Event: Pearl-MUN 2004
Students: Shoug Al-Ghunaim
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2003-2004 Team page
Kenya was a constitutional monarchy after independence on the 12th of December 1963 from the UK, now it became a republic. Kenya is a multi-party state. Independent Kenya’s first constitution, adopted in 1963, provided for a semi-federal system with a two-chamber national legislature and regional governments with designated powers. When the constitution was revised in 1964 to provide for a republic with a strong president, most federal features of the government were scrapped. In 1967 the two chambers of the legislature were merged to form the single-chamber National Assembly. The country holds regularly scheduled parliamentary elections, and all citizens age 18 and older are eligible to vote.
Kenya’s Bordering countries are Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Somalia. Kenya’s largest lake, excluding Lake Victoria, is Lake Turkana. Its other lakes are: Lake Baringo, Lake Nakuru, Lake Naivahsa, and Lake Magadi. The country’s major rivers include the Tana and Galana (known as the Athi in its upper course) in the east, and the Kerio, Turkwel, and Nzoia in the west. Kenya has a distinctive topographic profile. The interior is much higher than the rest of the country, and the mountains are roughly in a line running north and south. Its highest mountain, Mount Kenya, is located in approximately the center of the country. The Great Rift Valley runs from north to south through Kenya, separating the Lake Victoria basin to the west from the hills in the east, which slide into the dry grassy lowlands and coastal beaches. Kenya's topography forms complex ecological zones, including one called the highland zone. This is a region of rolling uplands characterized by cool weather, abundant rainfall, rich volcanic soils, and dense human settlement.
Kenya’s main natural resource is its land, of which 8 percent is currently cultivated. Almost all of the agricultural land is located in the south, as the northern two-thirds of the country is mostly desert or semi-desert. Kenya does not have significant mineral deposits. Forests constitute approximately 30 percent of Kenya’s land area. Kenya’s rivers provide hydroelectricity.
Kenya’s population is 31,639,091 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.) Kenya’s ethnic groups are Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%. The religions in Kenya are: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2%. Kenya has many languages but the 2 official languages are English and Kiswahili. Kenya also has many indigenous languages.
Kenya’s import partners are UAE 12%, Saudi Arabia 8.7%, US 8.1%, UK 7.1%, South Africa 7.1%, France 5.8%, China 5.5%, Japan 5%, India 4.8%. Kenya’s export partners are Uganda 18.3%, UK 12.9%, US 8%, Netherlands 7.6%, Pakistan 4.9%, Tanzania 4.4%, Egypt 4.1%. Kenya’s economy was based on farming, herding, hunting, and trade. With the establishment of colonial rule, however, Kenya was brought into the world capitalist economy. Under the British, Kenya developed an economy based on the export of agricultural products. The colonial government encouraged the settlement of European farmers in Kenya to provide a greater supply of exports. Kenya’s revenue budget is $2.91 billion and its expenditure budget is $2.97 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.).
Kenya’s booming economy weakened in the 1980s as a consequence of a rising trade deficit, among other factors. Kenya’s slowing economic growth rate and expanding budget deficits caused the government to turn to structural adjustment policies advocated by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as part of their economic assistance to Kenya. Nevertheless, the Kenyan government has set the ambitious target of achieving the status of industrialized economy by 2020. Kenya’s basic unit of currency is the Kenyan shilling, consisting of 100 cents (78.6 Kenyan shillings equal US$1; 2001 average). Currency is issued by the Central Bank of Kenya, established in Nairobi in 1966. An extensive network of commercial banks, both locally and foreign-owned, serves most of Kenya’s urban areas. The Nairobi Stock Exchange serves the whole country.
In 2001 Kenya’s defense establishment consisted of an army of 20,000 personnel, a navy of 1,400, and an air force of 3,000. Military service is voluntary. Kenya’s military has had relatively little influence on politics. Kenya’s expenditures are $185.2 million. Military man power is between the ages 15-49.
Views on world problems:
Kenya has a friendly relationship with Great Britain because of their long relationship with Britain colonizing Kenya. In addition, Kenya is friends with all Africa 2000 and NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) members.
Kenya is a member of various blocs and groupings. These blocs and grouping include: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM,OPCW, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO. Kenya is also a respected and valued member of the United Nations (UN), and was honored with a membership of the Security Council in 1998. Kenya is also a valued member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and of the Eastern African Co-operation (EAC).
