Country: Tanzania


Event: KITMUN 2003



Students:

Altaf Al-Dukair, Human Rights Mishal Al-Rashoud, Defense and Ambassador
Sarah Fakrhal-Deen, Environment
Yousef Al-Quaid, Social




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Tanzania




The Tanzanian National Anthem


Tanzania

Original Kiswahili Words

Mungu ibariki Afrika
Wabariki Viongozi wake
Hekima Umoja na
Amani Hizi ni ngao zetu
Afrika na watu wake.

CHORUS
Ibariki Afrika Ibariki Afrika
(repeat)

Tubariki watoto wa Afrika.
Mungu ibariki Tanzania
Dumisha uhuru na Umoja
Wake kwa Waume na Watoto
Mungu Ibariki Tanzania na watu wake.

CHORUS
Ibariki Tanzania Ibariki Tanzania
Tubariki watoto wa Tanzania.

English:

God Bless Africa.
Bless its leaders.
Let Wisdom Unity and
Peace be the shield of
Africa and its people.

CHORUS
Bless Africa, Bless Africa
Bless the children of Africa.

God Bless Tanzania.
Grant eternal Freedom and Unity
To its sons and daughters.
God Bless Tanzania and its People.
CHORUS
Bless Tanzania, Bless Tanzania
Bless the children of Tanzania.



 



Country Profile

Political Structure

The President of Tanzania is Benjamin William Mkapa, while the president of Zanzibar is Amani Karume. Tanzania is a republic country, where voters throughout Tanzania elect a president, who heads the national government, while voters in Zanzibar also elect their own president. Both presidents serve five-year terms. However the president of Tanzania is assisted by a Cabinet, which includes the vice president, a prime minister, and other ministers who are appointed by the president and the president of Zanzibar. The National Assembly is the nation's lawmaking body, it consists of 274 members, and 232 of them are popularly elected to five-year terms. Most of the rest of the members are either elected by the National Assembly, appointed by the president, or sit by means of being commissioners of the country's regions. In addition, in Zanzibar there are 76 members in the House of Representatives that make the laws of Zanzibar, though the national government controls Zanzibar's finances. On July 4th the vice president of Tanzania was Dr. Omar Ali Juma who died of a heart attack at the age of 60. The prime minister of Tanzania is Frederick Sumaye and the president of Zanzibar is Amani Abeid Karume, while the permanent representative to the United Nations, in New York, is Daudi Ngelauntwa Mwakawago.

Tanzania's largest political party is the Chamber Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), established in February 1977 when the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the mainland party, merged with the Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar. The party's chairman is Benjamin Mkapa. Other parties include the Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA), founded in 1993 under the leadership of Edwin Im Mtei; the Civic United Front-Chama Cha Wananchi (CUF-CCW), founded in 1992 with James K Mapalala as leader); the National Convention for Construction and Reform- Mageuzi Party (NCCR-Mageuzi); the National Reconstruction Alliance (NRA); the National League for Democracy (NLD); the Tanzania Democratic Alliance Party (TADEA); the Tanzania People's Party (TPP); the United Democratic Party (UDP; the Popular National Alliance; the United People's Democratic Party (UPDP); and the Union for Multi-Party Democracy.

All state authority in the United Republic is controlled by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Each Central Government has three organs: The Executive; Judiciary; and The Legislature that have powers over the conduct of public affairs. In addition, local government authorities assist each central government. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania has authority over all Union Matters in the United Republic and over all other matters concerning Mainland Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar has authority in Tanzania Zanzibar over all matters, which are not Union Matters. The President of Tanzania is the Head of State, the Head of Government; and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and is the leader of the Executive of the United Republic of Tanzania, which is composed of the President, the Vice-President, President of Zanzibar, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers.

 

Geography

Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique. It has a total area of 945,087 sq. km including the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar, the Land area is 886,037 sq. km and the water are is 59,050 sq. km. Tanzania’s neighbors are Burundi, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia. The climate varies from tropical along coast to temperature in highlands. Tanzania doesn’t have that many natural hazards but the ones that it faces are: floods on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought.

 

Natural Resources

The most important minerals currently utilized in Tanzania are diamonds, while there are large deposits of coal and iron ore are known to exist in the southern region. The most substantial natural resources of the country are composed of forest land; Mahogany and Camphorwood are among the many hardwoods in Tanzania. Hydro power, tin, phosphates, gemstones, gold, natural gas and nickel are also other minerals and substances of natural resources of Tanzania.

 

Cultural Factors

The population in Tanzania is approximately 37,187,939, the reason the population can't be fixed is because of the spread of the incurable AIDS virus in Tanzania, which kills almost 140,000 lives a year. Since the spread of AIDS there have been a lot of deaths, especially the death of newborns, toddlers, or young children. Newborns receive it from their mother, and the AIDS virus could kill newborns and toddlers very quickly, if the child isn’t given the special care that an AIDS victim needs; such as the special antibiotics. The child might not be able to live for more than 8 years, before these children can die, depending on the severity of the virus.

About 97% of Zanzibar's population is Muslim; however, the other 3% are Christians, Hindus, Ismailis, and other local religions from Tanzania. Even though most of the population is Muslim, you can see that Tanzania has many religions in it. On the mainland, 99% of Tanzania's population is native African, and 95% of the native Africans are Bantu, which includes more than 120 tribes, and the other 1% includes Asian, European, and Arab immigrants. In Zanzibar on the other hand, there are Arabs, Native Africans, and mixed Arabs and Native Africans. As for the religions in the mainland, 30% Christian, 35% Muslim, and 35% native beliefs; however, in Zanzibar more than 99% are Muslim.

