nuclear states against the use or threat of nuclear weapons.

This issue deals with helping countries that do not have the means to protect themselves from the threat of nuclear weapons and although many treaties and agreements deal with this issue very few understand that many countries need nuclear weapons to protect themselves. It seems very unfair that some countries have the privilege of retaining nuclear weapons while other are not permitted to do so.

India and Pakistan have carried underground nuclear weapons tests in 1998 and they were amongst the non-signatories of both the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT). Many other countries have signed, but not yet ratified the Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty such as The United States, Israel.

All countries are criticizing Pakistan for having Nuclear Weapons, but what they do not understand is that Pakistan being a threatened country at conflict does need them it has never used Nuclear Weapons, but if and when a neighboring country decides to use it’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Pakistan will be ready. It also seems very unsuitable that other countries would decide who can have nuclear weapons and cannot. If Pakistan has not signed any treaty about nuclear weapons then it should not be condemned for having Nuclear Weapons.

 

2. Reducing the availability of firearms to civilians and stopping the illegal trafficking of such.

Firearms may be considered small arms that are weapons designed for personal use and light weapons are made for the use of several people working as a squad. We believe in the Campaign Against Arms Trade slogan "Small arms, Mass killing," and because firearms have become widespread, increasingly available because of sales and exchanges these exchanges can be under aid programs and military alliance exchanges can also be between private citizens and other non-monetary arrangements they are also cheap easy to operate and control. So small arms have become an increasing threat to our societies. The Pakistani government would blame drug trafficker’s private arms smugglers and rebel groups for the availability of small arms when it is really them along with other governments such as The United States and The United Kingdom that have become the main suppliers. While weapons are often obtained to provide a sense of security and stability, but if security for an individual is attained by dependence on firepower then one can never have enough of it. So when individuals are heavily armed then it becomes insecure. Around the world bullets have replaced ballots as solutions to a political dispute.

 

3. The role of science and technology in preventing terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction.

Science and technology have affected our modern world plenty they have played a significant role in preventing terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction although they have not totally eliminated it. Since September 11th there has been greater public awareness of the threat that Weapons of Mass Destruction pose when in the hands of terrorists. It concerns us because the spread of such weapons and their delivery capabilities contributes to insecurity. Pakistan believes in the risks of terrorists armed with biological, chemical of nuclear weapons and all countries should act with precision in preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

 

4. Creating a treaty on cyber warfare.

Cyber warfare is a very advanced type of military technology that Pakistan’s does not look foreword to it. However, Pakistan sees a threat approaching if India obtains it. Those Cyber machines should be used for constructive purposes rather than destructive. However, if they are used as destructive, then guidelines should be used to prevent terrorism from getting those weapons.

 

 

Environment: Nasser Al-Qatami.

1. Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes.

Radioactive waste is produced through the generation of electricity using nuclear fission. The lack of international agreements on these concepts is important because it breeds ambiguity and inconsistency in regulatory approaches. Many Birth defects are occurring during the past 10 years. Countries surrounding Pakistan, including India are getting unhygienic and are infecting Pakistan in many ways. Most diseases are spreading. A large percentage of people are being born with cancer.

 

2. Promotion of new and renewable sources of energy including the implementation of the World Solar Program 1996-2005.

The World Solar Summit and proposed World Solar Program 1996-2005 address energy problems through increased use of renewable energy technologies. The Commission currently has 17 members; Pakistan is one of the important countries.

 

3. Promoting the sustainable development of the world's forests and preventing deforestation and habitat destruction.

This is an important issue to Pakistan. With one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, Pakistan's forests are in urgent need of protection and conservation. The major threat to Pakistan's forests is uncontrolled and unsustainable cutting.

 

4. Food safety risks associated with the GMF and foods derived from biotechnology

KHALED: I still haven't got it [???]

