Country: Uruguay


Event: KITMUN 2003


Students:
Besma Behbehani, Environment
Noufah Al-Sabah, Social and Ambassador
Sara Al-Muzaini, Human Rights




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Uruguay




The Uruguayan National Anthem



 



Country Profile


Political Structure

Uruguay is a constitutional republic. Its conventional long form is the Oriental {oriental in Spanish means EASTERN} Republic of Uruguay, while its conventional short form is simply Uruguay. Its constitution was made on the 27th November 1966, and was effective as of February 1967. It’s constitution is based on Spanish civil law system but accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. Uruguay’s capital is Montevideo. Uruguay’s government is composed of 3 branches Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.

The Executive branch is made up of the Chief of state and head of government: President Jorge Batlle Ibanez (since 1 March 2000), Vice President Luis Hierro (since 1 March 2000), and the cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval. The Legislative branch is made up of the bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General (which consists of a Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores which are mainly 30 seats that its members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes ( which are 99 seats whose members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms). The Judicial branch is composed of a Supreme Court of which judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly.

The government has gone through a very distinct reformation from a military run state that was initiated to fight off a violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement launched in the late 1960s. This led Uruguay's president to agree to military control of his administration in 1973. By the end of the year the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985 and now Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent. There are no distinct political pressure groups or leaders but the main political parties are the Colorado Party, the National Party or Blanco, the New Sector/Space Coalition or Nuevo Espacio , and the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or Encuentro Progresista/Frente Amplio.

 

Geography:

Uruguay is located in South America, and it borders South Atlantic Ocean. It is specifically between both Brazil, and Argentina. Uruguay’s total area is 176,220 sq. km. 173,620 sq. km of those is land area, while the remaining 2,600 sq. km is the marine area. It borders two countries, as well as bordering the sea. 660 km is the total coastal border, while Argentina and Brazil have 579 km, and 985 km respectively, as land borders.

The land in Uruguay is separated into a simple terrain, mainly consisting of rolling plains, low hills, and fertile lowlands. Arable land sequres around 7.21%, while the permanent crops use 0.27% of the land. The 173,620 sq. km of land Uruguay preoccupies makes it the second smallest South American state.

Uruguay’s climate is fluctuating between the summers, and winters. In summers it enjoys warm climates ranging from 29 degrees, all the way to 37 degrees. While in the winter it can drop to as low as 5 degrees. Uruguay suffers from several climatic hazards, such as seasonal winds, and the common floods. It also goes through droughts in summers.

 

Natural Resources

The country’s principal resources are agricultural. It has an abundance of cattle, sheep, etc. that provide meat, dairy products, wool, and leather which are the main exports of Uruguay. The soils are generally very fertile. It has a significant number of fisheries and arable land. Minerals are scarce and minor. Hydroelectric power is of major importance in Uruguay. The principal hydroelectric power plant is Salto Grande on the Uruguay River; two other plants are in operation on the Rio Negro, and another, on the Brazilian border, was constructed during the 1980s. The electric power industry is under the control of the government.

 

Cultural Factors

The people of Uruguay, also known as the Uruguayans are predominantly of European root, and many of them are foreign-born. The Uruguayans came primarily from Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Italy and France; after World War II (1939-1945) there were some immigrants that arrived from central and Eastern Europe. About 5 to 10 percent only are known as mestizos, who are people with mixed European and Native American ancestry). However, nowadays none of the small and original population of the Native Americans remains. Uruguay contains a large middle class that has developed in the 20th century. This occurred partly because the country's government engaged a large part of the population in professional and administrative jobs. The jobs could afford a lot of the populations' unhurried but steady upward communal mobility. This also created a significant gap between both urban rich and rural poor residents.

The religions found in Uruguay are the Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church on a regular basis), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, and other 31% (sometimes no professing). The ethnic groups are the white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian, essentially absent

 

Defense

The Uruguayan military is composed of four branches: The Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force, Police (Coracero Guard, Grenadier Guard). Available manpower goes from the ages 15-49 and are: 824,395 according to the estimation made in 2002. As for the manpower that is fit for military service, the ages start from 15-49 and are: 666,880 according to the estimation for year 2002. The military's percent of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is 1.1%.

