Student: Laila Barghouti
Event: Pearl-MUN 2004Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2003-2004 Team page
Italian Brothers, Italy has awakened, She has wreathed her head With the helmet of Scipio. Where is Victory? She bows her head to you, You, whom God created As the slave of Rome. Let us band together, We are ready to die, (repeat) Italy has called us. (repeat previous four lines) (repeat entire song)
The Italian State has been a democratic republic since June 2,1946. Italy is a largely centralized parliamentary democracy at the head of which stands the president, who is elected by the parliaments and the representatives of the regions for a seven year term. Italy's capital is Rome. The current president, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, was elected in May 1999. Parliament comprises the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate both of which are directly elected and which have to adopt all new laws together. Italy is divided up into 20 administrative regions of which five have special autonomy status they are:( Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige, Valle díAosta, and Friuli-Venezia Giulia), 103 provinces and 18102 municipalities. The parliamentary elections on 13 May 2001 resulted in a clear victory for the then opposition parties led by Silvio Berlusconi in the Chamber of deputies and the Senate which is currently 352 to 264 deputies; and 178 to 138 senators). On 11 June 2001, Silvio and his ministers were sworn in by President Ciampi (thus marking the beginning 59th post-war Government of Italy. There are 23 ministers in the Cabine, 2 of them are women.
Natural Resources and Geography:
The natural resources in Italy account for about 4% of GDP; self-sufficient in foods other than meat, fish , dairy products, and cereals. Principal crops are fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives. In addition to that, Italy is one of the countries that has different kinds of metals and minerals that are found underground such as : Bauxite (Aluminum), Chromium, Cobalt, Columbium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel, Platinum, Titanium , and Uranium. Petroleum is found in good amounts in Italy and it is used in Industries that build ships, airplanes and other things that need petroleum.
Italy is located in Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. Itís geographical coordinates are 42 50 N, 12 50 E. Italyís map reference is Europe. Its area total is: 301,230 sq. km, however not that it includes Sardinia and Sicily. water: 7,210 sq. km and land: 294,020 sq. km. Italyís land boundaries are with Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km. The climate is predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south. Its is mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands. Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc). Natural hazards that occur in Italy are regional risks include landslides, mud flows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice.
Italyís population is 57,998,353. Population growth rate is 0.11%. The birth rate is 9.18 births/1,000 population, and the death rate is 10.12 deaths/1,000 population. Some of the population are ethnic groups which are usually Italian, however they include small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south. Different ethnic groups talk different languages, as a result we find multilanguages in Italy such as Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area.Predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community are the religions that you usually find in Italy.
Italyís currency is 1 Italian lira. Its annual gross domestic product (GDP) nearly twice that of Canada's. Italy has the sixth largest economy in the world. Furthermore, the per capita income in northern Italy, the country's industrial heartland, is among the highest in Europe. The driving force of the Italian economy is its manufacturing sector Manufacturing accounts for 90% of Italy's exports. Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 35%, agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported.
Some of Italyís exports are metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals and other and they make $190.8 billion Partners of exports are EU 56.8% (Germany 16.4%, France 12.9%, Netherlands 7.1%, Spain 6.3%, Netherlands 2.9%), US 9.5% . On the other side the imports($168.7 billion ) are industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, petroleum, metals, food, agricultural products. Partners of imports are EU 61% (Germany 19.3%, France 12.6%, Netherlands 6.3%, Spain 4.4%), US 5.0% and OPEC. Most industries in Italy produce machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics. National Product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $998.9 billion, national Product real growth rate is 2.2%.
Military branches in Italy consist of : Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri. Men that work in Military are usually 18 years old, however to enter military you can be between ages 15-18. The defense and military leader in Italy is Carlo Martino.
Views of world problems:
Italy is a peaceful country that doesnít have real enemies. Italy had enemies long time ago when it invaded Eritrea and Ethiopia. Even though it invaded Libya, they are no longer enemies today. Italy and Turkey both have pretty acceptable survive records, they do not look to be compatible for long-term alliances. Russia might well be the closest friend or ally to Italy. Italy has formed great relation with the US in the last couple of years, especially when it stood by US in the Iraq war. Many Arab countries from the Middle east are not allies to Italy because it encouraged the US in this issue.
Because Italy is part of the EU Trade Agreement, it has military agreements with all European countries. For example, if Italy was invaded by any other country military that will fight will be from all EU countries. Italy trades of cars also is caught by European countries less expensively because of agreements between the European countries and vise versa.