 

 

Human Rights: Ahmed:

1. Creation of a charter of economic rights.

Pakistan thinks that economic rights are to give everyone a job that would feed him and family. Everyone should be entitled to a job. However, Pakistan cannot afford producing jobs for its citizens. Therefore, it urges nations to import its manpower. In addition, it urges countries and the UN to build facilities that would create jobs to citizens.

 

2. The threat of infringement of human rights posed by the implementation of anti-terrorism policies and practices.

Pakistan thinks that the Countries should research why the terrorist did the terrorist act to try to cut the bad tree from the roots. Our battle must not remain confined to retaliation and retribution alone. We must unearth the source of the problem and diagnose the disease beneath the skin. Sheer bandages will not heal the wounds that are rooted in the injustices of systems and societies. We must try to understand and grapple with the causes that force human beings to kill human beings. Why is humanity under assault? Why is humanity becoming devoid of humanity?

Since 1949 the international community has adopted a number of legal instruments which set out the rights of the occupied people and obligations of those who occupy them- the most important among them is the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War which particularly applies to situations of occupation.  Sadly, this legal framework notwithstanding, the people under occupation worldwide remain victims of exclusion, torture, summary executions and endemic oppression. These atrocities characterize the inhumane behavior blatantly exhibited by some during the world wars in the twentieth century. The recent wars have captured many terrorist, which are still considered humans regardless of the inhumane behavior they have done. They should be treated as POWs.

The Palestinians and the Arabs of the Syrian Golan are the protected people under the Fourth Geneva Convention. Either the Israelis think they are freedom fighters or so called terrorist they still are the protected people. The Convention distinguishes the rights they are entitled to. It states, in Article 33: ''No protected person may be punished for an offense he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited. Pillage is prohibited. Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.'' They are also entitled to: freedom of movement, humanitarian and medical assistance, economic independence, free and fair trial in criminal cases, and above all right to life and inalienable right to self-determination. 

However, the report of the special committee amply reflects that the Occupying power in Palestine and in Syrian Golan is in gross violation of every right granted to the people of Palestine and the Arabs of Syrian Golan by international law. Article 147 of the fourth Geneva Convention sets out a list of its "grave breaches'':"... willful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person, compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power, or willfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in the present Convention, taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property.". These have been, unfortunately, the most common practices of the occupation forces for the last many years in Palestine. If and Only if , Palestine Kashmir and other problems are solved justly. The terrorists will stop haunting us.

 

3. Protection of the political rights of indigenous peoples, their outstanding land claims, and their right to self-determination.

Self-determination is an inherent right given by the Charter. It cannot be extinguished until it is exercised. The people of Jammu & Kashmir have that right to self-determination. That right to self-determination will not be extinguished until India accepts its exercise by the people of Jammu & Kashmir through what the Security Council has called "a UN supervised plebiscite". India remains in violation of the Security Council resolutions until it accepts that. And we have all heard yesterday that Security Council resolutions must be implemented. We endorse that statement.

Prime Minister of India spoke about elections in Kashmir. The Security Council had declared that such elections in Kashmir cannot be a substitute for plebiscite. But no elections can be fair and free when it is held under the jackboot of 700,000 troops which India has deployed in Kashmir. No elections can be fair when India refuses the suggestion made, among others, by the Secretary of State of the United States to accept international monitors to see that these elections are fair. No elections can be fair when 25 of 40 leaders of the Kashmiri APHC, the conglomerate of 35 political parties of which 25 of the 40 leaders remain in Indian jails. Nobody has to interfere with these elections--so called elections. Mr. President, they have been rejected by APHC. They have been refused by the Kashmiri people. In fact these so-called elections were dead on arrival.

 

 

Social: [Abdullah]

1. Preservation and establishment of defined rights for suffers from diseases such as SARS and AIDS.

It was recently announced that the war against SARS is over. SARS is no more. Every country is relieved from that. Now the deadly search for a cure of AIDS is in progress, as it has been for years. The victims of these viruses touch the hearts of all countries. These people deserve as much rights as there is to fighting cancer or any disease.