 

Economy

Uruguay's economy consists of many signs of a healthy economy. A well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending, are only two. After averaging growth of 5% annually during 1996-98, in 1999-2002 the economy suffered a major downturn, mainly because of lower demand in Argentina and Brazil, which together account for nearly half of Uruguay's exports. Total GDP in these four years dropped by nearly 20%, with 2002 the worst year. Unemployment rose to nearly 20% in 2002, inflation surged, and external debt doubled.

Currently Uruguay is economically challenged. It has an average GDP of $7,800 per capita(2002), but unfortunately it is dropping by 10.5%(real growth rate 2002). Uruguay is also facing a 14.1% inflation rise(2002), and this has caused approximately 6% of the population to drop below the poverty line. Overall the GDP of the country is $26.5 billion. This GDP is mainly composed of 6% agriculture, 27% industry, and finally 67% services. Its overall budget is %3.7 billion, while its expenditures go up to $4.6 billion, making its loss $0.9 billion. Its debt is slowly approaching the $12 billion mark, and the economy looks in no good shape to stop it.

Uruguay is a host to 1.2 million workers, which are scattered quite unevenly. 14% of the labor is in agriculture, while another 16% are in industry, and finally a huge 70% working in providing services. The unemployment rate is 19.4%(2002). Uruguay’s main industries include food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, and manufacturing beverages. Its agricultural products include rice, wheat, corn, barley, livestock, and fish.

Uruguay’s economy manly depends on exporting, with $2.1 billion dollars coming out of it. The main export materials are meat, rice, leather products, wool, vehicles, and dairy products. Its export partners are Brazil 23.8%, Argentina 18.4%, US 8.9%, Germany 3.7%, Paraguay 3.6% (2001). Uruguay also imports a total worth of $1.87 billion. imports commodities like machinery, chem., road vehicles, and crude petroleum. Import partners are Argentina 23.0%, Brazil 19.1%, US 11.4%, Italy 4.4%, 4.1% (2001).

 

Views on World Problems

Uruguay is a very peaceful country. It does not have any political problems with any of its neighbors, or other nations in the US. It ma very diplomatic and friendly relationship with the US and the other SC countries. Uruguay has a very strong relationship with other nations such as the middle east, etc. that has developed due to strong economic deals and trade. Uruguay has often been a very fair country meaning it upholds and stands back everything which is good and virtuous and stands firmly against all evil. It has no political aim like other nations, however it has an economic aim. It is more drawn to economic policies, etc. since it’s a major sector in Uruguay. Uruguay is a member in many renowned organizations like the OAS (organization of American States), etc. and has signed many worldwide treaties like the nuclear one, etc. Uruguay, overall is a very calm and serene nation.

 

History

You won't find many remnants of Uruguay's precolonial history. The ancient Charrua Indian population was decimated when the Europeans began to settle the area in 1624. For the next two centuries, it was a battleground, as well as a prize, in struggles between Portugal and Spain and, later, between Brazil and Argentina. Possession of La Banda Oriental (or the "East Shore" of the Rio de la Plata, as the territory was then called) passed back and forth several times. Finally, in 1828, the region was declared an independent republic, which would act as a buffer state between the two largest South American powers.

By 1900, Uruguay had developed into a model social-welfare state. This lasted until the late 1960s, when political and economic turmoil - combined with an empty national treasury - led to fierce inflation, high unemployment and, by 1973, an urban guerrilla movement. The military stepped in and ruled with a heavy hand for the next 10 years, detaining more than 60,000 citizens. Elections in 1984 and the re-establishment of civilian government have allowed the country to resume its economic, political and social progress.

The 1990s brought economic liberalization, including privatization in many sectors, reduction of inflation and membership in Mercosur (the Common Market of the South, an economic-integration agreement between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay). Problems plague the economy, as is true in the rest of the region.








POLICY STATEMENTS


Disarmament Committee (Noufah al Sabah)

(1) Effective international arrangements to assist non-nuclear states against the use or threat of nuclear weapons.

Nuclear weapons are a threat to everyone living on the earth. When it comes to weapons of mass destruction, no country can be trusted or can take full responsibility for its actions. These weapons are of a very dangerous kind and with just one push of a button, millions of innocent people die and nations get destroyed. These weapons are tools of terrorism and are a premonition of a very bad future for world wide peace.

