Event: Pearl-MUN 2004
Student: Sarah Fakral-Deen
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2003-2004 Team page
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is a communist state and unitary government. Beijing is the capital of china.
China is currently lead by President Hu Jintao and Vice President Zeng Qinghong as of 15th March, 2003. The elections for President and Vice President in China are held every five years. When elected, the President nominates a person as head of government, President Hu Jintao nominated Premier Wen Jiabao on March 16th, 2003. There are four Vice Premiers in China, who are: Vice Premiers Huang Ju, Wu Yi, Zeng Peiyan, and Hui Liangyu all of which were nominated on the 17th of March, 2003. China’s legislative branch is composed of the unicameral National People’s Congress which includes 2,985 members elected to serve for five years. The final decision of laws in China is up to the National People’s Congress.
There are a few political parties in China, which are: the Chinese Communist Party which is also known as CCP and is controlled by President Hu Jintao, who is the General Secretary of the Central Committee. The other political parties in China are eight others which are all small parties controlled by the CCP.
There are three courts in China: Supreme People’s Court where the judges are appointed by the National People’s Congress, the Local People’s Courts which are intermediate and local courts, and the Special People’s Courts which are primarily military, maritime, or railway transport courts. There is a rudimentary civil code that was put into effect since January 1st, 1987, and the legal codes were put into effect since January 1st, 1980. Civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial laws are continuously in effort of getting better.
China lies in Eastern Asia it is bordering the East China sea, Korea Bay, Yellow sea, and South China sea. China is found between North Korea and Vietnam. It is only a little smaller than the US and its area is 9,596,960 sq. km; therefore, being the fourth largest country in the world. It shares borders with 16 countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, Kyrgyzstan, Northeast and Northwest Russia, Laos, Tajikistan, Macau, Mongolia, Nepal, Hong Kong, Kazakhstan, India, Pakistan, Vietnam, and North Korea. On the border by Nepal, China shares the highest peak in the world Mount Everest. In the south China is tropical, but in the North, it is sub Arctic. China is mostly mountains, has high plateaus, some deserts in the west, has plains, deltas, and some hills in the east.
China has the following minerals, elements, and natural resources: coal, iron ore, manganese, tin, aluminum, lead, zinc, natural gas, petroleum, mercury, tungsten, antimony, molybdenum, uranium, magnetite, vanadium, and China has the worlds largest hydropower potential. China exports machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods, and mineral fuels. It imports machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, iron and steel, plastics, and chemicals. China’s agricultural products are rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, and fish.
China’s population is 1,286,975,468 according to July, 2003. The birth rate in China is higher than the death rate that is why China’s population grows an estimate of 0.6% every year. For every 25 deaths an estimate of 1,000 children are born. Moreover, of every 1,000 Chinese people there are 13 new born children, while of every 1,000 Chinese people there are 7 deaths which is less than the birth rate.
There are several ethnic groups in China, some are: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Mancho, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%. There are eight officially spoken languages in China, standard Chinese or Mandarin, Yue, Wu (derived mainly from Shanghaiese), Minbei, Minnan (derived mainly from Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialect, and other minority languages are spoken by the minor ethnic groups. A few religions are practiced in China, which are, Daoist (also known as Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim (only 1%-2%), Christian (only 3%-4%), and China is considered an atheist country, because most of the Chinese people are atheists.
China’s currency is the Yuan, also known as CNY, an international name for its currency is Renminbi (RMB). There are 8.28 CNY per 1 US dollar. China is $149.4 billion indebt (1,237,032,000 CNY). China’s GDP, purchasing power parity, is $5.989 trillion. China’s yearly budget is estimated to about $224.8 billion for revenues, and $267.1 billion for expenditures. Therefore, China depends on what it imports, because it pays more money for imports than exports. China has industries for the following: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textile and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, and telecommunications. China’s major industries are: iron and steel, oil, and electricity, all of which are owned by the Chinese government.
China export partners are the USA 21.5%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 14.9%, and South Korea 4.8%. While its import partners are Japan 18.1%, Taiwan 10.5%, South Korea 9.7%, USA 9.2%, and Germany 5.6%. China pays $295.3 billion approximately for its imports every year, and receives $325.6 billion approximately for its exports every year.
The main army in China is the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), the PLA includes Navy, Air Force, and 2 Artillery Corps (they control the strategic missile force). There’s also the People’s Armed Police Force in China which is mostly consisting of internal security troops, but is also considered an essential part of the PLA. China also has a militia or a private army.