Health officials warned that Pakistan is at "high risk" from the AIDS epidemic although less than 200 cases have been recorded in the country since 1986. Non-government health workers are less cautious, saying the epidemic is about to "explode" in Pakistan unless the government does more to educate people about safe sex and the dangers of intravenous drug abuse. The National AIDS Program's latest figures show 11 new AIDS cases and 65 new HIV cases were reported this year, bringing the total recorded HIV/AIDS cases since 1986 to 1,699. But UN and government estimates put the number of HIV/AIDS cases here closer to 74,000, with the vast majority going unreported due to social taboos about sex and victims' fears of discrimination, officials said.

 

2. The role of schools in promulgating and spreading violent ideologies

Schools are centers of education. A bit of socialism is involved but other than that, it is a center of education where students learn. Promulgation and violent ideologies should not disrupt the whole concept of what school is about. It must come to an immediate halt.

Pakistan, fortunately, doesn't have that problem and doesn’t want to either. Pakistan is in aid of any solution to this problem and supports is 100%. Just because Pakistan does not suffer from this issue does not mean that it will not try preventing it before it starts.

 

3. The need for secure safe forms of transportation in developing and underdeveloped nations

Asking for safe forms of transportation is impossible. Each year, engineers make cars and other transportation vehicles safer. However, the safer the vehicle is, the more expensive it gets. Rich countries can afford these vehicles when Pakistan cannot, especially since it is not concerned with this problem. Pakistan thinks that money and devotion to such an issue is a kind of waste. This money and devotion could be focused somewhere else where there really is a problem so problems would be solved.

 

4. The issue of adapting traditional societies to modernity.

Modernity is very important. Traditional societies do not know realize the importance of modernity and development. If these societies keep on saying that it is their tradition then they will not go far. Some traditions must be averted because the world is become more advanced, and societies need to advance and develop with it.

Pakistan is an Islamic country. There seems to be a clash with Islam and modernity [ex]. Modernity has been rejected in Pakistan due to its Islamic dominance. There aren't any major concerns with modernity in Pakistan and immediate action is not necessary.

 

5. Maintaining a reasonable standard of living for the elderly

Despite intensive extraordinary socio-economic pressures, Pakistani society has stood for high value, respect and dignity of human life. Pakistan regards old age as a mark of esteem, wisdom and piety. This could be attributed to the strong ties that exist in the joint family system nurtured by religious values, dignifying the status of elderly segment of society.

The issues such as income security, housing and medical care for elderly have assumed increasing importance in Pakistan, and with the passage of time receiving greater attention of the policy makers in the Government. Great strides in investigative and curative techniques, improved health coverage in public sector, effective poverty alleviation schemes launched by the government, and media awareness have contributed to improve life expectancy rate in Pakistan during the last couple of years. This trend points to increase in life expectancy from current 60 to 70 years in next 10 years in Pakistan.

In order to address the issue of aging in Pakistan various steps/measures have been taken. These include; Employees Old Age Benefit Act 1976, Social Security Ac: 1965, Pension for Government Employees and Government Employees Benevolent Fund.

 

 

Security Council [Khaled]

1. The Question of the use of Peacekeeping Forces in Africa, in particular, DR Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Somalia, Central African Republic, and West Sahara.

For centuries Africa has never had a time where people were not suffering. From the labors of colonial slavery, to the genocides of modern warfare. Millions and millions of people have been killed, in fact in the past three years, 3.3 million people have been killed only in one conflict, Congo. As a result of that Pakistan believes that the issue of Africa as a whole should be one of the most important issues debated in the Security Council.

As a member of the United Nations Pakistan has consistently supported United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa and has participated on a large scale in those operations. Pakistan's military and civilian personnel had participated in United Nations operations in Somalia, Namibia, Liberia, Western Sahara, Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After the crises of South Asia the issue of Africa is the second most important issue to Pakistan. It is because the African nations have suffered, and Pakistan is also a sufferer.