The languages spoken are Kiswahili, in other words, Swahili, also known as Kiunguju in Zanzibar. Arabic and English are also spoken in Tanzania, Arabic is commonly spoken in Zanzibar, and English is the official language as it is the main language of trading, government, and higher education. There are some native languages spoken as well. Swahili was put together by Bantu and it is their mother tongue - their first language - but its vocabulary was taken out of a few languages such as Arabic and English. There are many Swahili words that sound a lot like English or Arabic words. The first language for most people, besides Bantu, was one of the native languages.

There are 120 different Bantu tribes, and each tribe has its own traditional dance, each tribe’s dance differs a little from the other tribes. They even have a special "social fabric charm," otherwise known as ngoma, and it is a fascinating dance with the special fabric. Some tribes have a lead dancer in their ngoma, and others don’t. Moreover, a few tribes have had the same dance for thousands of years, and it is taught to the children, by their parents. Other tribes have made a little adjustments to their dance, but it is still almost as if it wasn’t changed, and it is still taught to the children.

 

Defense

The military field in Tanzania consists of The Tanzanian People's Defense Force, and it includes the navy, the army, and the air force; and it consists of Police Field Force Unit which includes the Police Marine Unit and the Police Air Wing. Only males who range between ages 15 to 49 are allowed to enroll in the Tanzanian army, and currently there are 8,636,817 men in the Tanzanian army, but only 4,997,257 men of them are fit to serve during battles.

Tanzania has no nuclear weapons, but it has weapons to use in times of war. The weapons that Tanzania’s defense possesses are limited, but enough for every soldier. The weapons in Tanzania’s possessions are simple weapons, like: several types of guns used in wars, small bombs that only affect a small part of the place where the bomb is thrown, and other weapons that would be useful in wars.

There is a special ministry that takes care of the defense in Tanzania, which is, the Ministry of Defense and Natural Service. The functions of this ministry are:

1) National defense policy and its implementation.
2) Development of human resources under this ministry during, times of war.
3) The safety of government agencies and all other ministries during times of war are this ministry’s responsibility, as it is in charge of adding extra security to these places.

Tanzania is under no military threat of getting into a vicious war, and it is thankful; however, Tanzania has a few disagreements with Malawi, but there have been no military threats.

 

Economy

Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in this world, it has a budget of $1.01 billion (revenue) and $1.38 billion (expenditures), which includes capital expenditures. Tanzania’s currency is The Tanzanian shilling (TZS). Tanzania Exports $863 million f.o.b. (2001), and Imports $1.67 billion f.o.b. (2001). Tanzania’s Export partners are India 15.4%, Germany 7.8%, Belgium 6.7%, Japan 6.7%, Netherlands and the United Kingdom (2001); the country’s Import partners are South Africa 13.3%, Japan 10.7%, UK 6.3%, Kenya 6.2%, Australia (2001). The Export commodities are: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures and cotton. The Import commodities are: consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials and crude oil. Tanzania also has many Agriculture products which are: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum, cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats. Gross Domestic Product: purchasing power parity $22.5 billion (2002). [IS]

 

Views on world problems

A world problem Tanzania suffers greatly from is the AIDS virus. The time that AIDS is most common is when the mining is in progress in African Countries. This is because many of the miners carry the AIDS virus with them, and now mining companies in Tanzania are implementing HIV/AIDS projects with the aim of reducing the spread of AIDS in mineworkers and the communities around the mines.

Another issue is not one that Tanzania has much to do with but it is important by that it has affected the whole world; this issue is the Iraq War. Tanzania has been protesting to this war from the start. A quote from a Tanzanian spokesman "Tanzania was saddened by America and its allies for attacking Iraq." A related issue is the war on terrorism. Tanzania is strongly against terrorism, in fact there was a US. embassy bombing in Tanzania in 1998 in which 252 people died including 12 US. citizens. This resulted in the US. bombing training bases in Afghanistan. Another thing that has affected Tanzania is that it has now acquired a reputation as a dangerous country due to terrorist attacks. President Benjamin Mkapa has accused western countries of attacking the economies of the developing countries by advising tourists not to visit with indiscriminate warnings of danger and terrorism.

 

History

In 1498 Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visits Tanzania’s coasts, and in 1506 succeed in controlling most of East Africa’s coasts. In 1699 Portugal was driven out of Zanzibar by Omani Arabs. In 1844 German Colonization Society began to acquire territory on the mainland and later in 1886 sign an agreement with Britain allowing the Germans to have some grasp over mainland Tanzania except for a little part of the coast which was left for the Sultan of Zanzibar. Then in 1905 indigenous Maji Maji revolt against the German troops. In 1916 Tanzania fell under the occupation of British, Belgian and South African troops and in 1919 the League of Nations gave Britain a mandate over Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania). In 1929 the Tanganyika Africa Association was founded and in 1946 the United Nations converted the British mandate over Tanganyika into a trusteeship. Julius Nyerere and Oscar Kambona transformed the Tanganyika African Association into the Tanganyika African National Union in 1954.