Uruguay is a very peaceful country and therefore has no weapons of mass destruction whatsoever. This is because it does not believe that force and violence are answers to problems. It believes in negotiations and peaceful acts to solve problems. Uruguay is afraid of the near future, since a lot of countries have nuclear capabilities that can be used on a whim, without no reason. Most of these countries are known as terrorists, and therefore cannot be trusted. Uruguay like most other peaceful nations has no way to protect itself from these weapons, so it would like to see some work done by the UN to put an end to nuclear weapons and assist non-nuclear states against the use and threat of these weapons. It would like the UN to make an organization that would make a treaty regarding the use of nuclear weapons, and the ownership of them, etc. for all world nations and thus help to wipe out those weapons, etc. Uruguay condemns nuclear weapons and the use of nuclear technology in wars, etc. and would like the UN to stand against this too.

 

(2) Reducing the availability of firearms to civilians and stopping the illegal trafficking of such.

Uruguay is a peaceful country and does not believe in force when solving problems. Weapons, be they guns, swords, etc. are all bad and encourage violent and reckless behavior. They create a lot of problems when they are handled by beginners, non-professional people, villains, etc. who all fire them at people either accidentally or on purpose and use it as a mean of terrorizing or scaring others. This bad use results with the death of innocent civilians and the tormenting of others.

Uruguay condemns this usage of weapons. It wants to see these weapons in the hands of the police force who are good guys and use it to uphold the law and peace. Fire arms are terror tools and Uruguay requests the UN to help put a stop to them for once and for all. Uruguay resolves that the UN must make an organization that will cooperate with all the UN nations to help stop this illegal trafficking and usage of firearms around the world. It wants to make it a better and safer place for the next generations.

 

(3) The role of science and technology in preventing terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction.

Humans have always used science and technology to help them in everyday life. Unfortunately even terrorists and villains use technology for their own evil deeds such as acquiring weapons of mass destruction, etc. Terrorist are bad people who like to terrorize and threaten other’s lives, etc. Uruguay, being a peaceful country and all, condemns those people’s acts of violence.

Uruguay requests all countries to help in preventing those people from acquiring those weapons, etc. and especially the leading technological countries such as the US, France, China, etc. Those nations have the technological means and budgets to help the world solve this problem. The UN also must search for a new mean of blocking those terrorists evil schemes and plans and therefore putting an end to this chaos. Uruguay encourages all nations to pitch in and help especially those able to do so and are targeted by those terrorists.

 

(4) Creating a treaty on cyber warfare.

The internet is a very fascinating and positive invention. It enables people to communicate efficiently, do things quicker, and research more in depth, etc. Although the internet is a very positive step for humanity it has a lot of negative outcomes such as terrorist actions, scheming, hackers, and the spread of violent ideologies. The internet is not censored and anyone can connect to it with no difficulty especially terrorists, etc. Uruguay encourages the UN to take some action and make the internet a safer place. It resolves that the UN should create a treaty on cyber warfare, that comes in all forms such as hackers, terrorist scheming and planning, etc. The internet should help people not create chaos. The internet should be bordered and patrolled to see as to the safety of others and the arresting of rebels, etc. Uruguay condemns all those people who use the internet to terrorize others, etc. it would like to see some action done, and soon before the internet is manifested with villains, terror and other criminals.

 

 

Environment: Basma

1) Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes

Uruguay considers this a serious problem arising from the dumping of dangerous toxic wastes in certain Islamic Countries by some industrial countries. It is deeply concerned at the fact that the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes endangers human life, marine fauna and the ecosystem in general. Expressing the cover the dumping by Israel of radio-active and chemical wastes as well as highly toxic pesticides and insecticides in the Mediterranean Sea, especially in Lebanese regional waters. The dumping or elimination of toxic wastes of foreign origin in the territories and waters of Member States, and the risks that it entails for human life are a heinous crime against the people of Member States and the entire humanity, seriously endangering life and environment on the planet.

Uruguay requests that all countries are put extra security on industrial nations so that they do not throw their toxins in the environment and sea. Moreover, all countries should educate people on how dangerous the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes are on human life, fauna and flora. Furthermore, all States which produce dangerous toxic wastes take all the measures necessary for treating and recycling this waste in their own countries. Member States have to ban all the illegal trans-border movements of dangerous toxic wastes, transported without the necessary safeguards and the prior consent of the importing country. The Member States are requested to intensify their efforts within the framework of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency to conclude a legally binding instrument on the absolute and comprehensive prohibition of any dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes and to this end calls on all States and multi-national corporations and others to put up with the requirements of the Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982.