Pakistan has stressed the importance of ending the arms flow to countries in civil war from outside and beginning to disarm all members of armed groups. Also essential was the upholding of human rights. Pakistan believes that attention must be focused on effective planning and deployment of peacekeepers. In the case of the Democratic Republic of Congo Pakistan believes there should be a multi-national force which is well armed because the security of the troops and of the mission is vital. And now Pakistan is implementing this idea; Pakistan along with Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Uruguay has sent 2,500 troops to aid the UN French led peacekeeping mission there.

However, Pakistan believes that the Security Council should become much more efficient, immediate and practical in performing all these kinds of peace keeping missions. It needs to analyze and know how its time and efforts are deployed among the series of conflicts and disputes which it has to address, because many issues are given more attention, while others less. In Liberia the Security Council had to wait for weeks to deploy a few thousand troops while hundreds died. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, it has taken three years just to deploy 10,800 peacekeepers to a conflict which has already claimed millions of lives. In Jammu and Kashmir, with a population of 10 million, only 45 military observers can be spared to maintain peace and security in the ‘most dangerous place on earth.’ Pakistan does not understand how this is possible. Yet Pakistan is ready to do its utmost to support peace in Africa.

 

2. The ongoing dispute over the region of Kashmir.

In 1947 the British parliament divided the colony of India by giving two nations independence and dominant power over the Indian sub-continent, Pakistan and India. The 650 other provinces each had to choose which nation each would join. The only province that was undecided was Kashmir. When armed tribesmen entered Kashmir from Pakistan, the maharaja of Kashmir signed an alliance with India. And so Indian and Pakistani forces fought their first war over Kashmir in 1947-48. India referred the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January. In a resolution dated August 13, 1948, the UN asked Pakistan to remove its troops, after which India was also to withdraw its main forces. Once this happened, a free and fair plebiscite was to be held to allow the Kashmiri people to decide their future, by the UN Security Council with the agreement of India. India believed that it would win the plebiscite since Sheikh Abdullah, the most influential person to the Kashmiri people, was on India's side.

After tension rose between Pakistan and India the troops never withdrew and the plebiscite was never done. The tension rose because Pakistan will not allow Indian troops to intimidate the voters during the plebiscite. And both nations agreed on a cease-fire. Pakistan was given 35% of the territory and India the rest.

Pakistan has fought three wars for the people of Kashmir, 10 million people hanging on the balance, and it will never stop supporting a free Kashmir. Pakistan is always insulted when accused of supporting terrorists of Kashmir, but again and again we say they are freedom fighters fighting for a cause.

The UN charter states that self-determination in nations and in territories is an inherent right. According to chapter 11 (Declaration Regarding Non-Self Governing Territories), article 73, sub clause B,: [All Non-Self Governing Territories have the right :] to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement.

Since Kashmir is a non-self governing territory, all of these rights must be exercised. Furthermore India has already agreed on a "UN supervised plebiscite" in resolution 47 "The India-Pakistan Question" (clause A, sub-clause 3) of the Security Council, therefore India has no right at all to refuse the voice of the people of Kashmir.

Pakistan has always been a fair believer of democracy, and supports all types of it. Yet India, the "largest democracy of the world" is not only in violation of Security Council resolutions but refuses to even give the people of Kashmir the right to speak. The best and only remaining solution is a plebiscite, it has been on paper for 56 years now, if only certain parties would focus more on peace than on pointing fingers it could be applied.