Tanganyika received its independence with Julius Nyerere as its Prime Minister in 1961. In 1962 Tanganyika became a Republic with Julius Nyerere as its president and the following year Zanzibar becomes independent. In 1964 Sultanate of Zanzibar was overthrown by Afro-Shirazi Party in a violent, left-wing revolution, and Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to become Tanzania, with Nyerere as president and the head of the Zanzibar government and leader of the Afro-Shirazi Party, Abeid Amani Karume, as vice-president. In 1967 Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, which calls for egalitarianism, socialism and self-reliance. In 1977 The Tanganyika African National Union and Zanzibar's Afro-Shirazi Party merged to become the Party of the Revolution, which was proclaimed as the only legal party. Later in 1978 Ugandans temporarily occupied a piece of Tanzanian territory, but in 1979 Tanzanian forces invaded Uganda, occupying the capital, Kampala, and helped to exile President Idi Amin. In 1985 Nyerere retires and is replaced by Ali Mwinyi. In 1992 the constitution is amended to allow multiparty politics and in the first multiparty election Benjamin Mkapa was chosen as president.

 

 

 

Tanzania: Policy Statements



Disarmament

1- Effective international arrangements to assist non-nuclear states against the use or threat of nuclear weapons.

Now several nations possess nuclear capabilities, Tanzania obviously is not one of those nations so it is interested in this issue as it is sure the whole world is also interested. Nuclear weapons are an immense danger to global peace and security and they are getting much easier to obtain. There was a nuclear superpower standoff during the cold war but thankfully that has receded but a similar event may occur again and the only true solution is to eliminate all nuclear weapons. Unfortunately that is an unrealistic goal since there will be controversy from nuclear power nations. However expansion of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1995 and approval of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty by the UN General Assembly in 1996 are important steps towards a nuclear-free world. Tanzania believes that these steps are necessary for this issue to be effective; all nuclear weapons should be taken off alert and their readiness to be used should be reduced, all long term nuclear policies should aim toward complete elimination of all nuclear weapons.

 

2- Reducing the availability of firearms to civilians and stopping the illegal trafficking of such.

Illegal firearms trade and availability is not only a vast problem in Tanzania but in most African nations. The arusha was conference held in Tanzania on "Improving Human Security through the Control and Management of Small Arms," it was designed to encourage broader discussion on the issue of arms production. The conference was hosted by IRG/APFO and the East African Co-operation in conjunction with NISAT. In a speech by Kenneth Kassekke (Tanzania Police) he stated that there are two types of arms trade, internal and external. He stated that "the internal is caused by lack of effective controls on borders loss of legal firearms by police; hiring out of firearms by those in legal possession because of poor pay; local manufacture," and the external was a result of "civil wars and disorder in neighboring countries B DRC, Rwanda, Burundi, etc." Many refugees enter Tanzania with undetected firearms and this makes efforts at control difficult. The armed forces as well as national security forces of each country must be closely monitored so that they do not hire out there weapons for illegal actions. Also those legally issued with fire arms must be frequently observed and reminded of their obligations as holders of dangerous weapons.

 

3- The role of science and technology in preventing terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction.

Terrorism now is a major issue in the world. In fact there has been a terrorist attack on the US. embassy in Tanzania in 1998. An even bigger issue is preventing terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. In order for terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction they would have to be transported one way or another. With science and technology it might be possible to set up radar on land and sea borders in order to detect any unauthorized movements or activity. In addition by using satellite technology it would be probable to keep surveillance on known or suspected terrorist figures and track their movements.

 

4- Creating a treaty on cyber warfare.

Almost the whole world relies on technology and that is what makes cyber warfare so dangerous. Information has always been a key component of government and military activity and it is now almost all stored on computers. Information is bound to have all kinds of protection and it’s most likely to be in code but that does not mean its untouchable from outside parties. There are many types of cyber warfare; web vandalism, misinformation campaigns, gathering secret data, and attacking critical infrastructure. Cyber warfare is very serious so creating a treaty on the issue is of great importance. The main step would be to create cyber law. A counter force to prevent and detect cyber warfare.

 

 

Environment


1) Prohibition of the dumping of radio active and toxic wastes.

Tanzania is all for the prohibition of dumping radioactive and toxic wastes. The most deadly wastes that are being dumped in rivers, seas, lakes, and etc., are the nuclear wastes from nuclear weapons. Tanzania has signed Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and is very worried about the pollution of their environment and water. With all the pollution from the wastes there would be no water, without water, Tanzania’s GDP, agriculture, could go down hastily, and that is very dangerous considering the current economic status in Tanzania. Most of the population in Tanzania has jobs working with agriculture and crops, and crops need water to grow, and with the pollution the water might be toxic, and kill all the crops. Not only that, but already 51% of the population is under the poverty line, and the lack of water, could lead to the lack of food, could lead to the lack of jobs, and that could would make a lot more than 51% of the population under the poverty line, and that could lead to more mortality rates. Tanzania, is very aware, and careful of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes, because they do not want to have the number of mortality rates higher than birth rates.

Tanzania is not the only country that has these concerns of pollution from radioactive and toxic wastes, many other countries, not only in Africa, but around the world have the same concerns. However, these concerns would mostly affect the unfortunate countries.

 

2) Promotion of new and renewable sources of energy including the implementation of the World Solar Program 1996–2005.