In 1915 , Italy entered the war on the side of the allies. In the midst of these unsettled conditions, Benito Mussolini founded a new movement called "Fascismo". Mussolini foreign policy, based on aggression and expansion, moved Italy closer to war during the 1930s. In 1935-1936 the Italian Army invaded and concurred Ethiopia, and in 1936 Italy sent troops to support the Spanish civil war. In July 1943 the allies invaded Italy. The fascist leadership turned against Mussolini. In 1946 a popular election put an end to the Monarch in favor of a republic; a new constitution was adopted the next year.
The Christian Democrats, the Communists, and the Socialists became the leading political parties in the countries. The largest of these parties, the Christian Democrats dominated the Italian government after 1948. The leader of that party stressed industrial growth, agriculture reform, and close cooperation with the United States and the Vatican. In the late 1970ís and early 1980s labor unrest frequent government scandals, and the violence of extremist groups, all contributed to a volatile political situation. In 1993 the nation was riveted by political scandals involving government leaders. This series of scandals led to the collapse of the post-World War 2 party system and new parties filled the political vacuum. Later on in 1996, Italians elected a government dominated by a center-left coalition for the first time since the proclamation of the Italian Republic.
Issue # 1: The issues of the rights and availability of generic drugs
A generic drug is a copy of a brand name drug whose patent has expired. The original manufacturer of a drug receives a patent on the drug and is the only manufacturer who can produce and sell the drug during this patent period. Once the patent expires, other manufacturers may produce and sell the drug. These manufacturers usually sell the drug under its common or generic name. There are many manufacturers of generic drugs in the United States. FDA requires that all drugs be safe and effective, since generics use the same active ingredients and are shown to work the same way in the body, they have the same risks and benefits as their brand-name counterparts. FDA requires generic drugs to have the same quality, strength, purity and stability as brand-name drugs. Generic drugs are less expensive because generic manufacturers donít have the investment costs of the developer of a new drug, and because those manufacturers donít have the same development costs, they can sell their product at substantial discounts. New drugs are developed under patent protection. Also, once generic drugs are approved, there is greater competition, which keeps the price down. Some countries African countries need the generic drug because they are sold less expensive and so the US is taking this issue into serious consideration and Canada to.
In 1995, the Italian government allowed generic drugs in Italy because a small portion of people needed them. Moreover, Italy didnít have a system that was adequate to provide information about expiry dates. The government emphasized that any generic drugs in a given class of treatment or products should be published so that they could be more easily marketed. Only today Italians are just starting to understand the possibility of saving money on 20 to 30 percent if they brought generic drugs. Italy didnít do any recommendations to the UN that did deal with the generic drugs and the prime minister said that every country has its own policy, if its policy wants generic drugs theyíll accept it if it doesnít it wont.
Issue # 2: The issue of the rights of displaced people
Internally displaced people or "ethnic groups" as they have been called recently are defined as people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of either presumed cultural or biological similarities, or both. One person out of every 115 people alive today is a displaced person or part of an ethnic group. There are displaced people on almost every country in the world, but today most displaced people live in poorer countries of Africa or Asia. There are about 5 million displaced people in all the European Union, the other 20 million estimated for year 2003 are found in Africa. Sometime countries are willing to accept these displaced people in emergencies. These people are forced out of there home, and as a result they are asking for there rights in having a new country for them because they have been exposed to serious human rights abuses. The United Nations is appealing for about seventy million dollar to help thousands of people displaced. The UN mission which has visits the area says the money will be used to help people of both countries rebuild their lives. The UNHCR is a large agency that is part of the Un and it is looking after those people (20 million around the world) and mainly in Africa, saying because people in Africa are exposed to famine and they canít handle the large number of displaced people.
Italy is completely with the issue that deals with giving all those people there rights. "Internally displacement is a one of the great tragedies of our time, with millions of people every year being forced to flee within their own country from war and violence" said the president of Italy. Italy is really concerned about this issue because migrant works in Italy are found in large portion, thus, these migrants are asking for there rights and are saying that they are displaced people. Italy as a result demanded for the protection of the rights of migrant workers and their families, and also for the right to of political refugees or what they called "internally displaced people." The government also resolved that all refugees or displaced people are having the same rights as Italians themselves without discriminations. Italyís recommendation for the UN is letting a big amount of money to help displaced people and also use the money to help people of both countries rebuild their lives.