 

 

 

Resolutions




Commission: Defense
Subject of Resolution: The role of science and technology in preventing terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction
Submitted By: Pakistan (Ahmed Al-Shammari
)

Defining "terrorists" as parties that use systematic violence in retaliation against the implementation of certain government policies, or against states themselves,

Defining technology as material produced, using the scientific method, to achieve commercial or industrial objectives,

Defining science as the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena,

Noting that the use, in March 1995, of the nerve gas, Sarin, by the Aum Shinriyko cult in Tokyo's subway system demonstrates the fact that terrorists can move beyond conventional explosives to the use of chemical or biological agents,

Condemns the bombing of the OPM/SANG Military Training Center, at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in November, 2002, in which five US. citizens were killed,

Further noting that over 18,000 individuals in fifty nations have been trained in counter-terrorism over the past decade,

Deeply regretting that most people turn to terrorist activities as a result of bad education,

1. Calls upon the United Nations to establish the United Nations Counter Terrorist Organization (UNCT), a specialized agency that will meet once a year, or when necessary. The members will be law enforcement officials from member-countries in the UN. The headquarters of the UNCT will be chosen after the resolution is passed. The UNCT will do the following:
A. Provide countries with the best counter-terrorism techniques,
B. Coordinate financial aid from the World Bank to countries to construct CT (counter-terrorism) facilities that will be linked to each other by advanced communication technology so that CT officials can share information and plan anti-terrorist operations on an international scale,
C. Undertake the best analytic effort on both the strategic and tactical level to support the efforts of all government agencies to combat terrorism. The UNCTO shall continue to work closely with and assist friendly nations around the world in collecting information about terrorist activities in their regions;

2. Requests that the countries offer the best foreign intelligence collection of data against terrorists to the UNCT;

3. Resolves that the UNICEF will help countries achieve a high and healthy education system either by financially and with workforce and experts;

4. Further Requests all nations to review the curricula of private and charity schools to prevent the spread of terrorist ideology there;

5. Further Resolves that a committee be created that will report to the UNTC in order to:
A. Prepare a carefully delineated framework for the application of science and technology for countering terrorism by characterizing the range of threats to the nation's security-each characterized by targets, weapons, and delivery systems, and the possible points of intervention,
B. Prepare research agendas in seven key areas:
i. Biological, chemical, nuclear, radiological, and information technology; transportation, electric facilities, cities, and fixed infrastructure; behavioral, and social and institution issues,
C. Propose a conclusive plan enforced by this committee, including the development of a final integrated science and technology program plan and research strategy for combating terrorism;

6. Affirms that countries complying with the UNCT will get mass media exposure, and countries not complying will get the mass media of their noncompliance.

 

 

Environment: Nasser Al-Qatami

 

 

Human Rights: Besma Al-Jilani

 

 

Commission: Social
Delegate: [Abdullah]
Issue: of preservation and establishment of defined rights for suffers from diseases such as SARS and AIDS.
Delegation: Pakistan


Simply noticing the fact that Pakistan is at crucial juncture in its response to the threat of AIDS,

Noting and Positive that Pakistan is not infected with the SARS disease,

Seeking immediate action to resolve this problem,

Noting that 70,000-80,000 persons, or 0.10 % of the adult population in Pakistan, are infected with the AIDS virus,

Referring to Article 9 of the Chapter of Fundamental Rights which guarantees security of a the Pakistani individual,

Pointing out that economically disadvantaged and underdeveloped nations are already suffering because of their economic situation and cannot develop under these circumstances,

Deeply Disturbed by the ignorance of countries and organizations to this problem,

1. Urges all countries to show full support,

2. Calls upon the WHO to build a branch in Karachi, the capital of Pakistan,

3. Requests the creation of a program which will be concerned with the AIDS virus in all AIDS infected countries which will be called "no more AIDS" which will have these goals;
A. To ensure an effective, well-coordinated, and sustainable multi-sectoral response to AIDS
B. To expand the knowledge base in order to facilitate planning, implementation and evaluation of AIDS programs
C. To improve the quality of life for people living with AIDS through the provision of quality care and support (including meeting their medical, social, and sometimes material needs), and ensuring a secure environment for all people infected and affected by AIDS D. To lower the rate of AIDS and have the country where the program is being implemented be an AIDS-free country,