 

2) Promotion of new and renewable sources of energy including the implementation of the World Solar Program 1996-2005

The WSSP "World Solar Summit Process" initiative led by UNESCO "United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization" is a close partnership and joint venture involving certain UN. specialized agencies and national governments, and concerned non-governmental organizations. Its primary purpose is to enhance understanding of the role that renewable sources of energy could play in the preservation of the global environment and in the provision of energy services, particularly in rural and remote areas. The WSSP has led to the proposal for a World Solar Program 1996-2005 which, in turn, seeks to channel resources from national, international, industrial, and non-governmental organizations into education, innovation, and technology transfer activities that show how the expanded use of renewable energy resources by developing countries can enhance living standards and reduce energy costs while enhancing the local, regional, and global environment. The Program is designed "to foster the research, development, commercialization and rational use of renewable energy resources and technologies..." It will involve governments, international governmental agencies and institutions, non-governmental organizations, professional associations, industries and concerned individuals. UNESCO estimates the cost to implement the Program could be as much as $2 billion to $3 billion per year.

During the WSSP, there was a proposal to create a World Solar Fund to support the Program. Thus, Uruguay emphasizes that the Fund would have sought support from the World Bank, other multilateral banks, and national governments as well as regional financial institutions, commercial banks and local community organizations. However, this proposal was dropped from the Summit agenda. At this point, it is not clear how the World Solar Program would be funded. Thus, we get concluded in which the World Solar Program is not working, and that the world and all organizations committed on such work, have to come with an organization that could actually be funded to work.

 

3) Promoting the sustainable development of the world’s forests and preventing deforestation and habitat destruction

Uruguay thinks that deforestation is threatening the habitat destruction and loss outranks over exploitation, introduction of exotic species, predation and competition, natural disasters, and inadequate laws as causes of species extinctions and those threatened with extinction. Furthermore, habitat loss and destruction is a direct result of increasing human populations. The alarming growth in human populations has been possible because of significant progress in medicine that lowered infant mortality rates and increased life expectancy, and advances in modern agriculture that made food plentiful. Increasing rates of human population growth in tropical countries presents a special concern for biological diversity because these countries contain the greatest number of species. Deforestation of rain forests is a particular concern because of the high biodiversity in these habitats. Fuel wood production are the principle causes of deforestation. Forest natives are removed from their original habitat and are forced to migrate. Soil erosion which may lead to the formation of a desert means the extinction of various species of plants and animals and loss of valuable timber.

To prevent this, Uruguay thinks that all countries should decrease the development of housing, roads, industries etc.. Moreover, Uruguay itself will start decreasing the amount of grazing area that is used for cows (which is about 88% of the land), and not provide as much pasture for cattle to graze and to grow crops as we are now. Decrease mining mineral wealth. The collection of lumber from trees should be decreased and instead replace natural trees with foreign, faster growing trees. Make space for recreational purposes (due to overpopulation). Finally and most importantly, educate people and coming generations on how important deforestation is, and how to prevent it.

 

 

Human Rights Forum (Sarah Al Muzaini)

1) Creation of charter economic rights.

The creation of charter economic rights in countries will allow people to have the right to start their own business in trading and importing and exporting products from all over the world. This will create better business relations with other countries. In addition, people will have a better chance at a better life. Also, this will increase the countries progress in creating a civilized country. Finally, this will boost the countries income and more things will be available as the country progresses.

Uruguay is a country full of farm land. When the citizens of Uruguay have economic rights, they can then produce more and better products from what they grow. This will lead to business relations with other countries. Also, Uruguay feels that every country should have economic rights for its people because this will greatly help increase the countries income and it'll give a the country a better chance at progressing.

 

2) The threat of infringement of human rights posed by the implementation of anti-terrorism policies and practices.

The threat of infringement of human rights posed by the implementation of anti-terrorism policies and practices means that the violation of human rights due to the completion of anti-terrorism policies and practices will cause the people of a certain to country to feel insecure and threatened even in their own country because they are always being questioned when traveling or even doing daily activities. Also, these people will have their private information studied and observed thoroughly if they want to travel to a certain country. This will cause the people to feel insecure and threatened at all times.

In Uruguay, the feeling of safety and safety itself of the people comes first. Therefore, Uruguay tries its best to carry out anti-terrorism policies and practices in a way that does not violate anyone's rights. Meaning, that all the practices are very straightforward, and the peoples personal information is not included. This will cause everyone to feel unthreatened and relaxed at all times and no violations of human rights are taking place.

