Event: Pearl-MUN 2004
Country: Algeria [SC]
Students: Ahmad Al-Shammari
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2003-2004 Team page
Algeria’s conventional long form name is People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. Its conventional short name is Algeria. The government type is a republic (just read and you will see) and its capital is Algiers. Algeria’s constitution was signed in 1976 and last amended in 1996. Algeria is divided into 48 provinces.
There are three political branches in Algeria, the executive, legislature and the judicial.
The executive branch’s chief of state is the president Abdulaziz Boutefliqa, who has the absolute power in Algeria. While the head of government is the Prime Minister Ahmad Ouyahia.. Algeria's cabinet ministers are appointed by the president. The president won last elections by over 70% votes when his six opposing candidates withdrew citing electoral fraud. They accused him of cheating in the elections.
The legislative branch consists of two councils: National People’s Assembly and the Council of Nations. The National People’s Assembly consists of 389 seats. All the seats serve for a 5 year term and are gained by a popular vote. In addition, it consists of the Council of Nations (144 seats; one third of the members are appointed by president while 2/3 are elected by indirect vote).. All members of the Council of Nations serve for a 6 year term, and they should be at least half renewed each 3 years by law.
The Judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court. It functions as the highest judicial power in the area. The legal system is a socialist system based on the French and Islamic law.
Algeria is a very rich country, that exports a lot of gas and oil. Algeria is rich in petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphate, uranium, lead, and zinc. Algeria has the 14th biggest oil reserve in the world. Algeria is the world 2ND largest natural gas exporter.
Only 3% of Algeria’s land is arable. It imports 60% of cereal requirements. However, Algeria does have some fishing activity in the Mediterranean, but it’s not organized.
Algeria is located in Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Morocco and Tunisia. It is in the 28 00 N, 3 00 E geographic coordinates. The total area of Algeria is 2,381,740 sq. km all land. It is slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas. The total land boundaries are 6,343 km divided into the following countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km.
Algeria population, according to cia.gov is 32,818,500 (July 2003 EST.). This population is divided into 3 groups.. The age group 0-14 years is 32.8% of the population, while the age group 15-64 years is 63% and the age group 65 years and over is 4.2%. The median age is 22.5.
Algeria doesn’t have many ethnic groups. It is consisted of Arab-Berber (99%) and European (less than 1%). The main religion is Sunni Muslim (state religion) (99%) but it has Christians and Jewish (1%). The main languages is Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects. The people in Algeria above age 15 who can read and write are about 70% of the population.
The oil and the natural gas are the most important sources of money to Algeria. For they generate 60% of the national budget, 30% of the GDP, and 95% of the export revenues. Algeria currency is the Dinar. In addition, it has many industries such as petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing. The industrial production growth rate is 6%. Its imports are capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, and its exports are oil and natural gas mainly. Algeria is in debt of $21.6 billion (2002 est.), and it’s getting $162 million (2000 est.) as economic aid.
Algeria has many economic ties with Italy 18..9%, Spain 13.1%, France 13%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 6%, Brazil 5.9%, Canada 5.7%, Turkey 5.3%, Belgium 5.1% (2002)
Algeria’s president Bouteflika is the first president to visit the US. He is also a loyal ally to the war against terrorism. The US doesn’t care now about his Human rights violations, but they care about having global approval of the WAR. Algeria gets aid to keep it an ally of the US.
The defense of Algeria is headed by the president. He is the highest commanding power in the military. The military consists of the following branches: People's National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, and the National Gendarmerie. The military is all males. Algeria pays $1..87 billion (FY99) for military expenditures which are 4.1% of the GDP.
The army is the most important part of the stay of the government. They are the only defense against a revolution of Islamic fundamentalists. The army is also the defense against terrorist attacks. The army is also employed in many civilian projects and has no field combat experience or external defense commitment since the war with Morocco over the Western Sahara.
Algeria’s military power and economic strength are two factors that could help it defeat Morocco, and the rebels.
View on World Problems:
Bouteflika has been the first Algerian president who visited the Whitehouse and made better American ties. It is an ally to many countries such as France, South Africa, Italy, Spain, Germany, China, Japan, and many Arabic countries. Algeria is respected by many countries for its efforts on combating terrorism in Algeria and supporting it internationally.
The French-Algerian relationships are very strong. Algeria is part of ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, and the WTrO (observer).
Algeria has helped gain peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Libya claims about 32,000 sq. km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in south-eastern Algeria; Algeria is accuse of keeping armed bandits based in Mali attack southern Algerian towns;. The border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling. Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara.