Not only in Tanzania, but also in most other countries in Africa, are very encouraging and promoting the use of renewable sources of energy, and would like to establish and execute the World Solar Program in their country. Tanzania is on of those countries, it would very much like to save energy and re-use it, and would like to establish the World Solar Program. In 1994, Africa’s National Electrification Program only allowed 36% electrification, but now it is up to 63%. Solar power is very important, especially to the people living in the country. In the year 1998, Shells International Renewables Ltd., and South Africa’s state utility, Eskom, began plans to provide 50,000 homes with solar power units, and that really helped the people living in these countries that were given this great opportunity, like Tanzania. Tanzania was one of the eleven countries that signed the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The protocol helps in the dropping and removing of the tax and non tax obstacles within the SADC trade.

Thirteen African countries are members of the African Timber Organization (ATO), established in 1976, and one of the thirteen countries is Tanzania. The ATO members cooperate in forest trades, and they are planning to manage the best use and accumulation of the forest resources.

 

3) Promoting the sustainable development of the world’s forests and preventing deforestation and habitat destruction.

In the year 2001, the Foundation for Sustainable Development (FSD) was in Tanzania, but it began functioning in Nicaragua in the year 1996, and each year it is in a different country and sometimes it takes place in more than one country in a year. The FSD is a non-profitable that sponsors development programs in areas of health, education, law, youth development, microfinance, business, human rights, and community development.

The current environmental issues in Tanzania are the reason that Tanzania decided to join the FSD, and be an active part of it. Some of the current issues are deforestation, destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats, recent droughts affected marginal agriculture, and the wild life is being threatened by illegal hunting and trade especially for ivory from elephant’s trunks.

 

4) Food safety risks associated with the GMF and foods derived from biotechnology.

Tanzania’s food accessibility is not that much; however, it provides a significant balance between manufactures and desires. Of the Tanzanian population, 51% are under the poverty line, and the government has been concerned, and is concentrating on producing more food. That will help to keep food security and diminish poverty. The Food Security Department (FSD), in Tanzania, has many functions, which are: improvement in agricultural production inspiration, aiding research and extension and improving its effectiveness, encouragement of trading with neighboring countries across the border and exporting, enhancing the tries of stopping or lessening post-harvest loss, eliminating limits on trade at national, local, and district levels, and reorganizing Strategic Grain Reserve (SGR) allowing it to function more efficiently and produce successfully. As a less fortunate country, Tanzania would like very much to advance and promote genetically modified food (GMF), because that would help provide more food for their country; not only GMF, but also foods resulting from biotechnology. As you see, Tanzania is all for its populations own good, and would like to provide food its population in any way.

 

 

Human Rights

1. Creating a charter of universal economic rights.

The Tanzanian constitution and international conventions confirmed by Tanzania oblige the country's authorities to respect the human rights and provide equal protection under the law. Tanzania has confirmed several major international treaties guaranteeing these rights including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the African Charter on and Cultural Rights, the African Charter on Human and People Rights, the Convention on the Elimination if all Forms of Discrimination against women and the Convention of the Right of the Child.

The actions of the Tanzanian government's security apparatuses violated numerous conditions of international law. Article six of the International Covenant on Civil Rights guarantees every human being the inherent right to life and states that "this right shall be deprived by law. No one shall be deprived of his life." The Tanzanian constitution guarantees similar rights, with the condition that such may be only restricted during a state on emergency. Likewise, the Zanzibar constitution states in article 20 "except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say his right to assemble freely and associate with persons and in particular to form and belong to trade unions or other associations which are legally established and recognized under the existing laws which are for his interests."

 

2. The threat of infringement of human rights posed by the implementation of anti-terrorism policies and practices.

In other words it means that the threats of violating human rights by anti-terrorism policies, by the implementation of these policies you are violating human rights issues [???]. In the Middle East and in Africa, the majority of people lived in counties where their primary rights have been usually violated with impunity and where open criticism of the authorities knew sharp limits. The battle against "terrorism" was carried out by several governments of the region to justify restraints and borders on rights. However, what is the most troubling that many states apparently don’t view human rights as a matter requiring consideration in the fight against terrorism.

Tanzania is totally against the war on terrorism, by October 4, 2001 the ambassador of Tanzania of the UN made a statement at the 56th session of the UN general assembly about "Measures to eliminate international terrorism." The ambassador welcomed the UN resolution 1373/2001 adopted by the Security Council commitment to fight terrorism. The ambassador repeated the importance of preventing the funding resources of terrorism when saying, "Terrorism has no religion… it is a cancer which if not rooted out will cause untoward suffering to the world…" He also referred to the "coordinated attack when terrorists bombed the embassies of the US at Dar El Salaam and Nairobi in 1998." The ambassador's comments reflected those made by Benjamin Mpaka, the Tanzanian president, who called on Sept.17, 2001 for "International Cooperation to root out terrorism." Tanzania would vote for and stand by almost any country that is opposed of the war on terrorism as a result of maintaining the peace around the world.

Terrorism clearly posses a threat to the most basic values of personal liberty and security. States have a right and obligation to ensure that those in their territory are protected from terrorist violence and the perpetrators are brought to justice. Many Tanzanians were victims of anti-terrorism, in fact almost every country in the world is a victim of anti- terrorism. That’s why new laws have been made in the Tanzanian government concerning anti-terrorism.

 

3. Protection of the political rights of indigenous peoples, their outstanding land claims, and their right to self-determination.

