Country: The Republic of Cuba

Event: Pearl-MUN 2004

Student: Zaid Al Marzook

 

 

 

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The Cuban National Anthem


Cuba
Al combate corred bayameses
que la patria os comtempla orgullosa
no temais una muerte gloriosa
que morir por la patria es vivir

En cadenas vivir es morir
en afrenta y oprobio sumidos
del clarin escuchad el sonido
a las armas valientes corred.

English:

Hasten to battle, men of Bayamo,
For the homeland looks proudly to you.
You do not fear a glorious death,
Because to die for the country is to live.

To live in chains
Is to live in dishonour and ignominy.
Hear the clarion call,
Hasten, brave ones, to battle!

 


The Republic of Cuba

 




COUNTRY PROFILE

 

Political Structure:

Cuba is Communist State. That has 14 provinces, including the city of Havana. Its independence day was at May 20, 1902. Cubaís only political party is the Cuban Communist Party or as the PCC, and its first secretary was Fidel Castro. Constitution states that all legally recognized civil liberties can be denied to anyone who opposes the "decision of the Cuban people to build socialism." Citizens can be and are jailed for terms of 3 years or more for simply criticizing the communist system or Fidel Castro.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Cuba was an independent nation under US. protection. After the Spanish-American War (1898), the United States occupied Cuba, and Cuba established a government that met the approval of the United States. In 1902 the nation entered a period of unstable democratic government punctuated by two periods with dictators. After 1959 a socialist revolutionary regime emerged.

 

Geography:

Cuba is in Central America. It is a Caribbean island that is located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida. It is about 110,860 km2. Cuba has a tropical climate, which is moderated by trade winds. Its dry season starts in November and ends in April, then its rainy season starts which begins in May and ends in October. Cuba has 200 rivers, but only 2 are navigable. The Cauto River is located in the southeast and is 240 km (150 mi) long. The Second River is Sagua la Grande, which is located in central Cuba. The rest of the rivers are small and shallow, but several are internationally known for their trophy-sized fish. It is has flat plains, hills, and mountains up to 2,000 meters (6,000 ft.) in the southeast. Three quarters of Cuba is made of fertile plains. A US naval base borders Cuba because of its close location to Florida.

 

Natural Resources:

Cuba has many types of resources and they are: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, and arable land. The petroleum is Cubaís major resource. Over 163,000bbl/day get sent to other countries. The sugar is also one of Cubaís main natural resources. More kinds of natural resources that are found in Cuba are: sulfur, pyrites, gypsum, asbestos, petroleum, sand, clay, and limestone.

 

Cultural Factors:

The population of Cuba is 11,263,429. It is made of 5,628,588 males, and 5,634,841 females. The Cuban population is made of Ethnic groups and they are: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, and Chinese 1%. The population is also made of many religions and they are: 85% Roman Catholic prior to Castro assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria. Many problems continue to face Cuba in the Ethnic and religious part of the population, like Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; some 2,500 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2002; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 60% of these migrants; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US; some 1,500 Cubans arrived overland. Most of the Cubans that are living in Florida are anti-Castro. Over two hundred thousand Cubans live in Florida. Many of the Cubans in Florida are from Batista regime, but most of the

 

Economy:

Cuba has many Trade partners and they are: Netherlands, Spain, Brazil, Canada, Russia, China, France, Italy, and Mexico. Cuba is a member in many economic organizations like the United Nations (since 1945) and it includes most of its specialized agencies; Non-Aligned Movement (founding member). Another organization is the ACS (Association of Caribbean States), ALADI (Asociación Latino Americana de Integración), SELA (Sistema Económico Latino Americano), CARICOM (Caribbean Community)and Cuba is a member of the Organization of American States (OAS) but its membership has been suspended since 1962 (Cuba's "empty chair" policy and removal of right to vote in OAS for a by the OAS).

Cuba has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services but is unlikely to implement extensive changes. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the severe economic depression of the early 1990s, which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. High oil import prices, recessions in key export markets. Cubaís currency is the Cuban peso, which equals to 1 dollar per 27 pesos. Cubaís budget reaches to about $15.6 billion. Cubaís economic profit comes from many groups and they are: agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51%.