On Palestine: "The exemplary and heroic resistance of people whose childhood had been stolen and were reduced to fighting with stones had been vilified, he said. Was this not a policy of terror? Was there a double standard –- were there good freedom fighters and bad freedom fighters? The Council could not allow its authority to be flouted. It could not remain passive. Its credibility was at stake, as was the collective security system as a whole. Before the Middle East collapsed into something horrible, the Council must rise to the level of the responsibilities conferred on it by the United Nations Charter. It must protect the vulnerable Palestinians from the "mad and murderous insanity" of the forces of Israeli occupation."
France invaded Algieria 1834 and and enforce annexation. The new regime, led by a French governor-general, aroused fierce resistance from tribes accustomed to indirect Ottoman rule. The regime was very discriminant and gave the Algerians no rights compared to the French. At one point, an Algerian was made a French if he renounced Islam.
In 1954, after about 200 years of annexation, Algerian nationalists formed the Revolutionary Committee for Unity and Action. This committee was made from the the National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale, FLN). The FLN made many attacks on the French. It launched some attacks on public buildings, military and police posts, communications installations, etc.
The terroris actions made the French bring 400,000 French troops. The FLN’s National Liberation Army combined with Abd al-Qadir’s guerrilla tactics to make more terrorist attacks and overcome the reinforcements. The guerrilla tactics destroyed superior French forces effectively. The FLN used killings and kidnappings of Europeans and Muslims not actively supporting the FLN. These actions created fear and panic throughout the country.
As counterterrorism, settlers and French army units raided villages killing Muslims. Some villages were punished collectively because they were a suspect. Those punishments were in the form of massacres, bombings, or forced relocation of the population.
Even with their military superiority, the French were unable to find a political solution that would satisfy to both the settlers and the FLN. The international community critised France injustice. the UN and the NATO were worried about the commitment of French forces to an unjust war.
In the year 1962, a cease-fire was finally signed by the government and FLN representatives at Evian, France. Algeria population voted overwhelmingly for independence. The settlers, then, began a mass evacuation; before the end of the year most of them had left the country.
Ahmed Ben Bella, one of the founders of the FLN, was elected the first premier of independent Algeria. Ben Bella started putting the country back on its feet. The first constitution was approved in 1963 making the government a presidential state.. Ben Bella was then elected president. The only check on the president’s power would be broken by two-thirds of the National Assembly. With such unrestricted authority, Ben Bella became totally absorbed in his personal power and prestige, more and more preoccupied with international leadership. By mid-1965 Boumedienne, then minister of defense, felt Ben Bella had gone too far. He had Ben Bella arrested in a bloodless arrest assumed supreme power.
Boumedienne was three in one; president, prime minister, and minister of defense. However, Algeria’s political system remained autocratic and undemocratic.
In the 21st century, human rights and democracy had not made substantial progress in Algeria. Kabyle Berber, a young man, was killed while being questioned by local authorities. This led to widespread protests in Kabylia, and to further Berber and Arab protests that spread to other parts of the country.
On the other hand, in the same period Bouteflika attempted to polish Algeria’s bad international image. He worked to strengthen Algeria’s relationship with the United States and the European Union, particularly with France, and invited foreign investment into the expanding hydrocarbon sector. Then in the war against terrorism, his support blinded the world of his violations.
In 2004 Bouteflika was overwhelmingly reelected as president. According to official results, Bouteflika won 85 percent of the vote and his nearest rival won about 6 percent.
Issue # 1. The Question of the US involvement in the situation in Iraq.
After receiving briefing by the Security Council about the Iraqi people lifestyle after the dictatorship regime, it is considered that the Iraqi Socio-economic system is very grip.
They are standing on the edge to complete poverty. Progress is happening but at a slow rate. Violence and security instability are two big problems facing Iraq now. The occupying power has the duty to stop the violence and maintain security for the Iraqi people. Algeria believes that the occupying power should stay till the handover of the government at 30 June.
In addition, Algeria believes that the UN should "provide its assistance, so that understanding could be reached on the composition and structure of the transition body. In that way, the United Nations would have contributed to establishing a credible government body with which all Iraqis could identify. "
Evidence # 1: Algerian statement
ABDALLAH BAALI (Algeria) said the briefings helped the Council to better understand what was happening in Iraq and assess the magnitude of the challenges facing the Iraqi people. As the Council met for the first time in a public meeting since the end of the oil-for-food program, he wanted to know more about the daily lives of the Iraqi people, including a more detailed description of its foreign trade. The United Nations, with its vast electoral experience, should make its expertise available, so that direct elections could take place at the end of this year or the beginning of next. The electoral timetable must be strictly observed. The international community must support the Secretary-General’s recent report. 24/02/2004
Press Release SC/8006
Evidence # 2: war on Iraq
ABDALLAH BAALI (Algeria) said that it had taken hundreds of thousands of people "crying tears of blood" in the face of the horrors of war for the Council to assume its responsibility for protecting those in danger. To do nothing today would be tantamount to compliance in leaving a nation in peril. The war in Iraq had started at a time when there was no immediate danger to international peace and security and when the inspection process was proceeding peacefully. It was hard to characterize the terror of millions of children already robbed of their childhood as a result of sanctions, who were awakened by the bombings. Thousands all over the world had demonstrated against war in Iraq. Since the beginning of the crisis, Algeria had called for a peaceful settlement of the crisis, based on the inspection process, he continued. It had warned of the dangers of the armed conflict and expressed its great concern over the fate of the Iraqi people. Civilia
Issue # 2. The Question of guaranteeing peace and security in Haiti.
