Event: Pearl-MUN 2004
Student: Yasmeen Dashti
The Indonesian government is republic. The government of Indonesia is based on a constitution that was written in 1945. A president serves as head of the government. The president appoints a wide range of advisers consisting of top military leaders and civilians. In theory, the People’s Consultative Assembly is supposed to establish the general direction of the government’s policies. A house of People’s Representatives is the nation’s parliament. However, neither the Assembly nor the House has real power. Instead, it is the president and his chosen advisers who make all the important decisions.
The People’s Consultative Assembly elects the president to a five-year term. The Assembly has 1 000 members. It includes the 500 members of the house of People’s Representatives. It also includes 500 representatives of regional, occupational, and other groups. All Assembly members serve fiver-year terms. The Assembly normally meets only one every five years. The 500 members of the House include 400 who are elected through a system that ensures that the government’s political organization, Golkar, wins a majority of the seats.
Indonesia is divided into 27 provinces. The provinces are divided into regencies and municipalities. These units are further divided into villages. Officials of all local government units expethe villages are appointed by the central government from lists of people nominated by regional legislatures. Indonesian villagers elect their own village officials to provide local government. The voting age is from 17 years of age, unless married then they can vote at any age.
Golkar is Indonesia’s most important political organization and dominates the political life of the country. The government controls it. It is not a traditional political party, but is made up of professional, military, agricultural and other groups that join together to sponsor candidates in parliamentary elections. Golkar’s members hold a large majority in parliament. Only two other parties are allowed to operate, the United Development Party and the Indonesian Democracy Party. They have much less influence than Golkar.
Moreover, since 1998, after Suharto resigned, more than 100 parties have formed. The most important are the PDI-P headed by Megawati, who became vice president in 1999, then president in 2001; the National Awakening Party, the party of the former president Abdullrahman Wahid; and the National Mandate Party headed by Amein Rais. Golkar remains a force but is much weaker than it was during the Suharto year.
Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia. It is the largest archipelago and the fifth most populated nation in the world. It has a total of 17 000 islands of which 6 000 are inhabited. The islands are nestled between two continents: Asia and Australia, and two oceans: the Indian and the Pacific. The main islands are Java, Sumatra, and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares the island of Borneo with Malaysia and Brunei; Indonesia Borneo makes up about 75% of the island. Indonesia also shares the island of New Guinea with Papua New Guinea; Indonesia occupies the western half of the island. Indonesia is surrounded by the South China Sea, the Celebes Sea and the Pacific Ocean to the north, and by the Indian Ocean to the south and west.
Situated over the equator, Indonesia tends to have a fairly uniform climate that is hot. It is equatorial, but cooler in the highlands. It is also humid. Indonesia’s "we season" lasts from November through April, and its "dry season" from May through October.
Because of its tropical climate and geography, much of Indonesia’s population lives near water, either on the coast or by rivers and lakes. Indonesia has no major rivers, but it does have many important rivers. Kalimantan has the largest rivers like the Mahakan and Martapura in the east, and Barito in the south. Papua has more than 30 major rivers draining to the north and south from the Maoke Mountains. It also has the Baliem River which is in the Jayawijaya Mountains. Many tribal groups, including Dani and the Asmat, live along the rivers. Lake Toba, the largest of Indonesia’s lakes is situated on Sumatra’s Batak Highlands in the Barisan Mountains. There are more lakes that are situated in various islands of Indonesia.
Mountains tower over much of Indonesia. Many of these mountains are active or inactive volcanoes. There are about 400 volcanoes in Indonesia or which 130 are active and 70 have erupted long ago. Volcanic ash provides farmers with fertile soil, and thick forests spread over much of the islands. Tropical forests cover 55% of the land although this percentage has been shrinking due to deforestation.
The forests supply teak and other hard woods. Indonesia has significant deposits of oil and gas. Indonesia produces more than 80% of Southeast Asia’s oil and more than 35% of the world’s liquefied gas. Tin, copper, nickel and coal are Indonesia’s major mineral resources. Small amounts of silver, gold, diamonds and rubies are also found. The seas surrounding Indonesia’s abundant saltwater brings fish, pearls, shells, and agar to the country. The main industry in Indonesia is farming. Indonesia is among the leading producers of rice. Other important farm products include coconuts, coffee, maize, rubber, tea and spices.
Besides oil and liquefied natural gas, forest products, rubber, coffee, tea, tin, nickel, copper, palm products and fish make important contributions to export earnings. In recent years, a number of steps have been taken to promote and stimulate non-oil exports that include handicrafts, textiles, precious metals, tea, tobacco, cement, and fertilizers as well as manufactured goods. Also, Indonesia produces large amounts of valuable hardwoods, including ebony and teak. Other forest products of Indonesia include bamboo and rattan which are used for the manufacture of such goods as baskets and furniture.