This means that indigenous people have rights and have the right to their land, their freedom, their independence and how to protect these rights. Human Rights are universal, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights belong to all human beings, including indigenous people. Every indigenous person, young or old, is entitled to all of their human rights and fundamental freedoms on equal terms with others in society, without discrimination of any kind. Indigenous people also enjoy certain human rights specifically linked to their identity, including rights to maintain and enjoy their culture and language free from discrimination, rights of access to ancestral lands and land relied upon for subsistence, rights to decide their own patterns of development, and rights to autonomy over indigenous affairs.

International Labor Organization (ILO), since 1919, has an important place to human rights in its fields of competence. The organization has been a principal inspiration of the universal and regional texts relating economic and social rights, and to certain civil rights indigenous people and their political rights. Convention No. 107, the Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Populations, the aim of this Convention was the adoption of general international standards for the protection of indigenous populations, the improvement of their living and working conditions. Examples of Indigenous people in Tanzania are the Masai people of the Ngorogoro and Mkomazi, who are in the conservation areas of Tanzania. "Indigenous people have a concept of life depending on nature, because if we destroy mother earth we destroy ourselves", Santiander said. He also said "Indigenous people had always managed important plant species, especially those used for medicinal purposes." This statement shows us how vital indigenous people are to us. Masais and Barabaig, both of Northern Tanzania, have developed and maintained traditional knowledge and practices for the management and conservation of biological resources on which they depend on and their knowledge and practices are factual and empirical. Thus Tanzania supports the indigenous people to be given all of their rights.

 

4. The question of displaced persons as a result of political, social, and economic crises.

Tanzania is a very firm country when opposing and refusing illegal immigration and refuges from neighboring countries. The Tanzanian government struggles to repatriate all refugees and is trying to prevent them from infiltrating from their camps to the country's cities, especially those who flock to Tanzania without official papers or those who seek political asylum. In 2001 the UN estimated that the number of refuges in Tanzania is around 987000, Tanzania continued to provide first asylum to refugees in the region hit by civil wars .In 2001, Tanzania hosted 517000 refugees living in 12 UN camps in the North West, as well as 470,000 "old caseload" Burundian refugees who have lived in Tanzania since the 1970s and largely have integrated into load communities. Tanzania hosted 139000 who came from Congo, 15000 Rwandese and 300 from Somalia. Most of them fled their countries due to instability and civil wars. Tanzania abstains this issue because Tanzania can't afford politically and financially to keep the refugees in Tanzania. Fortunately, Tanzania doesn't have this problem thus Tanzania doesn't apply to this issue. It is noted that Tanzania ratified the Convention related to the status of refugees since 1964 and signed the complementary protocol in 1968.

 

 

Social

1) Role of science and technology in social development including questions relating to the world's youth, aging, disabled persons and the family.

Science and technology are powerful instruments for development. The United Republic of Tanzania had expressed its concern over the lack of social development in the world at the 1995 World Summit about Social Development, which it still has till this point on.

Tanzania knows that each and every healthy minded human alive is somehow capable of helping social development in his/her country! Mostly believing in our youth. They’re who complete what we have begun; they are tomorrow while we are today! That’s why science and technologies are provided for the Tanzanian students so some day they would use this worth spend time on helping their hopeful home become a better and a brighter place, they would then be able to help the elderly that need help or the disabled! Educating the youth will decrease unemployment and will also decrease child labor. Expanding the area of technologies Tanzania had gotten better economically hoping for the same socially.

When the students are taught properly and professionally they have the chance to learn about different cultures worldwide out of the borders of their countries. That way The Africans will learn about the American, the American will learn about the Asians, and the Asians will learn about the Europeans, and the Europeans will learn about the Arabs.

 

2) The role of schools in promulgating and spreading violent ideologies.

In our recent days a large percentage of our youth are leaning towards violent ideas lead by observations to what has been lately going on worldwide of wars and terrorism, or watching certain movies that contain crime scenes or violent thoughts. Even though it is an act where the actors are playing roles, the viewers get deep into the movie that thoughts might change about certain issues.

And that’s exactly why Tanzania makes sure its schools are an escape of violence and a place for the students to get an education and socialize where the word violent doesn’t fit in, and that because Tanzania has high expectations from its youth by making there country a better place for them and for the next generation to live in. Although home hours play a big role in the students lives, school hours play an even bigger role. So Tanzania makes sure this bigger role is a positive role!

 

3) The issue of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries.

Tanzania had formally taken over the Chairmanship of the G77 from Costa Rica. "By working together in solidarity, we must strive to ensure the accomplishment of objectives which united our countries three decades ago and Tanzania will spare no efforts in responding to needs of all our countries," Said the Foreign Minister of Tanzania in his speech. Tanzania encourages economic and technical cooperation’s among developed and developing countries and it’s willing to develop closer relations with the UN system and the South Center in order to mobilize all available resources and skills to strengthen and further South-South cooperation. In this task Tanzania would devote itself resolutely to put an end to the marginilization of the developing world, and will attempt to increase good will within the developing world for the legitimate quest for an international order of progress equally shared by all countries.

 

4) Preservation and establishment of defined rights for sufferers from diseases such as SARS and AIDS.

A world problem that Tanzania greatly suffers from is the AIDS virus. Due to most of the Tanzanians way of life and lack of information about the aids and why they should stop all sexual activity if infected with, it has grown and spread. This can result in a lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of the population by age and sex than would be excepted otherwise.