The Kenyan coast developed differently from the interior due to its exposure to the Indian Ocean sphere of exploration and trade. Over the course of the first millennium, a separate Bantu language and culture, which came to be known as Swahili, developed along the East African coast. This development was strongly influenced by contact with Arabs from the Persian Gulf, who traded, settled, and intermarried with the coastal Africans. By the 9th century the Swahili-speaking people had established a number of towns between present-day Somalia and Mozambique, including Mombasa, Lamu, and Pate in what is now Kenya. At the end of the 16th century, however, the Portuguese constructed Fort Jesus, a massive fortress at Mombasa, in order to exercise greater control ashore. Portuguese dominance did not last long, as the Portuguese faced competition from the Arab dynastic state in Oman, which also sought to control much of the East African coast. The Swahili states, together with the Omani Arabs, succeeded in driving the Portuguese from Kenya’s coast by the end of the 17th century.
The Swahili states resisted Omani attempts to control the coast, but by the 1840s the Omanis had established dominance. Commerce expanded as trade in African slaves boomed. Omani rule over the area brought further Arabic influence to Swahili language and culture. In 1886 and 1890 Britain reached agreements with Germany that delineated a boundary between British territory in Kenya and German territory in Tanganyika (part of present-day Tanzania) to the south. In 1895 the British government formally took over the territory, which was renamed the East Africa Protectorate. Its western neighbor was Britain’s Uganda Protectorate, and the border between the two lay just west of the site that would become, in the late 1890s, the new city of Nairobi. Northern Kenya, then inhabited largely by nomadic peoples, did not come under British authority until well after World War I (1914-1918). In their colonial conquest, the British followed a policy of divide and conquer, allying with some African groups against others. The Masai, who had suffered a series of 19th-century civil wars over water and grazing rights and had lost much of their livestock to disease and drought, were one group with whom the British allied in order to impose their rule. The ethnic groups were assigned to live in separate areas of the colony. Within each subgroup, colonial administrators designated one "chief," who became responsible for collecting taxes levied by the colonial state.
After World War II (1939-1945), opposition increasingly took the form of nationalism, with African activists demanding self-government and independence. A colony-wide political party, the Kenya African Union (KAU), was formed in 1944 to advocate this goal. Kenyatta became the leader of the party in 1947. KAU made little headway with its demands, however, as European settlers still enjoyed far greater influence than Africans within the colonial government. As an independent country, Kenya was initially a constitutional monarchy, with the British monarch as its nominal head of state and a prime minister as head of government. In December 1964, however, Kenya became a republic with a president as both head of state and head of government. Kenyatta was chosen as the country’s first president. Kenyatta’s capitalist economic policies and pro-Western orientation provoked division within KANU. Kenya’s vice president, an ethnic Luo named Oginga Odinga, resigned from the government in 1966 and formed the Kenya People’s Union (KPU), which drew a great deal of Luo support away from KANU and presented the Kenyatta government with a challenge. the president resisted attempts by Kikuyu to remove his vice president, an ethnic Kalenjin named Daniel arap Moi, from the position of successor.
Kenyatta died in 1978, and Moi assumed the presidency of Kenya. He took the Swahili word nyayo (meaning "footsteps") as his leadership motto to assure Kenyans that he was following the legacy of Kenyatta. in the early 1990s violent ethnic clashes rocked Kenya’s Rift Valley Province, as Kalenjin people attacked Kikuyu living in traditionally Kalenjin areas. Moi finally bowed to domestic and international pressures in December 1991 and agreed to legalize other political parties. Multiparty legislative and presidential elections were held in December 1992, but the opposition to KANU split along ethnic lines; Moi was reelected in the presidential race, and KANU won the majority of seats in the assembly.
Issue # 1: Human rights and political of displaced people:
Being displaced is to be shifted from the usual place or position, especially to force to leave a home land. Today, most of the UN agencies administering programs to displaced people are going and living on difficult, and often unknown ground. The needs of internally displaced people cover a wide range from the immediate requirements of food, shelter and protection from violence, to longer-term considerations that can resolve underlying tensions and restore them to their homes and livelihoods. Kenya suffers this problem. Kenya has started many programs to deal with this issue, but unfortunately no progress. In 1993, Human Rights Watch/Africa estimated that 1,500 people had died in the clashes, and that some 300,000 were internally displaced. Of those displaced, an estimated 75 per cent were children. The UN have made many organizations to help countries like poor Kenya, organizations like the HIC-HLRN and OMCT to help stop this occurring problem.
From Kenya’s point of view, the Kenyans are suffering from being displaced, they need a stronger program and more countries to participate and join together to make a stronger, useful program to stop the displacement of people. People all around the world suffer from being displaced, so countries can join together to stop displacement once and for all.
Issue # 2: Trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction:
Nuclear weapons are deadly weapons that include the energy from the atomic nuclei. Any kind of deadly weapons that are being used cause mass destruction. A lot of countries have been accused of trading nuclear weapons and that has lead to issues between them and problems. The UN have tried to stop this issue because it is making problems between countries, they have made organizations.