Indonesia’s estimated population in 2004 was 238 452 952 making it the largest population of any country in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world due to the rapidly growing population. The population is growing by 1.5% per year. 60% of the people live on the island of Java. Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital is found in the island of Java. Most of the Indonesians belong to the Malay ethnic group where there are 250 – 300 smaller groups with their own language and dialects. The official language is Bahasa Indonesia. Some understand Dutch since the Dutch ruled from the 1600s to the mid 1900s. In 1945, Indonesia declared itself an independent republic.
Indonesia is currently overwhelmed by a number of violent conflicts. Separatist struggles continue in Aceh and Irian Jaya. Communal Violence has eruption along ethnic and religious lines in Kalimantan and Maluku and several other regions. According to Indonesian Government figures, more than one million people are now "internally displaced" within the republic due largely to internal conflict. These conflicts appear to have intensified in the last couple of years since the fall of the Suharto regime. Divisions within Indonesian society along ethnic, religious and social groups largely created by the consequences of year of authority rule seem to have been worse by recent political reforms such as the process of elections. Some effects of continuing conflict include the great cost expended on internal security, with the security forces currently engaged in internal conflict from one end of the archipelago to the other.
The recent administration of former President Abdullrahman Wahid attempted to resolve at least some of the conflicts through various attempted political solutions. However many of the non-military strategies attempted by President Wahid proved unsuccessful due to a number of factors including a lack of political and military support and inadequate organization. There are four current conflicts in Indonesia. Those in Aceh, Irian Jaya, Maluku, and Kalimantan.
Islam is the major religion. Muslims make up 88% of the population, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, and other religions 1%. Furthermore, Indonesia is considered to be a multiethnic country. More than 300 ethnic groups live in Indonesia. Most of these groups speak their own language and have their own way of life. No single ethnic group holds a majority. The largest are the Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, and Coastal Malays 7.5%. The country also has many smaller ethnic groups such as the Dayaks and the Balinese. Other ethnic groups are Acehnese, Balinese, Batak, Bonfia, Kupangese, Larantuka, Loinang group, Mori Laki group, Redjand Lampong group, and Land Dayak group.
There are ethnic-based violence in Indonesia. Some of these conflicts are underlying issues of political and economic power. For example, the fact that the army’s high command still holds real power behind the new president makes it possible for the use of ethnic and religious differences to divide and rule the population. One conflict is between the native Dayaks and Madurese migrants. The settlers have generally received better treatment than the Dayaks who are fighting for land and cultural rights. Another big problem is Aceh that is an immense problem for Jakarta since its rebellion dates back to the independence war against the Dutch. Also, there is a conflict between the Muslims and the other religions where the Muslims say that they want to make Indonesia an Islamic country. So basically, Indonesia has many ethnic and religious conflicts that need to be solved.
The country is rich in natural resources. While 90% of the population is engaged in agriculture, oil and gas contribute 70% of total export earnings and 60% of the government revenues. However, fluctuations in world prices of traditional export commodities have led to a change in recent years in the structure of the economy. Tourism is gaining a more important sector as a foreign exchange earner. In order for production and growth in the industry, the government has formulated new policies and improved facilities. Significant progress has been made in communications and transportations.
Indonesia maintains a liberal foreign exchange system and has few restrictions on transfers aboard. Bank Indonesia and the Central Bank maintain the stability of the Indonesian Rupiah, and review the exchange rate in terms of other currencies on a daily basis. The exchange rate of the Indonesian Rupiah per US dollar is 0.0001106 according to the yahoo financer, and the exchange rate of the Indonesian Rupiah per Kuwaiti Dinar is 0.00003260. The Rupiah is linked to a lot of currencies of Indonesia’s major trading partners. The unitary exchange rate allows for variations. With the objective of a more reasonable distribution of development gains, the government gives high priority to expansion in the less developed regions of the country and the creation of employment opportunities for the county’s growing labor force. To attract foreign assets, certain motivations are provided and several sectors are open to foreign investment.
Indonesia has a market-based economy in which the government plays a significant role. It owns more than 164 state owned enterprises and manages prices on several basic merchandises including fuel, rice and electricity. Furthermore, in the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis that began in mid 1997, the government took custody of a significant portion of private sector assets.