Algeria believes that the issue of Haiti is an important issue that should receive great attention from the international community. It is a problem where the rebel powers are taking over the land, creating violence and anarchy. The problem is expanding because the rebels are getting closer to the capital. If the international community does not take decisive action, the whole country could be overtaken by chaos, meaning that there will be a collapse of State institutions, instability, lack of security, human tragedy, flows of refugees and the risk of destabilization in other countries of the region.
Algeria being concerned by this issue has joined the rest of the international community in supporting the efforts of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organization of American States (OAS) aimed at restoring confidence and promoting dialogue among the parties in accordance with the three critical principles just outlined by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Jamaica. Algeria also welcomes the Secretary-General’s appointment of a Special Adviser for Haiti. Algeria believes also that the Council cannot permit Haiti to be engulfed in chaos or its civilian population to be caught up in a spiral of violence. It cannot allow the repetition of a tragedy like those the international community has powerlessly viewed in the past both in Haiti and elsewhere. Algeria proposes that the only solution is resolving this issue through negotiation and responsible dialogue among the parties concerned.
Issue # 3. The question of establishing an effective, binding and internationally observed protocol on pre-emptive warfare.
The US has attacked Iraq on the basis of pre-emptive warfare attack. This is in the point of view of Algeria wrong and shouldn’t be done. How can the use of such extreme, disproportionate and definitive measures be justified when no present and immediate danger was threatening international peace and security and when the inspections instituted by the Security Council for the peaceful disarmament of Iraq were proceeding in the right direction?
Algeria believes that for a pre-emptive war to occur there has to be present danger or a high threat to international peace and security. Also, it occurs if and only if, the nation doesn’t comply with its peaceful resolutions made by the SC.
1. Issue # 1: Iraq
1. Iraq Resolves the creation of the UNIEM UN Iraqi Election Monitor that will consist of political experts chosen by the UN through competitive means, and important political figures in Iraq including the Iraqi Governing Council members and whose job is: A. The monitoring of the elections in all regions of Iraq by dividing the country into sections: B. Giving monetary and substantial aid to the population, C. Constructing rules for election campaigns using high tech means to limit attacks, D. Providing security plans to maintain security for the campaigns, E. Providing help and advice to the new government;
2. Issue # 2: Haiti1. Resolves the sending of 300 mediators to Haiti all experts in negotiations with terrorist; 2. Further Resolves the sending of 50,000 UN troops to Haiti to maintain security. They will be in the power of the Haiti government;
3. Issue # 3: Preemptive Warfare1. Resolves the creation of the UNPW United Nations Preemtive War Subcommitee under the Disarmament committee. It will consist of political analyst. There jobs are to define any problem as follows: A. After a country submits a problem to the UNPW, it will define the problem as follows i. High threat- this is where preemptive war is legal, ii. Medium threat- illegal preemptive war but sanctions are legal, iii. Low threat- illegal sanction and war, only negotiation are legal; 2. Further Resolves that in a high threat situation, the country is free to attack with international support.
Honorable Chair, Most distinguished Delegates,
Algeria would like to welcome you to this meeting and salutes you for your attendance.
Algeria was a nation overtaken by annexation.. To pay for its freedom, it paid 1 million lives from its population.. Children, women, men were paid to receive freedom. Why did we pay that much? This figure was paid to ensure a better life for our off springs. Freedom has a cost, and the cost isn’t little.
It has taken so much loss of human life; such unspeakable horror and terrible destruction; the bloodcurdling terror of millions of innocent people subjected to a horrible campaign of shock and fright, coldly conceived and planned; and hundreds of millions of people crying tears of blood before the fury of the post-war effects were broadcast live to the Council to which the nations of the world have given the responsibility of forever protecting us from war to realize that there is a nation in danger of death and that, if it should turn away, it would have to assume an onerous responsibility before God, humankind and history. That nation is Iraq.
Algeria believes that this issue at hand must be taken into consideration quickly. UN intervention must provide assistance to create the transition government that is credible by the Iraqis. This is a responsibility that we have taken before God, humankind and history. Let us fulfill our responsibilities.