 

3) Protection of the political rights of indigenous peoples, their outstanding land claims, and their right to self-determination.

The protection of political rights of native people and their rights to independence and freedom will cause the local people to feel secure and unthreatened at all times. This also prevents the local people's privacy to be invaded. In addition, when these people have rights, they will be treated with respect when going to important places and they wont be questioned or felt like criminals. Therefore, it is appropriate to achieve this in every country so that all citizens will feel safe even when not in their homeland.

Uruguay feels that the protection of the political rights of native people and their rights to independence and freedom is a must everywhere. This is because no one wants to feel like a criminal. People have human rights and should be treated with respect no matter what. Therefore, if any necessary policies should be taken, they should be taken in a respectful manor and without accusing anyone of anything before being completely sure. In addition, people should be able to speak their mind and they should have freedom and independence if they want to live peacefully. In the end, everyone deserves to be respected and everyone has human rights.

 

4) The question of displaced persons as a result of political, social, and economic crises.

The question of displaced people due to opinionated, common and financial problems will cause the displaced people to feel lonely and unwelcome. This violates those people's human rights. Sometimes, if a lot of people are put in an area with limited resources, this will cause problems because of the shortage of necessary resources. Also, when displacing people, this will effect the countries income because not a lot of the displaced citizens have the priorities to start their own business. Therefore, the displacement of people should be eliminated in order to achieve a better progressing country and to create better life for all citizens.

No person should be displaced anywhere. In the Uruguay, all the people are equal. No one is displaced anywhere. This is because in Uruguay human rights are present and they are very important. Without human rights, the world is nothing. Since each person has human rights, that means that they have the right to live anywhere. Therefore, the displacement of people should be stopped because each person should have the right to choose where they would like to live. Finally, if displacement continues, less country's are going to progress and this will definitely not create a better life for any citizen.

 

 

Social Forum (Khalid Sharoor)

#1: Role of science and technology in social development including questions relating to the world's youth, aging, disabled persons and the family.

Uruguay feels that this issue is an important one, especially since it can safely say that the world is at its peek in all aspects of development, whether it is in science, technology, or even social factors. Uruguay also feels that with this development comes a huge responsibility, which is to use this development correctly. Currently all the countries of the world, including Uruguay, have problems where technology, or science is misused, and mistreated. Examples could vary from simple computer hackers, all the way to military experts in the field of biological weapons, working with terrorist groups that cause chaos. Uruguay feels that development should be used for the good of the world’s entire population, and not to make it worse.

Uruguay stresses that the first action needed to be taken here is on young youths, especially ones in countries that are surrounded by problems of this kind. This issue should be treated with the exact same cautiousness as of any other problem, since it increases, and intensifies, as the world develops. Children need to be better acquainted with both the affects of the misuse of development of any kind, and also the punishments stressed upon these crimes. Adults should also be clearly notified that when misusing development they ruin not only their lives, but also the people who they misuse it on. Uruguay also feels that development should not only be for the majority of people, but should also help minorities such as the disabled, and the young who are being left out of the significant changes.

 

#2: The role of schools in promulgating and spreading violent ideologies.

Uruguay disagrees with this issue entirely. Uruguay sees school as a means of development, and not as an ally to violence, and chaos. Schools all around the world focus on teaching children what they need to know, and sometimes these lessons tend to include violence, or even illegal misconduct. But, in no means, should the school to be held responsible for spreading violent ideas. Uruguay feels that the criminals behind these actions come in the shapes of music, movies, and even sometimes habitat. If a person lives in a gangster community, with gangster parents, then that would most likely affect him negatively. This is a means of help for the students, and is not an accomplice in crimes.

Uruguay feels that the best way to solve the spread of violent ideologies is not to punish the schools, but to be stricter on youths not to go to any event that spreads these ideologies. People should learn to respect the small details that are causing these problems. Some of these details could include movie ratings, and music warnings, which in some countries have no affect what so ever. Uruguay also feels that schools should be the place were students learn about the negative output of the violent ideologies they learn is certain other places.

 

#3: The issue of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries.