The U.S. exports to Indonesia in 1999 totaled $2 billion. The main exports were construction equipment, machinery, aviation parts, chemicals, and agricultural products. U.S. imports from Indonesia in 1999 totaled $9.5 billion and consisted primarily of clothing, machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum, natural rubber, and footwear. Economic assistance to Indonesia is coordinated through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), formed in 1989. The U.S Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided development assistance to Indonesia since 1950. Initial assistance focused on the most urgent needs of the new republic, including food aid, infrastructure rehabilitation, health care and training. USAID’s current program aims to support Indonesia as it recovers from the financial crisis by providing food aid, employment generating activities and maintaining critical public health services.
Indonesia’s export commodities are oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, and rubber. The major export partners of Indonesia are Japan, U.S.A, Singapore, South Korea, China, and Taiwan,
Moreover, principal export trade with Japan, the United States, Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Taiwan. Most important commodities are crude petroleum and petroleum products; natural gas (mostly to Japan), natural rubber, clothing, and plywood are also important. The major imports are from Japan and the United States, primarily manufactured products.
Indonesia’s army, navy, air force and police force make up the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI). The president is the supreme commander of ABRI. About 284 000 people serve in the Indonesian Armed Forces, excluding the police force. The military age for a person to enter the military is 18 years of age. Males from the ages of 18-49 are usually found in the military.
View of World Problems
Since independence, Indonesia has adopted a "free and active" foreign policy seeking to play a role in regional affairs equal with its size and location, but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers.
Indonesia is a well-known country because of its large population, its diverse cultures, and natural resources. Indonesia is currently an active member in the United Nations since 1950.
Indonesian foreign policy is one of the neutrality between the East and West, but the country maintains close relations with the West. Through the Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI), Indonesia has particularly close ties with Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These countries and agencies as the World Bank have given substantial economic aid to Indonesia since 1967. In 1990-1991, foreign aid provided more than one fourth of Indonesia’s government revenue. Payment of interest on foreign load, and the gradual repayment of capital has become a heavy burden on Indonesia.
Indonesia has governed East Timor since 1976. The eastern half of the island of Timor was a Portuguese colony from about 1520. In 1975, the Portuguese withdrew, and a Timorese nationalist party declared East Timor independent. Indonesian troops invaded and in July 1976 East Timor was made the 27th province of Indonesia. In 1983, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution which affirmed East Timor’s right to independence and demanded the withdrawal of Indonesian troops from the territory, but Indonesia remained in occupation of East Timor.
A cornerstone of Indonesia’s contemporary foreign policy is its participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Indonesia was also one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and has taken moderate positions in its councils. Indonesia has the world’s largest Muslim population and is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Indonesia is as well a member of the United Nations (UN) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and numerous other international organizations. The relations of Indonesia with all major nations are based on principles of nonalignment.
Indonesia is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The country is one of the chief producers of petroleum in the Far East. Petroleum and natural gas are Indonesia’s chief exports. Two thirds of the country’s petroleum comes from Sumatra. Indonesia is also a leading tin mining country.
Indonesia’s debt to the world totals $16 billion in which half of that is to the United States, and one third of the other half is to Britain and the other third is to Japan.
As a matter of fact, Indonesia’s history doesn’t begin with its independence in 1949, but more than hundreds of years ago. The region once known as the East Indies was home to several Hindu and Islamic kingdoms long before Europeans arrived in the 16th century. A century later, the Dutch controlled Indonesia. Though the Japanese captured the islands during World War 2, the nationalists prevailed and in 1949 declared Indonesia’s independence under Sukarno. Indonesia took its place as a leader of the independent nations of the Third World. Under Sukarno, Indonesia moved left, but when the army crushed an attempted revolution in 1965, it resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people. Sukarno was pushed out and General Suharto took power.
Suharto moved Indonesia’s foreign policy posture back towards the West, Indonesia’s capture of the former Portugeuse colony of East Timor in 1976 has led to international disapproval and the deaths of perhaps 100 000 or more East Timorese. Suharto remained in power until 1998 when charges of corruption were leveled against the leader and his family. Joined with the ongoing crisis in East Timor, the Indonesians had had enough. Their rioting, strikes and protests led to Suharto’s resignation. In 1999, East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia that led to renewed military attacks. The UN sent peacekeeping troops in to quell the violence. East Timor finally achieved independence in May 2002.
In the summer of 1997, Indonesia suffered a major economic setback along with most other Asian economies. Banks failed and the value of the Indonesia’s currency fell. In June 1999, it was marked as Indonesia’s fist free parliamentary election since 1955. The ruling Golkar Party took a backseat to the Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle. In 1999, the Indonesian parliament elected Abdurrahman Wahid as the new president of Indonesia.