A main resource of aids comes from the African miners working in the Tanzanian mines. For the poor minors AIDS is not that big an issue, for the country, it is! So Tanzania believes all those who are infected with aids should have their rights among us since AIDS only infects a person when getting an infected blood in his body or by sexual activity, and because a large percentage of the Tanzanian population is infected with the disease, that’s why it’s important to have AIDS rights. If the infected population does not donate blood to the AIDs free population and don’t sexually interact with them then Tanzania believes there is no danger with having those with AIDs educate with us, work with us, or socialize with us, etc.

 

 

Resolutions




Commission: Defense
Question: Reducing the availability of firearms to civilians and stopping the illegal trafficking of such.
Country: Tanzania

Student: Mishal Al-Rashoud

Defining trafficking of illegal firearms as the illegal trade in firearms,

Nothing with deep concern that illegal firearms are widely accessible in Africa due to civil wars in the region,

Aware that civilians are obtaining firearms by these methods: loss of legal firearms by police; hiring out of firearms by those in legal possession because of poor pay, black market sale of firearms,

Noting with deep regret that many refugees are able to smuggle firearms past the border without being detected,

Bearing in mind that we must strengthen border control in order to prevent the flow of illegal firearms into the country,

Noting with approval the efforts of the IRG/APFO and the East African Co-operation and NISAT,

1. Urges governments to put in place incentive schemes to collect and destroy weapons by:
A. offering rewards for civilians that turn in firearms,
B. implementing strict penalties for possession of and trading illegal firearms;

2. Resolves that countries bordering nations suffering from civil or non civil wars or other forms of violent political unrest, should strengthen border control by:
A. locating checkpoints all around the borders in order to detect unauthorized activity,
B. performing full searches on all refugees entering the country;

3. Further resolves that all armed forces and legal custodians of firearms be constantly monitored by the government in order to prevent them from hiring their firearms out for illicit activities by issuing regular weapons checks to insure that no weapons have gone missing;

4. Demands that all police and armed forces keep track of all weapons lost in order to work on retrieving them immediately before falling into civilian hands;

5. Requests that all governments monitor factories that may be producing firearms by carrying out routine as well as unannounced inspections of all industrial facilities that have the capability of producing firearms.

 

 

Commission: Environmental
Issue: Food Safety Risks Associated With the GMF and Foods Derived From Biotechnology.
Country: Tanzania
Student: Sarah Fakhral-Deen

Defining genetically modified foods (GMF) and foods derived from biotechnology crops (BC) as foods produced using plant or animal ingredients that have been modified using gene technology,

Recalling that the United Nations has not neglected the issue, and held a conference on it, which took place in November 2002 in Geneva, Switzerland,

Welcoming the offer made by Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, China, and India to provide Zambia with non-genetically modified maize/crops,

Noting with Deep Concern that 14 million people are in extreme danger of suffering from starvation in Swaziland, Lesotho, Zambia, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe due to the lack of organic, or safe, food there,

Fully Aware that GMF and BC have been confirmed harmless and useful to less fortunate countries by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the World Food Program (WFP), but nevertheless in accord with the human rights rapporteur's "principle of precaution," which states that GMF "can pose dangers in the medium and long term for human beings and for the public health,"

Fully Believing that GMF and BC harm the people that eat them, and that there is evidence to prove that Starlink, a biotech crop originally made for animals, was found in many food products available on the open market and consumed by human beings,

Taking into Consideration the incident when a major manufacturer of animal foods, Pioneer Hi-Bred, enhanced soybeans by injecting a Brazil nut gene into soybean plants, which caused allergic reactions in many people who ate these soybean products, it is apparent that GMF has side effects that can cause death, permanent disability, and allergic reactions,

Having Studied that, in addition to harmful reactions to genetically-engineered peanuts in the United States of America, the consumption of the amino acid L-tryptophan, derived from genetically modified bacteria, killed 37 people, permanently disabled 1,500 people, and gave 5,000 people blood disorders in that country,

Condemns the US. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for encouraging the cultivation of biotechnology crops,

Strongly Condemns the US. Agency for International Development (AID) for pressuring Zambia to import GMF and BC from the United States or pay a large fine,

Alarmed By the fact that GMF and foods derived from biotechnology were, and still are, being consumed by millions of people around the world,

1. Resolves the formation of an independent organization of the United Nations called the Organization for the Prohibition of the Distribution of GMF and Biotechnology Crops (OPDGBC), which would have the following structure:
A. The OPDGBC will consist of 40 annually-rotating representatives from 30 of the suffering African nations, and ten volunteer nations from anywhere in the world,
B. A president of the OPDGBC would be elected by the 40 rotating representatives,
C. The OPDGBC would include an extra seat for a UN representative elected by the UN who would attend all debates, meetings, and sessions and contribute accordingly to the UN's wishes,
D. The OPDGBC would be headquartered in the president's country, with branches in any country where the president might consider it necessary to have them, based upon a popular vote of the organization,

2. Further Resolves that the OPDGBC will be in charge of:
A. collecting financial donations from generous countries and distribute them to needy countries,
B. collecting all forms of aid, most importantly organic and safe foods,
C. raising awareness about the harmful effects of GMF and BC,
D. raising awareness about the benefits of consuming organic foods,
E. forming a database to keep records of all deaths caused by GMF and BC,
F. insuring that all GMF and BC are labeled as such on the open market;

3. Urges all nations to cooperate with the OPDGBC, and contribute information regarding GMF and BC to the organization's database;

4. Further requests all nations who are in good financial condition to kindly donate to the utmost of their ability to those countries in need;

5. Further Urges all nations worldwide to oppose the distribution of GMF and BC;

6. Requests all organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to reverse their decisions and ban GMF and BC.

7. Calls Upon all nations of the world to unite and put an end to the distribution of these fatal crops before unnecessary diseases start spreading around the world.