Uruguay feels a need to stress on this issue, and now more than ever. In our current timeline countries have been victims to wars, terrorists, and even in some cases tyrants. This issue not only affects the developing countries, but also affects the developed countries as well. When all the developed countries are able to cooperate to solve their problems, naturally fewer problems will occur. Whether a country needs help economically, or technically, all countries should help. This especially applies to developing countries, because they know how, and what to do in order to help because of the similar situations all developing countries are in. Also, when countries help each other, they not only help the country in need, but also itself, because gradually a problem has a tendency to affect everyone, whether it was economical, political, technical, or communicational.

The best way to solve an issue like this is to start an organization, which allows all developing nations to meet whenever one of them needs help. By doing this, the countries would at least be able to talk about their problems, and even with the smallest help, a country could be helped. This also helps improving the relationship between countries whom need each other’s help.

 

#4: Preservation and establishment of defined rights for sufferers from diseases such as SARS and AIDS.

Uruguay considers itself one of the luckiest o the world when it comes to AIDS, and SARS. Uruguay has 0% SARS, and only 0.3% AIDS in its entire population. Despite these numbers, Uruguay feels that this is yet, the most important issue. AIDS, and SARS do not affect a single population, but they affect half of the population of the world. Not only that, but these two diseases are both deadly, and highly contagious. In a matter of days, more then 100 people got SARS in China, and in a matter of weeks it spread to Japan, Canada, and even Kuwait. Two diseases show a threat on the entire race, and therefore, they should be treated like the enemy, and force applied to get rid of them. Of course, while in this process the victims should not be treated as they currently are. The victims of both AIDS and SARS are treated with disrespect, and disgust. In some countries they are taken, and locked away as if they had committed a crime. This is taking away from their rights, and no person should be treated this way.

To solve these violations of rights, people who are victims of these two diseases should be treated with respect. Certain places should be designed where the victims are both safely placed, and comfortably living. Certain living centers should be designed for maximum protection, and comfort. These people should be also allowed to enjoy all the available entertainment, especially if the disease is not air-borne. Uruguay feels that these people are the victims, and not the criminals, and that they should not be treated like criminals.

 

 

 

Resolution

 

Committee: Environment
Country: Uruguay
Topic: Genetically Modified Foods
Student: Basma Behbehani

Defining GMF, it means Genetically Modified Food, as food that’s genes have been tampered by scientists, therefore changing its genetic,

Recalling EU, which states the agreement that GMF should be labeled when sold,

Bearing in mind that even with the EU’s agreement, some countries don’t label GMF and instead sell them to poor countries,

Confirms that food aid should be about meeting the urgent humanitarian needs, not about promoting economic interests,

Noting with regret that GMF should be banned because it is dangerous in which the knowledge about the DNA is too incomplete to make it possible to predict and understand all consequences of genetic engineering "We know far less than one per cent of what will be known about biology, human physiology, and medicine" said Dr. Craig Venter, Time's Scientist of the year (2000),

Draws the attention to the fact that GMF are dangerous in which they violate human rights and cause natural disaster

Welcomes the increased cooperation of countries that have banned GMF,

1. Resolves the formation of GMFSO (Genetically Modified Food Security Organization) which would be based in Brazil which would be in charged of:
A. monitoring all GMF developing companies in order to ensure the correct labeling of GMF,
B. notifying people of the side effects of these specific foods that should be mentioned especially to poor countries;

2. Requests that countries hosting GMF do not give them to poor countries in need of food without their awareness

3. Encourages all governments to give interest on not entering GMF in the country.

 

 

 

Committee: Human Rights
Submitted by: Uruguay
Delegate: Sara Al-Muzaini
Issue: The Creation of Charter Economic Rights.

Defining A tariff as "a tax on imported products or services" with tariff revenue going directly to the national treasury,

Fully Alarmed: That tariffs are one of the main causes of economic failure for many companies/factories and countries causing economic problems for everyone,

Keeping in mind tariffs cause an increase to the amount of poverty in a country if the taxes are too high for the countries government or its citizens; and that tariffs might also discourage people to start their own business because they don’t benefit as much as if the tariffs were less,

Alarmed By the fact that some countries have raised the level of their tariffs by at least 2%; and this is causing more poor countries to lose more money when purchasing their products especially if the products are essential to life, i.e., medicine and health supplies, clean water, food etc.,

Deeply Concerned that not many countries have enough money to pay for the taxes and those countries might need those products if the products are very important and essential for life,

Viewing with appreciation that some Asian countries have taken into consideration the importance of decreasing the taxes on imports and therefore have begun in creating a new organization that shall work on decreasing the tax on imports by a few percents in the coming years,