4. Declares the creation of full-time jobs which will have high salaries under the WHO and will be devoted entirely to "no more AIDS", the list of jobs are as follows;
A. Lecturers who will go to schools and explain AIDS and everything about it
B. Co-lecturers who will assist the lecturer
C. Public administrators: who will create posters and everything that can be displayed in public
D. AIDS fact book: these people will create a fact book which will have everything you need to know about AIDS, it will be distributed everywhere for free
E. Office workers: who will do all the paperwork and office work and arrange all things
F. Instructors: who will guide all volunteers to work wherever they are needed (hospitals, lectures, public campaigns …etc.)
G. Collectors: who will be in charge of the donation box
H. President: who will be in charge of everything, there is no permanent president since this program is temporary,

5. Further Invites all countries and individuals and organizations to show support, either financial or any other way,

6. Affirms that all donations shall be put into nothing but the "no more AIDS" program.

7. Expresses its Hope to the success of this program.

 

 

Resolutions:
Security Council
Issue: Kashmir
Delegation: Pakistan


Defining Kashmir as a Non-Self Governing Territory that includes the areas of Jammu Region, Kashmir Region, and Ladakh Region,

Noting that according to chapter 11, article 73, sub-clause B of the UN charter that the UN must take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples of non-self governing territory, and to assist them in progressive development of their free political institutions,

Deeply concerned that the death toll of all of the major conflicts surrounding this issue is nearly 20,000 people and that is excluding the dying for freedom in the daily life of Kashmir's,

Emphasizing the fact that India agreed on a "UN supervised plebiscite" to solve the issue of Jammu and Kashmir in resolution 47 "The India-Pakistan Question" (clause A, sub-clause 3) of the Security Council,

Noting with Concern that the issue of Jammu and Kashmir has been going on for 56 years,

Condemning India for the recent assassination of legendary Kashmir leader Ghani Lone,

1. Calls Upon an establishment of a plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir on the question of accession to Pakistan, India, or to have a self governing independent state;

2. Resolves the formation of plebiscite administration that will be formed by the Security Council in accordance with the following regulations:
A. The administrator of the plebiscite will be chosen by the Security Council, and he or she must not be from South Asia;
B. A committee that will help the administrator of the plebiscite will be formed by the Security Council with the consent of the administrator;
C. A set date for the plebiscite will be set by the Security Council with the consent of the administrator;

3. Recommends that in two months prior to the plebiscite the following should happen:
A. An adequate number of UN peacekeeping troops will arrive in Kashmir;
B. The number of troops will be decided by the Security Council with the consent of the administrator;
C. The borders of Kashmir will be closed to all people;
D. The UN peacekeeping troops will oversee the borders;

4. Further Recommends that in every province of Kashmir there will be only one destination to vote and this will be implemented by the following:
A. The administrator will choose a location;
B. There will be no Indian or Pakistani military personal in that location or within 1km of it;
C. The troops will make sure that there are no military personal in that location or within km of it;

5. Further Resolves that both Pakistan and India are obliged to help by:
A. Making sure their military forces are far from the designated voting locations;
B. Making sure their military forces do not intimidate the people of Kashmir;
C. Making sure that regardless of the out come they will support it;

6. Advises the Security Council to help Kashmir with its accession to India, or to Pakistan, or to forming its own government.

 

 

 

OPENING SPEECHS: GA



Opening Speech: (GA)

Pakistan, the paradise on earth, salutes you. From the wide vast Indus plains, the plains where footsteps of a great people are carved and where great battles are fought.

The world today has indeed become a dangerous place filled with strife, suspicion and confrontation. Religious faiths—which should be the source of hope, tolerance, and peace—are tragically clashing against each other. Our destiny, and the chance of improving the livelihoods of future generations, are held hostage by a minority of extremists. 

Terrorism must be exterminated. But how, and what are the roots of terrorism? Pakistan has a long-term counter-terrorism plan that attacks terrorism at its roots: bad education. If the world community embraces Pakistan’s idea, then terrorism will be exterminated.