Issue # 3: The issue of the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction
Weapons of mass destruction are: arms control usage, weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or of being used in such a manner as to destroy large numbers of people. Can be nuclear, chemical biological and radiological weapon excludes the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part of the weapon. One of the most serious security threats facing us today is the spread of weapons of mass destruction by trading them from one country to another. An example on that is the trading of nuclear scientists between North Korea and Pakistan before a couple of years. Countries are working hard to stop the trading of these weapons by ships o underground channels. Some of the countries defend themselves as countries that do own Weapons of mass destruction and donít want to get rid of them, however others condemn them even though they do own some weapons.
Italy is completely against the trade of WMD and so The United States and several of its NATO allies in Europe combined forces recently in the Mediterranean Sea to track and board a ship suspected of carrying weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Italy is one of those countries. Concern is growing in Italy that countries or criminal organizations will pass WMD to terrorists who may use them to attack the Italy, its allies or friendly countries. "Proliferation Security Initiative" (PSI) is an organization that disrupts and deter the trade in WMD by searching ships and planes suspected of carrying nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, or materials that could be used to make them. Because Italy is concerned about this issue it is part of the original members of the organizations. Italy didnít recommend that the Un will do anything that deals with this issue.
Keeping in mind that generic drugs is a copy of a brand name drug whose patent has expired,
Aware of the fact that the original manufacturer of a drug receives a patent on the drug and is the only manufacturer who can produce and sell the drug during this patent period and once the patent expires, other manufacturers may produce and sell the drug,
Bearing in Mind that since generics use the same active ingredients and are shown to work the same way in the body, they have the same risks and benefits as their brand-name counterparts,
Declaring that Generic drugs are less expensive because generic manufacturers donít have the investment costs of the developer of a new drug, and because those manufacturers donít have the same development costs,
Contemplating the fact that FDA requires that all drugs be safe and effective, and also requires generic drugs to have the same quality, strength, purity and stability as brand-name drugs,
Noting with deep regret that 14 million people are dying every year because of lack of drugs or money,
Deeply concerned about poor countries, specially African countries that canít afford expensive drugs and are dying due to lack of money and so they need generic drugs to live,
Keeping in mind that 12 billion dollars have been saved in Europe due to the use of generic drugs for year 2003,
Taking note that there are many manufacturers of generic drugs in the United States, some of these companies make only generic drugs, and some are divisions of major companies which also produce brand name drugs,
1. Affirms that a special organization will be created named (United Nations Generic Drug Organization) UNGDO that will:
A. Consists of all countries that are looking forward in accepting generic drugs or countries that already accepted them and other countries wishing to be part of this organization;
B. Headquarters of UNGDO will be located in Geneva, Switzerland, the organization will have 3 branches in Asia, 5 in Africa, 2 in Europe, and 3 in South and North America;
C. Manager of each branch will be elected by the members;
D. The representative will also be elected to attend meetings in the main headquarters, Geneva;
E. Members of the staff will be elected when the resolution passes;
F. Determine the salaries of the staff;
2. Declares that the UNGDO for a start will be:
A. Visiting countries to give lectures about their projects;
B. Produce monthly flyers from recycled paper that will be given out in bookshops freely to enlighten people about generic drugs benefit;
3. Requests the formation of a main factory that will be part of the UNGDO, the factory will be built in every country that is part of the organization to provide all needed people with generic drugs, the factory will be receiving drugs from the main factory that will be found in one country in each continent: A. Asia: Russia, B. Europe: Switzerland, C. Africa: will be decided when the resolution passes, D. South and North America :United states and Canada;
4. Calls upon every country that wants to buy generic drugs to refer to the main factory in their continent;
5. Further request that any country willing to donate one type of each drug so that the UNGDO will be able to manufacture the same drug, however sell it in a much affordable drug so that poor countries will be able to buy it;
6. Solemnly affirms that if any group of people or a country are caught illegally trading generic drugs then the following punishment will be implemented:
A. If a group of people in a country that doesnít allow generic drugs: they will be imprisoned until they are able to present the amount of money that would be originally paid for brand name drugs and if they are not able to afford it they to work in prison for the rest of their lives,
B. If a country: Requests that the SC Security Council suspends the country from GA general assembly for one year and also pay what would be originally paid for brand name drugs.
Italy is really concerned about the issue of generic drugs because Poor countries need them even though it doesnít. Italy accepts Generic drugs, however, didnít do anything really affective that has to do with generic drugs. President of Italy said that the generic drug issue concerns us, and that we should accept them because they are saving a large amount of money for Europe, especially that they have the same therapeutic value. And Italy believes that it didnít believe about this issue how good it is until it's resolved.
Only today Italians themselves realized the possibility of saving money on 20 to 30 percent if they brought generic drugs.