 

Defense:

Cubaís military power is made of Revolutionary Armed Forces, Revolutionary Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Territorial Militia Troops, and Youth Labor Army. Both males and females are liable for military service, and Cubaís main military power age is 17 years. Cuba's air force is made of about 150 Soviet-supplied fighters. As the Sovietís deliveries continued Cuba became the best equipped in Latin America, in 1994 it had about 235,000 active duty personnel. Moscow, for many years was the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, but all military aid were cut off almost by 1993. Today after the deliveries were cut Cubaís armed forces are about 60,000 regular troops. Cubaís army reduced its training capability. The minister of defense is Raul Castro. The communist transition has affected the Cuban army. The army began to become stronger as the Soviets allied with more communist countries like Cuba, but after the collapse of the USSR. the Cuban army began to b

Cuba was known to have nuclear weapons but after Cuba participated in the Latin American Nuclear Weapons Free Zone is demolished all the itís nuclear weapons, which stopped Cuba from threatening other countries.

In Guantanmo Bay US forces have settled and made a base. As they brought more troops considering the thought that Cuba might have a strong force that might ambush them. As more troops arrived to Guantanmo Bay, the threat that Cubaís army is strong enough to ambush Guantanmo Bay no longer exists as Cubaís army can no longer be strong enough to Guantanmo Bay.

 

View of world problems:

Cubaís has many allies which are Netherlands, Russia, Canada, Spain, china, Italy, France, Palestine, and Brazil. Cubaís main enemy is the United States of America; US companies are prohibited by law in trading with Cuba because of Fidel Castroís communist Philosophy. Cuba has another enemy which is Israel. In April posters were on the streets of Cuba stating that Sharon=Hitler. Cuba also opened itís embassy in Beirut for Arafat, and Castro is still aiding them till this day.

Cuba is in many world organizations and they are: ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, and WTrO.

One of Cubaís foreign policies is Congruence interests between Havana and Moscow, so they can be derived from appearance of new targets of opportunity. Another Foreign policy is the growth of power projection capabilities of Russia and Cuba contributed to coincidence.

Cuba is trying to have good relations with other communist countries which are only 3 left, and they are: Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam. The United States is not allowing communist countries to have any relations, because they might be a threat to this world.

 

History:

Spanish settlers established the raising of cattle, sugarcane, and tobacco as Cuba's primary economic pursuits. As the native Indian population died out, African slaves were imported to work the in ranches and plantations. Slavery was abolished in 1886. Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain independence. Jose Marti, Cuba's national hero, helped initiate the final push for independence in 1895. On May 20, 1902, the United States granted Cuba its independence. Independent Cuba was often ruled by authoritarian political and military figures that either obtained or remained in power by force. Fulgencio Batista, an army sergeant, was elected president in 1940. Batista was voted out of office in 1944 and did not run in 1948. Batista Ran for president again in 1952. Batista seized power to that election was to take place.

Fidel Castro, who had been active politically before Batista's coup, on July 26, 1953 led a failed attack on the Moncada army barracks in Santiago de Cuba in which more than 100 died. After defending himself in a trial, he was jailed, and subsequently was freed in an act of clemency, before going into exile in Mexico. There he organized the 26th of July Movement with the goal of overthrowing Batista, and the group sailed to Cuba on board the yacht Granma. Castro declared Cuba a socialist state on April 16, 1961. For the next 30 years, Castro pursued close relations with the Soviet Union until the demise of the USSR. in 1991. Relations between the United States and Cuba deteriorated rapidly as the Cuban regime expropriated US. properties.

In 1961 the Bay of Pigs incident took place. The invader which was the United States was numbering about fourteen hundred Cuban soldiers who had left after the Cuban Revolution and returned to overthrow the new Cuban leader, Fidel Castro. They were trained and equipped by the United States Central Intelligence Agency. The operation was a disaster for the invaders; most of them were killed or taken as prisoners. The Bay of Pigs incident is generally considered the most humiliating episode in the presidency of John F. Kennedy, who had approved the invasion.