 

 

Resolution
Delegation: The United Republic of Tanzania
Delegate: Altaf Al-Dukair
Question of: The protection of the political rights of indigenous people, their outstanding land claims, and their right to self-determination.

1) Defining that Indigenous people have been deprived of their rights to their land and their independence, which is a form of discrimination that should be recognized and solved,

2) Affirming that indigenous peoples are equal in dignity and rights to all other people, although they are different they still have the same rights just like any other human being, there fore they should be respected and treated as such,

3) Deeply concerned that indigenous people have been deprived of their human rights and primary freedoms, which results in their colonization and the deprivement of their lands, territories and resources, therefore preventing them from exercising their rights of development that agrees with their own needs and interests,

4) Recalling Part 1 article 1 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People, states that, Indigenous people have the full right to all human rights recognized under international law,

5) Guided by part 1 article 2, concerning Equality with other people, states that, Indigenous peoples have equal rights and dignity with all other people including freedom from any kind of negative discrimination,

6) Viewing with appreciation the continuous efforts of various organizations such as the International Labor Organization (ILO), The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) and the National Global Network (NGO), where they have been interested in human rights and also have helped promote indigenous rights and actively supporting indigenous peoples’ causes,

7) Convinced that the control by indigenous people over their developments not only affects them, it affects their lands, territories and resources that will enable them to maintain and strengthen their institutions, cultures and traditions, and to promote their developments according to their aspirations and needs,

8) Emphasizing the need for demilitarization of the lands and territories of indigenous people, which will result in peace, economic, social progresses and developments, understanding and friendly relations among nations and people of the world,

9) Desiring the urgent need to respect and promote the rights and characteristics of indigenous people, especially their rights to their lands, territories and resources, which derive them from their political, economic and social structures and from their cultures,

10) Noting with approval part 2 article 10 concerning Forcible Removal, states that, Indigenous people have the right not to be removed from their lands by force. No relocation shall take place without their free and informed consent and only after adequate compensation is paid or the option to return is provided,

11) Recalling part 2 Article 9 concerning Belong to Community, states that Indigenous people have the right to belong to an indigenous community or nations according to their own traditions and customs,

12) Taking into consideration that Article 15 of the UN Draft Declaration, which declares the right of indigenous peoples "to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning." It also calls on states "to take effective measures to provide appropriate resources for these purposes.”

________________________________________________________________________ 1) Recommends that indigenous people should be educated just like any other human being, in order to accelerate and enhance their beliefs, culture and language, Indigenous people are human beings who are also significant to mother earth, thus they are entitled to rights and education,

2) Requests that: A. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and relevant UN agencies integrate the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples into their work program for realizing the right to development,
B. The Independent Expert on the Right to Development gives consideration to minority and indigenous rights in future reports,
C. The UN World Summit on Sustainable Development recognize the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples in all stages of the development process and recognize their vital contribution to ensuring sustainable development for all,

3) Encourages all nations to have treaties, which hopefully may result in agreements between nations concerning the rights of Indigenous people and their lands, in order to resolve this issue,

4) Further recommends all nations to:
A. Recognize the educational rights of indigenous people,
B. Recognize the significance of indigenous education,
C. Protect and enhance indigenous spiritual beliefs, culture and languages through higher education,
D. Accelerate the articulation of indigenous epistemology (ways of knowing, education, philosophy, and research),
E. Create an accreditation body for indigenous education, initiatives and systems that identify common criteria, practices and principles the indigenous people live by,
F. Create a global network for sharing knowledge through exchange forums and state of the art technology,
G. Advance the social, economical, and political status of indigenous people in ways that contribute to the well being of indigenous communities through higher education,

5) Further requests that all nations to take the following steps:
A. Recognize those minorities and indigenous peoples that exist within their territories,
B. Acknowledge the discrimination against the indigenous people,
C. Ensure the participation of minorities and indigenous people in the articulation of policies and programs to achieve the Millennium Development Goals,
D. Monitor the impact of policies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals on minorities and indigenous people, including through the collection of disaggregated data,
E. Indigenous communities to engage with one another and cooperate in order to improve development activities,
F. Respect the rights of minorities and indigenous people in all stages of the development process,

6) Asks that the people of the world should know about the discrimination of indigenous people and how they are deprived of their rights to their freedom by: A. Magazines and newspapers,
B. Spreading of word (talking)
C. Documentaries about indigenous people,

7) Reminding that the United Nations plays and important role in promoting and protecting the rights of indigenous people,

8) Expresses its undying hopes that all nations, with the help of various useful organizations, would cooperate and agree on a solution to this problem, and to realize the importance of human rights, especially concerning those of Indigenous peoples’.