China has over 2,000,000 soldiers in its private army (militia), it also has six missile bases, 63 submarines, 400 ground attack fighters, and over 434 active warheads. Furthermore, China’s nuclear arsenal is as follows: 150 bombs, 50 DF-3/3A’s, 20 DF-4’s, 4 DF-5/5A’s, 96 DF-21/21A’s, 24 JL-1’s, and around 150 other tactical weapons. Although it is not known for sure, it is said that China has acquired 2 very sophisticated warheads, the W-88 and the W-70.
The PLA has over 2,820,000 soldiers who are divided among seven military regions which are: Beijing, Shenyang, Nanjing, Jinan, Guangzhuo, Chengdu, and Lanzhuo, five of which have access to the east coast. The army of the PLA is broken down into 24 armies. It is said that there are over 100 signals or engineer regiments providing logistical support. China has an estimate of 8,800 main battle tanks organized throughout the PLA, 1,200 light tanks, and 5,500 armored vehicles. While China’s navy is composed of over 260,000 personnel. The Chinese navy has 18 destroyers, which are backed up by 35 frigates, 125 torpedo crafts, and 73 amphibious vessels and mine warfare crafts. China’s naval forces are divided amongst the North sea, East sea, and South sea fleets and they operate out of 19 bases including Hong Kong. China’s air force is composed of 470,000 personnel divided into several air divisions. China has 120 H-6 bombers which are backed by 400 Q-5 ground attack f
China also possesses some nuclear weapons like the atomic bomb, thermonuclear weapons, and the most dangerous which is the neutron bomb.
Views on World Problems:
Some of China’s allies are Iraq, Saudi Arabia, North Korea, Cuba, Pakistan, Canada, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Iran, and Cambodia. Also, China has recently established trading relations with the EU. A few countries are considered China’s enemies, however, China has trading relations with them, and these countries are South Korea, Japan, and the USA.
Some of the important organizations that China is a part of are: IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), I(International Monetary Fund), Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization), UN (United Nations), UNSC (UN Security Council), WHO (World Health Organization), OPCW (Organization for Prevention of Chemical Weapons), UNHCR (UN High Commissioner Refugees), UNIKOM (UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission), UNITAR (UN Institute for Training and Research), UNMOVIC (UN Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission), WTrO (World Trade Organization), APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation), AsDB (Asian Development Bank), BIS (Bank for International Settlements), ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), G-77 (Group of 77), IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development), ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), ICRM (International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement)
China is a dialogue partner of two organizations which are: ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), ARF (ASEAN Regional Forum). There are three organizations that China is only an observer at, which are: NAM (Non-Aligned Movement), IOM (International Organization for Migration), and LAIA (Latin American Integration Association).
China is facing a few problems and disputes with its neighboring countries over pieces of land, especially islands. Also, India is objecting to Pakistan’s decision of giving up land to China in 1965, as it believes that India should’ve gotten the land because the land is a part of Kashmir. Furthermore, China along with Taiwan want to claim their possession of the Japanese administered Senkakushoto Islands. Kazakhstan and China have resolved their border dispute. China is finding it hard to allow all the migrating North Koreans into China, because it is already overpopulated. In the year 2002, Tajikistan gave up 1,000 km2 of the Pamir Mountain range to China.
Another critical issue that China is facing is that it is considered the major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle. Also, the domestic drug abuse problem has been growing dramatically in China, recently. Unfortunately, China is considered the source country for a drug known to suppress the appetite called the methamphetamine.
One of the most vital issues China is facing today is the fact that the number of people suffering from HIV/AIDS has severely grown in the past few years. As of the year 2003, China has about 860,000 HIV/AIDS patients, and over 30,000 deaths from this fatal disease caused by the deadly virus.
Finally, about nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, China believes that only five countries in the world should have the right to possess such weapons. These five countries are: Russia, the UK, USA, France, and itself-China-, since they are the countries of the Security Council. China is very against any other countries having such weapons; however, China also believes that in the case of Pakistan and India, since India has isn’t being attacked on possessing such weapons, then Pakistan has the right to possess such weapons, too. China is against Israel possessing such weapons because China believes that Israel is not only a threat to the Middle East, but also to the world.
China didn’t participate in WW1, because it was too weak. In 1926, the Nationalist party’s army, a Communist army, and five other friendly warlord armies, drove North in China, and defeated various warlord forces in a year long civil war, securing central China. There were several other civil wars, but later the Communists regained control of China permanently.