On October 1962, after reviewing newly acquired intelligence, President John F. Kennedy informed the world that the Soviet Union was building secret missile bases in Cuba, a mere 90 miles off the shores of Florida. In addition to demanding that Russian Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev remove all the missile bases and their deadly contents, Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine (blockade) of Cuba in order to prevent Russian ships from bringing additional missiles and construction materials to the island. In response to the American naval blockade, Premier Khrushchev authorized his Soviet field commanders in Cuba to launch their nuclear weapons if invaded by US. forces. The two leaders of the world's greatest nuclear superpowers stared each other down for seven days. On October 28, , the Russian Premier conceded to President Kennedy's demands by ordering all Soviet supply ships away from Cuban waters and agreeing to remove the missiles from Cuba's mainland.

 

 

 

Policy Statements:


Issue #1: The issue of the rights and availability of generic drugs:

Cuba is one of the countries that allow the production of generic drugs. As they help produce generic drugs and ignore the United States trademark law. Cuba for many years was among nations that refused to acknowledge Western Laws, as they intend to do things there way like producing there own generic drugs. Fidel Castro has made many laboratories to produce generic drugs, and seek new drugs to be sold. Like the Cubaís Genetic Engineering and Biology Center. Thousands of scientists working at some 38 institutes located in West Havana, known as the "scientific pole. Some of these scientists are producing treatments for cancers of the lung, head, neck, breast and ovaries. Cubaís generic drugs reach over 40 countries and generating $100 million annually. Cuba plans to expand itís overseas market.

As Cuba offered South Africa and Brazil a large amount of generic AID drugs which will save money and be offered to all people and the prices are highly different( In Cuba: $365 per year- In the US $10,000 till $15,000 per year). After the offer the South African President Thabo Mbeki signed a series of agreements in Havana this week with Fidel Castro, one of which will help make the two countries cooperate in producing low-cost AIDS drugs and ignoring other drug companies.

 

Issue #2: The issue of the rights of displaced people:

Cuba faces problems as it was once disagreeing with human rights, as the displaced people in Cuba joined forces with the United States to cause the Bay of Pigs incident. Many misplaced Cubans migrate to the United States. As the United States allows 20,000 emigrants to the United States per year. Most of the misplaced people in Cuba are either against Fidel Castro or against the communist state. Cuba has tried to supported these misplaced people. Cuba made small organizations in which misplaced people can share there ideas and philosophy.

Cuba still doesnít agree with human rights and the rights of displaced people even though they made these small organizations. It is a communist state which indicates that it is against the rights of the displaced people. Cuba doesnít not care, if whether the displaced people want there rights or not but it doesnít get involved in these issues, which means not helping them nor harming them.

 

Issue # 3: Weapons of Mass of destruction:

Cuba was once one of the biggest Nuclear threat in the world. As it was once helped by the Soviets. Cuba was the main country in the missile crises which was a threat to America. . In 1990, Cuba's air force, with about 150 Soviet-supplied fighters, including advanced MiG-23 Floggers and MiG-29 Fulcrums, was probably the best equipped in Latin America. Today Cuba is a Nuclear weapons free zone. As it entered the Latin American nuclear free zone treaty. This meant the disposal of all weapons of mass destruction in Cuba. Cuba is no longer a threat to the world, as it no longer has any nuclear weapons. Cuba is generally regarded as having a program of research on biological warfare agents.