 

 

Commission: Social
Issue: The role of science and technology in social development, including questions relating to the world's youth, aging, disabled persons and the family.]
Student: Yousef Al Qaoud
Country: Tanzania

Defining social development as "countries and cultures developing socially with other cultures around the world,"

Defining science as "the knowledge about life, the world etc.," and technology as "the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems,"

Alarmed by the fact that at least 30% of each country’s population is ignorant about other cultures or countries in this world,

Declaring that science and technology can have a negative or positive effect on social development between cultures and countries now days, for example, the education of the population about the help each country gives to another and what it gets in return, which lets the population know what country is helping it and what country might be an enemy,

Reaffirming the belief that a negative effect of science and technology is, for example, the bombings of September 11th 2001, when Afghan terrorists, it is alleged, used modern technology to destroy the Twin Towers in New York City-not a positive development in US. relations with the Middle East,

Noting that schools have a major effect on the role of science and technology in social development, Tanzania believes all generations should be educated and taught about other cultures, and that it is important for poor countries to have an educated generation to help the country socially and economically,

1. Urges all countries to force their youths not at school to attend school and get an education:
A .The country provides the schools and teachers,
B. Urges all the country’s population to donate some money (what they can afford) in order to help by supplies etc. for schools,
C. Make place for new students in already existing schools to save lots of time and work,

2. Calls upon each country to send out policemen in search of young vagrants on streets and move them to shelters where they can be fed and looked after:
A. Countries should provide shelters,
B. Those vagrants also get educated so they might get a decent job to live from when they are done with school,
C. Educating and sheltering the vagrants will help the country also economically not only to help the country socialize with other countries by learning about them;

3. Notes that the country will not force a student to complete his education if this student refuses to and has parental permission to leave school;

4. Further Resolves that the country will not tolerate with vagrants or students who keep refusing to get educated, it is in their interests to be educated but once they start refusing they are on their own;

5. Requests all elderly that are not educated to reconsider getting an education, where this might also help the country;

6. Asks all capable personnel that can help build schools or shelters to do so for the sake of the upcoming generations;

7. Fully Believing that like we controlled SARS and many other diseases, we will be able to control the widest-spread disease ever in this world.

 

 

 

Opening Speech



Good day/evening honorable chairs and fellow delegates. Tanzania a land of tropical jungles and diamond mines welcomes you to this event in which we wish to tackle many issues afflicting the world today.

All of these issues are of equal importance, however one above all affects Tanzania as well as most African countries here today, and this issue is reducing the availability of firearms to civilians and stopping the illegal trafficking of them. The reason I say this is because Africa is a continent being torn apart by internal civil wars and this makes firearms as easy to obtain as candy. Tanzania wishes with all its heart that we may come to a solution that reduces the frequency of this problem or even better yet, stops it completely. Thank you

 

 

 

STATEMENT OF DELEGATES


Mishal, Defense and Ambassador,

At KITMUN this year I had a good time. I came out as a main co-submitter on a resolution that was always debated in the GA. it was not debated in the disarmament commission. In the first day I spoke for resolutions that helped my country and all of them passed. I spoke against some resolutions and proved flaws in the resolution that should have failed them, yet some of them passed regretfully. in the GA I had numerous speeches yet I was not called on to speak, had I been chosen I would have had a more joyful experience.

 

Sara, Environment

What My Country Accomplished At KITMUN, my country, Tanzania, accomplished a whole lot, and experienced a lot, too, at least the environment delegate of Tanzania did. At first, during the lobbying and merging, Tanzania experienced how irritating other countries can be, and how loud a delegate can yell to get the main-submitter position. Later, in the first day, Tanzania experienced speaking up in front of more than 200 delegates, and reading the opening speech written by the ambassador. On the second day, the day that the resolutions in each commission were debated, Tanzania accomplished the task of speaking against the bad resolutions, and giving or stating specific reasons why the resolution was not good enough to pass. Shortly after the break in the second day, Tanzania experienced the feeling of being betrayed by the main-submitter of its resolution. The main-submitter denied that it had lied to Tanzania, while it really did lie. Tanzania also realized that the second co-submitter went against genetically modified foods, while they plant and grow GMF in their own country. Furthermore, the third day was smooth with Tanzania, some of the GA resolutions were good, and some were bad, the four delegates of Tanzania thought very well before voting for or against a resolution. Moreover, Tanzania’s four delegates raised their placard every time they had something to say; however, Tanzania got to speak a few times, only, but that was really good, because there are more than 200 other students who were present. Therefore, whenever Tanzania got the chance, it did speak, and the four delegates gave good speeches and good points of information. So, Tanzania experienced and accomplished several things during KSAA.

 


Altaf, Human Rights

Besides being the delegate of Tanzania in this KITMUN event, I experienced new things such as being a co-submitter on a resolution that was passed after an intriguing debate, which concluded that the resolution was in the benefit of all nations taking part in the event. I spoke on numerous resolutions, for, against and in open debate. I also made a speech in the GA, which was a breathtaking. I enjoyed participating in this event and speaking in front of many nations, and I'm looking forward to next years KSAA MUN event.




Yousef, Social

During the event, I observed how delegates from other schools lobby and merge. my resolution got nine signatures so I only needed six more which I didn't get! in the social committee I observed how the procedure go, since it was my first KSAA meeting, then I got into the habit and started asking points of information and I asked five times and talked on the podium twice. it was a very successful experience for me and I enjoyed it.