In 1931, Japan invaded China; by 1938 China was mostly ruled by Japan. In 1941, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, the US aided China, and Japan withdrew. China then took part in WW2 (1939 to 1945) as an ally of the USA. On December 9th, 1941, China declared war on Germany, Italy, and Japan; the war against Japan lasted until 1945. October 1st, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was formed as a Communist state with Beijing, a capital.
In 1951, China became a world power, and seized Tibet in October that year. In the late 1950s China and the Soviet Union became distant over differences in communist doctrine. In 1962, over a border dispute, China invaded and occupied small Indian territories. In 1964, China ignited an atomic bomb, making it the world’s fifth nuclear power.
Throughout the 1970’s China orbited artificial satellites and developed a ballistic missile force. In 1971, China was admitted into the United Nations Security Council after being rejected a seat once before in the 1960s. In 1979, China invaded Vietnam, because it had invaded China’s ally Cambodia; China withdrew a few weeks after that. In 1989, China met with the Soviet leader; they agreed to re-establish friendly relations between the two countries.
In the 1990s China had one of the world’s fastest growing economies. In 1992, the Chinese head of state reduced the government’s power over the economy; the economy then grew radically. In 1997, Great Britain returned Hong Kong into Chinese control; they had signed an agreement in 1984. In 1999, Portugal restored Macao to China; they had signed agreement in 1987. China’s output quadrupled by the year 2000. For a long time now, China has been aiding North Korea in its war against South Korea and its allies.
Issue # 1: The question of the rights and ability of generic drugs
Generic drugs are drugs that help a patient to feel better. Generic drugs have exactly the same effect and result as any other brand name drugs do; however, generic drugs are less expensive than brand name drugs.
China believes that generic drugs would bring the brand name drugs’ manufacturers down, and then the manufacturers would no longer be needed. Therefore, China believes that generic drugs shouldn’t be put into the market only in countries that can’t afford anything but generic drugs (ex. some poor African countries), they should also be bought into countries suffering from civil wars, or a country having a post war situation (ex. Iraq). Some countries believe that China should bring in generic drugs due to the amount of HIV/AIDS patients they have, but China does not want to introduce generic drugs, again, because they would come in the way of brand name drugs’ manufacturers.
The most recent step that China took that other countries believe is a first step to introducing generic drugs in China, is the fact that it recently in late 2003 documented the unexpected 860,000 HIV/AIDS patients, and the unknown 30,000 HIV/AIDS deaths. Despite what other countries may think, China is still taking a firm position against allowing generic drugs into its markets. Furthermore, China believes that all countries not suffering from a civil war, post war situation, and all the financially capable countries not bring in generic drugs.
China thinks that the UN should form a special organization which would include specialized scientist who would be in charge of deciding which countries need generic drugs, and which don’t. The reason China is against generic drugs, is because a lot of people will want to buy cheaper drugs, which would lead to them leaving brand name drugs, and the brand name drugs’ manufacturers will suffer economically.
Issue # 2: The question of the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)
What China believes is that no country besides the five Security Council countries (France, Russia, UK, USA, and China) should have the right to possess nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.
Although these are China’s beliefs, China firmly stands with Pakistan and North Korea for possessing such weapons, because India and South Korea do, so why shouldn’t Pakistan and North Korea have the same rights as other General Assembly countries. On the other hand, if India's and South Korea’s nuclear weapons and other WMDs were taken away, then the USA would have the right to take away Pakistan’s and North Korea’s. Furthermore, China believes that Israel’s nuclear weapons should be taken away because Israel poses a threat to the Middle East and the whole world. If Israel’s nuclear weapons were taken away, then the USA should think of taking Iran’s away, because Israel doesn’t have more rights than Iran or any other GA country does, and Iran only has these weapons because it is the only way to threat Israel.
China thinks that the UN should take more action, because the NPT is being violated by some countries, therefore, it isn’t efficient. That is why China believes that the UN should form a very important organization consisting of six members from each of the SC countries which will be in charge of the whole issue of which countries should possess such weapons and which countries shouldn’t.
Issue # 3: The question of ensuring human and political rights of ethnic and religious displaced peoples
Many people in several countries world wide are considered displaced peoples, some from the same ethnic background, some from the same religious background, and some migrants from neighboring countries.