Deeply Disappointed: that the new ASEAN agreement won't come into effect until ten years, meaning that until all the countries interested in it have agreed on the basics of the organization and that this organization does NOT include the majority of poor nations,

1-Resolves that a any country willing to decrease its tax on imports be invited that attend a meeting that shall be held in Montevideo Uruguay, the purpose of this meeting shall be to:
A. Discuss the importance of decreasing tariffs and how they effect all countries (rich or poor),
B. Decide/Agree on creating a new organization that shall be called TRTIP (The Reduction of Taxes on Imported Products),
C. Agree on when should the members of the organization meet (possibly yearly) to discuss whether any progress has been made and how close is the organization is to reaching its goal,
D. Agree on all the rules and laws of the TRTIP,
E. Start working on the TRTIP's goal which is to decrease the tax on imports immediately once the country has agreed to join the organization so that the organization will be ready in a very quick time,

2-Further Resolves that countries that are in the same region and are neighbors/countries are at the same level financially and economically to:
A. Agree to decrease their tax on imports to a considerable and similar amount so that all these countries benefit together
1. Meaning that if 4 out 7 countries need to decrease their tariffs by 5% and the other 3 need to decrease their tariffs by 7% to allow the country to benefit, then the total amount of decreasing will be 6%, however the countries might vary in their decreasing of percentages by 0.5% or 1-2%)
B. Create a couple of quarters in these countries that will observe the countries progress after the tariffs decrease and they shall compare and contrast their results with neighboring countries and change anything if necessary after the issue is discussed in the meeting and certain actions are decided to be taken,

3-Urges: All countries that support the TRTIP and its actions to:
A. Open branches for the organization in as many countries as possible to oversee and help in progressing and reaching the TRTIP's goal,
B. Offer fair and equal deals to citizens of all nationalities and that will allow both the citizens and they governments to benefit,
C. Place a group of economists in each branch in the countries that shall observe and study the countries income and determine how much the country should need to decrease its tariffs so that it'll be financially stable in the shortest period of time possible,
D. These specialists shall record their data from their researching and shall present this information to the countries when they meet for their annual meeting and this data is going to determine the next step that each country shall take so that they can progress and reach their goal quickly,

4-Encourages: All countries to vote for this resolution in order to:
A. Allow countries to be economically stable creating an easier road for them to progress,
B. Gives a lot of citizens an incentive to start their own business allowing the country to increase its yearly income when they realize that the tariffs have decreased and now everyone benefits,

5-Confirms: That this resolution shall help a lot of countries if proactive steps are taken and countries start setting aside their differences in order to create a better life for everyone.

 

 

 

Committee: Social
Issue: The issue of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries.
Country: Uruguay
Delegate: Noufah Al-Sabah

Defines Cooperation as "the working together of persons or nations for common, usually economic benefit,"

Further Defines developing countries as nations which are not rich and which are in the process of improving their national sectors such as Agriculture, and of which between 10 and 35% of their annual GDP depends on industry,

Applauds the UN’s various actions and organizations that have work on promoting economic and technical cooperation among the world nations such as the WTO,

Deeply Disturbed by the failure of the WTO’s recent meeting in Cancun that was due to the disregard of developing countries due to the US and EU pushing for concessions on investment, competition policy and government procurement whilst refusing to create supportive regulations for developing countries thus resulting in the exiting of Ministers from the so-called G21 collective of South American, African and Asian nations,

Alarmed by how both the EU and the US have turned to bilateral and multilateral trade agreements as a vehicle for liberalization that would serve their particular interests and thus destroy the framework of the WTO,

Deeply Alarmed that since its formation, the rich countries have been seeking to recruit as many developing nations into the WTO as they can, in order to open up the developing countries' markets and force them to trade on onerous terms,

Agreeing with the critics who according to www.globalpolicy.org often charge that the WTO functions undemocratically and that it has opaque negotiation procedures that harm the interest of the poor,

Keeping in mind that "The WTO cannot continue to serve the interests of the world's big business and hope that no-one will notice" said by Friends of the Earth International Trade Coordinator Ronnie Hall.