Rioting and bombing continued in Indonesia in 2000. On June 2000, it was declared that Irian Jaya to be an independent state.
1. The question of the rights and availability of generic drugs.
According to the FDA, a generic drug is a "chemical clone" that has the same active ingredients as its original brand. They have the same effect as the original brand name drug. For many years, generic drugs have been a key tool for helping people to reduce their prescription drug costs.
In Indonesia, health is regarded as a human right. The National Health System requires that the government’s health services are to be made available to all Indonesian citizens with special emphasis on serving low-income groups. Indonesia sees that after the economic crisis in 1997 – 1998, there are many people that currently have low income taxes and therefore the government wants to help those people in getting their prescriptions if they get sick. For example, currently in Indonesia there are 130, 000 citizens reported having HIV/AIDS. Since the actual drugs for HIV/AIDS patients are very expensive, the generic anti-retroviral are often much cheaper than the lowest price offered by the manufacturer of the brand. As a result, the Indonesian government will soon provide cheap anti-retroviral drugs for AIDS patients. But in Indonesia the rational use of drugs at health centers remains a problem. Overuse of antibiotics, misuse and overuse of injections, and poor patient compliance are common figures of irrational use of drugs in Indonesia.
During the past 20 years, the Indonesian government has applied national strategies to the drugs sector to ensure the availability and accessibility of drugs. A national drug policy was established in 1983 and has been used since as a guideline for pharmacy’s development. This policy is now being updated to take account of recent developments. Also, in Indonesia there is a generic drug policy, which aims to ensure accessibility of essential drugs, especially for the lowest-income population. All public sector health facilities are required to produce essential drugs in the form of generic products. For this, all drug manufacturers and distributors are required to obtain a license and comply with GMP, and all drugs must be registered before selling. Drug inspection and laboratories have been set up throughout the country. Furthermore, Indonesia is developing a program on rational use of drugs, which seeks to ensure proper prescriptions from doctors. Generic products are well represented in pharmacies ranging from 90% to 94%. Four governments and 26 private pharmaceutical companies now do the production of generic drugs in Indonesia.
Despite improvements through essential drug programs in pharmaceutical selection, distribution, and financing, problems remain in the rational use of drugs. The over prescribing of antibiotics, the misuse of injections and poor patient obedience are common patterns of irrational drug use in Indonesia. Studies reported that average patients received 3.5 drugs and more than 50% of patients receive 4 or more drugs per prescription. Also, injection use was widespread ranging from 10% to 80% of patients. Thus, the government feels that there are some actions that are necessary to resolve the problem. There are three broad categories of interventions to improve drug use. These interventions have been classifies as educational approaches, managerial approaches and regulatory approaches. For educational approaches, there attempts to inform prescribers and patients to use drugs in the proper and efficient way. These approaches are by in-service training, face-to-face education, small group discussions, seminars, and printed education materials. The purpose of all of this is to improve knowledge and change habits. Lack of knowledge and poor habits are often underlying factors of irrational drug use. The managerial strategies attempt to improve drug decision-making by a variety of techniques including use of specific processes, forms, packages and monetary reason.
2. The question of trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Weapons of mass destruction are defined as weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and or being used in such a manner as to destroy large numbers of people and they can be nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons. The spread of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction is one of the most serious security threats facing the world.
Indonesia is one of the countries in the UN that is against nuclear weapons. For example, Indonesia, together with other members of the international community, supports and is convinced of the necessity of establishing a zone free of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. They believe that such a zone would greatly contribute to the enhancement of international peace and security. In the same path, Indonesia believes that such a zone would be beneficial to the enhancement of confidence among countries in the world and peace in the Middle East. Moreover, spending billions on a missile defense that won’t work while building new nuclear weapons will only speed the pace of nuclear proliferation.
Even though Indonesia is against weapons of mass destruction, it is one of the countries that have agreements with other nations to be their exporters of weapons. For instance, Britain is one of the main exporters of weapons to Indonesia. Also, Indonesia claims that they want to help solve the problem with world peace and security, but Indonesia is still fighting with East Timor. For Indonesia, the way to solve this problem is by democracy. Indonesia believes that to solve this problem countries have to be able to manage successive changes of power in a democratic, peaceful, and constitutional manner.
So Indonesia feels that if democracy worked with them, why wouldn’t it work with other nations. By democracy the problem of terrorism might vanish therefore, there won’t be the need of trading nuclear weapons since the problem is already solved. Also, it feels that the US should halt arms sales and strengthen human rights. Hence, Indonesia supposes that for a safer world and the reduction of the trade of weapons of mass destructions, supportinghuman rights and democracy is one way to the reduction of weapons of mass destruction. Another way is to destroy the stockpiles and secure those facilities that make nuclear materials.