In China, Tibetans are considered displaced people, because they don’t want to be considered Chinese, and China doesn’t want to let Tibet be its own country, because Tibet is not capable of being an independent country. In addition, there are some Buddhists, and a few Muslims who are considered displaced people, too, since they are a minority.
China deems that Tibetans should start to consider themselves Chinese, as they have been for about 53 years. If they were to consider themselves Chinese, then they wouldn’t be displaced people, and China thinks that the UN should take action upon this and countries should punish whoever violates the UN’s actions, and goes on strike, or disturbs their country’s peace in any other way, because Tibet should’ve been a part of China a long time ago. About the Buddhists and Muslims, China believes that they shouldn’t be considered displaced, because there are a few mosques for Muslims and some shrines or temples for Buddhists. Moreover, there are a few of each, all of who are living close, mostly all in one town; so, it is like they have their own small village/town. The migrants on the other hand, shouldn’t be considered displaced either, because they come into China searching for jobs and future, and that way they aren’t displaced, they are just immigrants.
For other countries, China believes that each country alone can solve the problem of displaced people, but some countries might need the help of the UN; therefore, there should be a small sub-organization of the UN to help countries with this issue.
Defining weapons of mass destruction as weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and or of being use din such a manner as to destroy large numbers of people they can be of four types: nuclear, chemical, biological, or radiological weapons,
Defining that nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction whose explosives powers derive from a nuclear reaction,
Alarmed by the spread of nuclear technology and other WMDs, both biological or chemical, sometimes spreading very easily through underground channels,
Taking into consideration the fact that the spread and trade of these weapons in channels is illegal and is considered very serious security threats facing our world today,
Contemplating that some nations own WMDs and are defending themselves for possessing them, even though, some possess them illegally,
Bearing in mind the fact that some nations condemn others for owning WMDs while they own them, too,
Aware of the existence of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which obligates the five acknowledged nuclear-weapon states (France, Russia, UK, USA, and China) not to transfer any nuclear weapons, other nuclear explosive devices, or their technology to any non-nuclear-weapon states,
Expressing its satisfaction that in early 2, there were 187 Parties who had signed the NPT, only Cuba, Israel, India, and Pakistan haven’t signed,
Noting with regret that some countries that have signed onto the NPT have either violated it or removed their signature and some countries own WMDs without the right to,
Affirming the existence of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),
Bearing in mind that the real issue at hand is that of the trade of WMDs and not the possession of WMDs,
Desiring a new policy that would resolve this problem,
1) Resolves that the UN forms a new treaty the Weapons of Mass Destruction Confiscation Treaty (WMDCT) and carry out the following: A. Have any wishing countries of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council sign on it first, B. After that have all the other UN countries not possessing WMDs of any type sign it who want to sign it;
2) Notes that WMDCT would allow only France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States of America, and China to own WMDs and they are the only countries’ having the right to confiscate WMDs from countries’ that don’t have the right to own WMDs and all five will decide upon the actions that will be taken with the confiscated WMDs as members of the UN Security Council;
3) Urges the UN Security Council to take the following actions if any country is caught trading WMDs or transferring technology about WMDs: A. Imposing economic sanctions on the countries for as long as necessary, B. Disregarding the countries’ votes in the General Assembly for two whole years;
4) Further urges the UN Security Council to hire 15 experts for each continent, these experts would include: A. 4 well-educated scientists, B. 4 well-educated technicians, C. 2 well-educated legal experts D. 5 carefully chosen weapons experts;
5) Emphasizes that the 15 experts that will be hired will be in charge of carrying out inspections in each country of their assigned continent 2 or 3 times a year (either every 6 months or every 4 months) as needed;
6) Requests that if any countries do not cooperate and allow these 15 experts in, that the UN Security Council carry out the same punishments to those countries, as the punishments carried upon the countries’ caught trading WMDs or transferring technology
Honorable Chair…Fellow Delegates…
Much diversity, cuisine and drink, religions and beliefs, ancient architecture, festivals, fine education, ancient history, stunning scenery and greenery, and arts and crafts, everything you could ever want in a single country; a country that has two of the world’s ancient wonders. Hello and welcome…On October 1st, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was formed, not long ago, China was a weak country that had hardly any power, now only 55 years after its independence, China is one of the five strongest countries in the world. With all the ethnic groups among the Chinese population, China is a very miscellaneous and diverse country, and with all of its diversity, China is a country of great democracy and equality. Finally, China hopes to help solve all the issues at hand, to make our world an ideal place to live in…