 

Opening Speech: (SC)

Al-Salamu Alakuim, Greetings,

Here and today in this Security Council we will discuss many issues, issues of war, dispute and the loss of life. I come to you from a place that understands these issues. Pakistan has been living with these issues since the day of its independence.

Fifty six years, three wars, ten million people on the balance, thousands dead, seventeen Security Council resolutions, one issue. Kashmir.

It is the most important issue to Pakistan and it should be the most important issue to the world……"Kashmir is the most dangerous place on the earth."

Let me start with the UN charter:

The UN charter states that self-determination in nations and in territories is an inherent right. According to chapter 11 (Declaration Regarding Non-Self Governing Territories), article 73, sub clause B,: [All Non-Self Governing Territories have the right :]

to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the

particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement.

Since Kashmir is a Non-Self Governing Territory, it should have the right to self determination and the only solution to this problem is the implementation of a plebiscite. This solution has been on paper for fifty six years… if only certain parties would focus more on peace than on pointing fingers it could be applied.

As for the issue of security in Africa, Pakistan believes it is an issue of great importance. However Pakistan thinks that the process of sending peace keeping troops is extremely inefficient and this problem should be solved.

Pakistan is looking forward to a productive and peaceful session to the Security Council.

 

 

 

STATEMENTS OF DELEGATES



Defense: Ahmad Al-Shammari

Pakistan played a major role in the disarmament commission. Pakistan's resolution successfully gathered 15 signatures. It was also debated in the General session and passed. By a very narrow margin, its unique solution to terrorism via high technology narrowly missed selection to GA. In its commission, though, Pakistan was specifically cited for its strong performance and its numerous speeches. In KFSAC MUN Disarmament committee, Pakistan was a very active member whom countries feared them. Also, Many delegations in the disarmament committee had to keep good relations with Pakistan as well as Libya to get their resolutions passed.

 

Environment: Nasser Al Qatami

This was my first real battle ever. I, Nasser Al-Qatami, have gone to two practices. Fun is really not the right word. Effort, work, seriousness is the key to succession. During the event, I gained various ideas how the UN really works. During the first day of the event, I had some good clauses to share with my group. In the second day, we debated in the library. When the emergency situation happened, I was the first one to go up and talk about how India was harassing Pakistan. Most of my talk in the emergency situation was about the environment damages from India. I went up many times to talk about the resolutions either with or against. During the last day, I had the guts to talk in front of 410 people about dumping wastes in the environment commission. I wished that this happens once a month of something similar each month or two. I really like to thank my supporter, Dr. Dan.

 

Besma Jilani, Human Rights

Did not attend

 

Abdullah Behbehani, Social

Pakistan played a strong role in the social committee of KITMUN. Pakistan quickly gathered the necessary signatures in lobbying and merging. However, its resolution was not selected for debate. Indeed most of the resolutions selected came from a very small number of countries who did almost all of the speaking. Thankfully, the next day's session was more interesting as the emergency situation involved Pakistan, and I had to take the place of my ambassador in the Security Council. There, in a very confused situation, I was able to preserve Pakistan's national interests. The final solution, though not adopted, would've called for a UN vote on Kashmir's sovereignty which, sure enough, Pakistan would've won due to the much greater number of Islamic countries in the GA. All in all, I played a vital role.

 

Khaled Rubei, Security Council and Ambassador

Pakistan played a significant role in the Security Council though I missed a good part of this due to illness. The first day's discussion, prior to the emergency situation, largely involved Africa which had only a slight interest to Pakistan. The second day's Emergency situation arose from an argument over a cricket match between India and Pakistan. As the situation developed, while Pakistan had to try to preserve its interests, also felt called upon to instill some reality in the session. For example, Pakistan needed to explain that it was not the smartest move for the Cameroons and Cuba to declare war on the United States, whose military budget is the size of the twenty military budgets combined. While the SC situation became somewhat realistic, I can say that I was present during the more lucid part of the session and asserted Pakistan's role well. It's a pity that I had a good resolution essential written on Kashmir, but it was not used.