Kenya is against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction whether its nuclear or biological or even chemical. Kenya doesn’t own any facility to produce these weapons nor do they think it might happen in the future. Kenya is a poor country therefore they cannot afford spending money on weapons of mass destruction. Kenya is a peaceful country and doesn’t need to develop any of such weapons. Kenya rather uses their money for medicine and education and improve the social life than to use it on mass destruction.
Issue # 3: Rights and availability of generic drugs:
Generic drugs are a cheap alternative to drugs made by the international pharmaceutical company’s. Generic drugs are made from the same ingredient but are sold at a lower cost to the consumer. Generic drugs will be available to the poor people of Kenya. The treatment for diseases in Kenya is highly expensive, that’s why generic drugs are available for Kenya. The UN have created organizations to increase generic drugs and help countries in need of them, Most of those countries are African countries since HIV/AIDS have amplified throughout the years. Brand-name drug companies are opposing generic drugs because since generic drugs are cheaper they are losing money and customers to the generic drug companies.
Kenya wants the use of generic drugs because it deeply needs the generic drugs since they cannot afford buying the expensive ones. Spreading diseases such as HIV and AIDS need the generic drugs; The issue is not simply one of availability, but availability at the right price. The vast majority of Kenyans cannot afford the current market price of at least US $75 per month, while cheaper generics - available at half the price - are hardly available at all. One could be forgiven for wondering why a tiny minority of HIV-positive Kenyans have access to anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) to keep themselves alive, or to be precise, 6,000 of an estimated two million who need the same drugs.
Delegate: Shoug Al-Ghunaim Country: Kenya Issue: rights and availability of generic drugs
Defining generic drugs as cheaper brand name drugs,
Draws Attention that because many people and countries need these generic drugs they are either sold out or not being delivered on time,
Deeply concerned that HIV/AIDS is affecting the countries all around the world,
Taking into consideration that 6,000 of an estimated 2 million need the same drug,
Noted that the vast majority of Kenyans cannot afford the current market price of at least US $75 per month, while cheaper generics - available at half the price - are hardly available at all because of the many people and countries who need generic drugs,
Noted that according to the Pharmacy and Poison’s Board that "Kenyans are still waiting for those drugs for bureaucratic reasons, the registrations that go back as far as 1999 are not handled with the urgency that the situation requires,"
Supports all communities and groups helping the people with HIV/AIDS or helping to prevent it,
1. Declares the creation of a new sub-organization under the WHO, UNHSA (United Nation Health Support Aid);
2. Resolves that the UNHSA will: A. Have its headquarters will be in Geneva, B. Meet every 6 months to be updated, C. Have emergency meetings when called forth by the President of the Committee, D. The seat as this committee’s president will be given in rotation, E. Comprise of member chosen by the United Nations Secretary General that will base his choice upon: 1. How much the country will contribute to the committee, 2. The countries involvement in this issue;
3. Reminds that any country who wishes to join the UNHSA must: A. Establish a health organization/group from its own country and a representative, B. All member countries and their respective groups in every region will join in accordance to their geographical location to form a large support group;
4. Also reminds that those countries will be already provided with doctors that are along the border to find cures and be there to help out and the World bank and the International Monetary Fund will also be included to provide financial aid, in accordance with their responsiveness to the committee and how well they cooperate.;
5. Further resolves that any health organization in the country that is joined UNHSA will have one representative and they will meet when the UNHSA meets and discuss what they can offer for their country and others;
6. Confirms that there will be enough doctors and medical aid from each country to help out in treating and healing countries in need of health support;
7. Notes that each country will begin with 3 years in their country and then will be assigned to other countries;
8. Notes that any country that cannot afford generic drugs or health support will be supported by the UNHSA;
9. Further notes that countries will rotate their shifts every 2 years to experiment curing/treating countries in different ways;
10. Encourages other countries to participate to help their countries and other countries;
11. Confirms that any country cooperating with the UNHSA will be awarded (awards will be decided by the UN and the UNHSA chair members);
12. Emphasizes that members in the UNHSA that do not cooperate and the UNHSA sees that they are not doing anything or not helping will be thrown out and another organization will be put instead and the member countries that do not cooperating will be fined;
Kenya is a peaceful well respected country in Africa. Kenya is always wanting the best for its country’s people. Kenya also believes that everyone has their own rights and everyone believes in the love-relationship between the country and it’s people. As the country takes care of its people, the people will take great care of its country, respecting it, liking it, and even loving it more than even possible.
Kenya, the land of the strong-minded and loved wild-life is always there for you and loves helping out other countries since they are the source of peace and love spreading the world.
Sadly enough, a large amount of people in Kenya suffer from HIV/ AIDS and it is even more sad that they are dying, let us spread peace all around the world and help out Kenya’s people and other countries who are in need of generic drugs.