1. Resolves that the WTO negotiations favor the interests of investors and investments made by rich countries over the interests of developing countries thus violating the declaration of human rights, article 1 "Every one is equal…", and thus the UN should devise a new organization that is successful for poor and rich people alike;

2. Has Resolved expanding the Trade and Development Board (TDB) and making it into a separate organization separated from the UNCTAD ( United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
A. Providing it with sufficient financial support to help it continue as a sole-organization which would consist of a delegation from each nation that joins this voluntary organization and an elected officer chosen from those member nations that will head the meetings
B. The meetings will take place every 3 months and which will function similarly in the same quest as the WTO;

3. Further Resolves that the objectives of the TDB be changed from ensuring the overall consistency of UNCTAD's activities to
A. Promoting the socioeconomic development of developing countries through research, policy analysis and technical assistance;
B. Promoting the development of developing countries through international trade;
C. Strengthening service-sector capacities in developing countries,
D. Analyzing issues related to competition law, policy and development,
E. Seeking to enhance the contribution of the commodity sector to development through diversification and risk management,
F. Providing support for participation in international trade negotiations,
G. Judging all international trade policies and trade rules,
H. Putting an end to trades rules that discriminate poor nations,
I. Devising plans and incentives to enable poor nations to work their way out of poverty,

4. Emphasizes that the TDB will consist of panels (1 from every region in the world) to analyze the following issues and create incentives and strategies for them that will be presented to the world delegations every time they meet :-
A. the changing nature of world trade and new rules for market access;
B. the true meaning of reciprocity in the presence of economic, social and institutional situations;
C. fair trade rules; multilateral rules and domestic institutions;

5. Authorizes the TDB will achieve all these objectives by :-
A. Training of trade negotiators of developing countries and economies in transition,
B. Supporting research and training institutions of developing countries and economies in transition on international trade issues, so as to enhance their own capacity;

6. Reassures that this board will include a permanent trade disputes and disagreements body which will adequately handle and deal with trade disputes, etc. that may rise between member nations peacefully not by force like the ending of the session that took place in the recent WTO, and will only handle disputes between member nations, not external nations not having a membership on this organization;

7. Further Authorizes that since the TDB will be a voluntary organization that will give all joining nations privileges such as enabling them to trade easily and lower the taxes between them, etc. it will thus collect a minimum percentage of 2% of each nation’s income from the trade done between member nations via the privileges that will benefit each nation that is part of this organization, so that it would finance this organization;

8. Requests all countries to sign this resolution as to ensure fair trade and a flourishing world.

 

 

 

Opening Speech:


Food, 6a3am, nourriture, no matter how you say it… we make it.. a delicious salute from a country who exports most of what's on your plate.. Uruguay..!

Uruguay would like to express it’s deep sorrow and misery about what happened in the recent WTO meeting in Cancun.. This once peaceful and fair sporadic meeting has transformed in to a war-like battle.. a battle of power be it political or economic.. a battle against poor developing nations in need of help from their fellow capable brotherhood nations.. all because of economic interests and benefits.. the once charitable cooperative organization has become a deceitful profitable one....

This organization’s failure due to this lobbying of certain nations and the walking out of many discriminated against nations.. has created bad externalities to all the participating nation’s economies and political standings..

where is the justice that is portrayed the UN and of which the UN vows to uphold in this world .. a solution should be reached! Hopefully before this session end..

Remember without food and water.. Chaos and Famine happens!

 

 

 

STATEMENTS OF DELEGATES


Basma Behbehani, Environment

Not allowed to attend

 

Sarah, Human Rights

Uruguay played a strong role in the Human Rights Commission as well as in the General Assembly. Uruguay talked for some resolutions and supported them firmly because Uruguay believed that they were the proper solutions to some very important issue that the world faces today. However, some resolutions were undoubtedly vague and didn’t have many strong points or took out the necessary actions in overcoming some issues. This caused Uruguay to speak against them as well as vote against them. In the end, Uruguay believes that this event was very successful since it allowed many countries to discuss important issues and try to solve them. In addition, it allowed each country to speak its mind and share its point of views. In the end, the event was very successful, exciting and instructive.

 

Noufah, Social,

As the ambassador of Uruguay in the AIS Event, I accomplished many things. First of all Uruguay became co-submitter of two resolutions, one resolution that was written by Pakistan and another one that was written by Latvia. However, due to the prejudice and injustice involved in this event and the narrow-mindedness of the chair in the social forum, Uruguay motioned to overthrow the chair and eventually got barred from the forum, which Uruguay finds unfair and does not withstand with the rules and regulations of Model United Nations forums. Overall, the event was bad for all the delegations since it was mostly based on discrimination.