3. The question of insuring human and political rights of ethnic and religious displaced people.
Human rights are the rights people are entitled to simply because they are human beings, irrespective of their nationality, race, ethnicity, language, or gender. Human rights become enforceable when they become recognized as customary international law. It is the rights of persons to freedom of speech and conscience, equal treatment, work and health, among others.
One of the major causes of displacement is the Indonesian government’s policy of transmigration, which gave land and economic incentives to relocated people to less populated areas. Because of this policy, tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Maluku Islands, and between settlers and the native Madurese in West Kalimantan have worsened. Currently, there are approximately 1.3 million people who have been displaced, 750, 000 of which are under the age of 18.
Indonesia has been able to minimize some of the human rights related problems with the help of neighboring countries and the UN. International relief agencies are involved in assisting the internally displaced population in Indonesia. The UN Development Program (UNDP) and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) coordinate relief efforts in the country. Other UN programs include the World Food Program (WFP) provides food to the internal displaced people.
Indonesia lurched further toward democracy during the year, but serious regional conflicts, a weak legal system and a delicate civil military relations posed ongoing obstacles to the protection of human rights. Regional armed conflicts continue to pose a challenge to the democratic transition and weaken human rights, but human rights groups continue to be at the center of legal reform and justice efforts. For example, the Indonesian National Human Rights Commission monitor the efforts of the attorney general and military counts on leading human rights cases throughout the year.
Submitted By: Republic of Indonesia Delegate: Yasmeen Dashti The question of: The issue concerning internally displaced people. Defining internally displaced person as a person who has had to flee to another part of their country to seek safety but has not crossed an international border,
Alarmed by the fact that the amount of IDP’s has increased to 25 million worldwide in that last couple of years,
Deeply disturbed by the alarmingly high numbers of internally displaced persons throughout the world who receive inadequate protection and assistance and awareness of the serious problem that is forming for the international community,
Noting with Regret the fact that the UN hasn’t significantly reduced this number to a minimum,
Taking into Account that according to the UNCHR more aid is needed for displaced people in various countries,
Keeping in mind that "Eight years after the UN General Assembly first considered the problem of these homeless people, some gains have been made but there is still a pressing need for effective action" said Francis Deng, the UN representative in charge of IDP’s.
Further noting "there are no laws and there is no single U.N. agency to help those who leave home but don’t cross an international border" according to UNCHR world news May 2004,
Emphasizing that the national authorities have the primary responsibility to provide protection and assistance to internally displaced persons within their jurisdiction,
1. Calls upon the governments to provide protection and assistance including development assistance to IDP’s as well as to insure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education;
2. Resolves the development of a sub organization in the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNCHR) that will educate IDP’s and provide health services;
3. Confirms that the UNCHR will use the latest teaching techniques and medical technology in order to aid the IDP’s and help them develop new skills;
4. Further Proclaims that each IDP will be accommodated based on their ability to learn and their skills into the following: A. Group A: children from the ages of 4-12 B. Group B: children from the ages of 13-18 C. Group C: people from the ages of 19-25 D. Group D: people from the ages of 26-40
5. Further Resolves that this organization will hire professionals and professors who are capable of assisting the IDP’s and educating them: A. Each representative in the UN could have a representative in the organization B. They will assemble with the IDP’s at least once a month in order to have group sessions and activities; C. These activities may vary from psychological help to child care and physical rehabilitation
6. Encourages all governments, in particular countries with situations of internal displacement, to help the activities of the organization and to respond positively;
7. Further Recommends that the governments would make available information on measures taken in this regard;
8. Expresses that it hopes that all countries will have a part in this organization and that it will have a say on this serious problem of internally displaced people that has been affecting a large number of countries worldwide.
Honorable chairs and fellow delegates, good afternoon.
At the outset, please allow Indonesia, the land of forests and rivers, to warmly welcome you all who came here in order to participate and become speakers in this conference. The floating emerald islands of the Indonesian archipelago have for centuries lured everyone from missionaries to pirates, mining companies and travelers to their sandalwood and spice breezes, their magnificent beaches, mountains and volcanoes.
However, the myth of a paradise is often tarnished to the people in Indonesia when they see that there is still rounds of violence going on, as well as the lack of drugs to sick people, and the human rights violations that continue nowadays.
Indonesia hopes for new improvements on these issues that face us today and that these issues should be discussed and studied to reach an agreement among all countries meeting today depending on their opinions and their point of view.
Indonesia is hoping that this conference would benefit all of us and may our efforts be worthwhile.