Cubaís nuclear trade is only for Nuclear reactors which is for producing energy.. As the nuclear reactors are one of Cubaís main energy sources. Cuba is also known for trading technology for building the weapons of mass destruction. But Cuba remains a none nuclear zone in which weapons of mass destruction were not spotted in Cuba. The only time Cuba was spotted trading weapons of mass destruction was before the Soviet Union collapsed. Which was with the African country. Today Cuba is just known for trading technology and information of weapons of mass destruction especially bio-chemical technology. Cuba mostly share this information with Iraq , Iran, and Syria. Cuba ignored the limited amount of bio-chemical technology order from the USA, and it is still trading information on bio-chemical technology

 

 

 

Resolution:

 

Country: Cuba
Student: Zaid Al-Marzooki
Issue:
The agreement in allowing generic drugs to be sold, and the UNís role in securing the trading of generic drugs to poor countries,

Defining: generic drugs are cheap drugs that hold the same chemicals as brand named drugs but are called by the chemical name,

Aware of the threat that diseases in poor countries will not be easily treated which will cause many problems,

Recognizing that the brand name drugs are not allowing generic drugs to be produced because of money purposes and not health purposes,

Bearing in mind that generic drugs will spread all over the poor countries,

Taking note that developing and poor countries are in dire need of medical help, but canít afford brand name drugs,

Believing that Cuba has made tremendous efforts in research concerning the production of generic drugs that will deal with widespread diseases such as AIDS drugs,

Deeply concerned that the UN has not taken any action in truly facing this problem,

1) Declares the creation of a sub-organization with the approval of the WTO under the WHO, which will consist of trading generic drugs(TGD) and securing their trading paths to poor and developing countries;

2) Notes that the TGD recommends a member from each country, and the chair will be elected by the members;

3) Encourages developing and poor countries to join the TGD because it will insure the development of their medical status; as all country are allowed to join this sub-organization;

4) Further notes that the chairís position will be open for elections every 2 years to insure fairness;

5) Declares that this sub-organization will have a main headquarter in Geneva, Switzerland and three other offices in:
A. Brasilia, Brazil,
B. Nairobi, Kenya,
C. Havana, Cuba,
D. New Delhi, India;

6) Confirms that members of this committee will meet every six months in Geneva, and every 2 years in one of the 4 other headquarters;

7) Affirms that the members will adhere the following:
A. Resolutions will be passed by the vote of the majority of the members,
B. In emergencies the offices will solve these problems;

8) Notes that the TGD will successfully find information for manufacturing these drugs;

9) Emphasizes that TGD will do the following:
A. Recruit specialists that will study the diseases that have struck a country;
B. Take strong action in securing safe transport of these drugs;

10) Notes that the sub-organization will use volunteered pilots and volunteering cargo airplane companies transporting these drugs;

11) Emphasizes that any brand name company willing to give out medical researches will receive a reward by:
A. Giving information on how to make new generic drugs to cure new diseases;
B. Giving support by sending experienced scientists;

12) Asks local governments of countries that have joined the TGD to update the TGD with information about their peopleís medical status;

13) Encourages in spreading the trading of generic drugs all over the poor countries While banning the trade of these drugs in rich countries by doing the following:
A. Use volunteered distributors that will distribute these drugs among the needed poor;
B. Any one who uses these drugs for improper uses will be punished severely by the UN;
C. Employing workers that will oversee the sale and distribution of these drugs;
D. The TGD will not be lean with these countries for miss using these drugs;

14) Further resolves that the TGD will do the following to insure reliability:
A. This sub-organization will form an inspection team of qualified experienced scientists to visit all generic drug producing labs for testing these drugs and insure reliability and effectiveness in curing diseases;

15) Confirms that the generic drugs will only be allowed for poor countries, that canít afford brand named drugs.

 

 

 

Opening Speech:



Greetings fellow delegates and honorable chair, As Cuba a world of paradise, has shown the world beauty from the great Cuban cigars and the beautiful calm beaches. Cuba is a land with green tropical trees and tall mountains. Cuba is a country with legendary heroes like Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Cuba is a land of with many success like the Bay of Pigs. This country is not ordinary it is unique.

Cuba is a great supporter for generic drugs. It is helping countries who suffer from serious sicknesses and diseases that cannot pay for drugs to treat themselves. Cuba has created many laboratories to produce generic drugs, and seek new drugs to be sold. Like the Cubaís Genetic Engineering and Biology Center, which has thousands of scientists working in it.

As you can see Cuba is a country seeking not only peace around the world but to combine peace with the most important thing a person could have, which is health.