The country has suffered from war for a long time, the war ended in 1997 after seven years of war, when free and open presidential and legislative elections were held. President Charles Taylor holds a strong power, without any real political resistance. However, the UN has ordered the president to leave Liberia while the UN takes care of disarming the citizens and other war cases. In addition, the UN has forced sanctions on the Liberia's government, which was criticized by the president. Liberia's government is a republic, The Republic of Liberia. Monrovia is the capital of Liberia. After 7 years of bloody civil war, Liberia is unstable in every way, including the political side of the country. Security levels are still low; especially that security is the most important factor of stability. The country is trying to develop its social and economical factors. Generally, the war-torn Liberia not stable.
Liberia is located in Western Africa, 6 30 N, 9 30 W. Liberia borders the North Atlantic Ocean on 579 km, in addition it borders Cote d'Ivoire on 716 km, and Guinea on 563 km, and Sierra Leone on 306 km. Liberia has a total area of 111,370 sq km, 15,050 sq km of the total area is water, and the rest 96,320 sq km are land. The highest point in Liberia is 1,380 m above sea level, while the lowest point is a 0. The climate in Liberia is tropical, hot and humid almost all year round. Then the weather changes at night to be cool. There are lots of wet days with clouds and frequent showers. There are some dust-laden winds, which come from the Sahara desert, especially during December to March. Some environmental issues are deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution.
Liberia is a country rich in national resources, mostly important that it is among the best producers of iron ore. Liberia was producing it since 1951. Liberia is one of the major iron ore producers of the world. Other than the iron ore, there are some other sources such as diamonds, gold, lead, manganese, graphite, cyanite (a type of aluminum), and barite. These sources play a minor role in the economy of Liberia, in which these are not available in big numbers. Then comes agricultural resources, because Liberia is on an area that supports agricultural activities. The agricultural resources are rubber, coffee, rice, cassava, palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, timber. Then animal which are goats and sheep. Sheep and goats are available is large numbers in Liberia.
The population of Liberia is 3,317,176. In 2003, the growth rate is 1.67%, which is considered one of the highest in the world. The people of Liberia are classified into three major groups: Indigenous people, black immigrants from the United States, West Indies. Indigenous people are the majority, 95%, and they migrated from western Sudan in the middle ages. The black immigrants are from the United States, as they are called the Americo-Liberians, 2.5% of the population. West Indies come from neighboring Africa states, 2.5% of the population. These are the groups that make up the Liberian population. 43% of all Africans are between 0-14 years old. 53% of the Liberians are between the age of 15-64 years. Lastly, 3.6% of the population are 65 and above. This shows that Liberia currently is in its best stage, that almost more than half the population is in the working age, this can advance Liberia. 70% of the Liberian workers work on agriculture, 8% industry, 22% services. Other than working force, 66% of all Liberians are Christian, 15% are Muslims. The rest 19% are in religions.
Liberia has been suffering from war for a long time. Liberia's army contains air force, navy and army. There are 735,481 people available to the army, a little bit less that one quarter of the population, however only 396,725, which is still a lot. It's obvious that a lot of the population is in war, because almost one forth of the population is in the army. This is because the country is in war, that’s why a huge number of military is required. The government spends 1.3% of the G.P.D on military supplies and training; this is equivalent to $7.8 million.
The civil war that broke out destroyed most of Liberia's economy, however, the economy in being built again. In 2002, the G.P.D. of Liberia is $3.116 billion, and it is growing by 2%. 74% of the G.P.D is coming from agriculture, and 19% comes from services, and the last 7% is from industry. This shows that Liberia is not and industrial country, it depends most on agriculture. Not only that, but also the strongest working force is in agriculture.
The 7% of the G.P.D. comes from industry is from rubber processing, palm oil processing, timber, diamonds. The exports of Liberia are $110 million, and the export supplies are rubber, timber, iron, diamonds, cocoa, coffee. Liberia's export partners are Germany with 54.8%, Poland with 8.9%, France 8.5%, China 4.9%, Italy 4.5%, US 4.2%. When the imports are $165 million. The supplies they import from other countries are fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods; foodstuffs. All these supplies are imported from South Korea with 30.3% of the supplies, Japan with 19.1%, Germany 15.6%, France 9.1%, and Singapore 7.9%. This show that the economy of Liberia is not for its side, because the imports are more than the exports. The currency of Liberia is the Liberian Dollar, LRD. 48.58 LRD make 1 $US.
Views on world problems:-
About the outer world, Liberia is more concerned about itself rather than the problems worldwide. War is in Liberia for seven years, the country was devastated. Other than this, Liberia does support world peace, and is against the war. However, war may sometimes be the only solution, like the situation on Iraq where there may be a threat to the whole world with extremely dangerous weapons. Such situations must be taken with serious action. Other than Iraq, North Korea must give up nuclear program to obtain the world peace, not only North Korea, but also Iran. In these situations, nuclear investigators must be allowed to check for any dangerous weapons that may be nuclear. Just like what Liberia is doing now, by disarming civilians and groups. This will support the world peace. Also, illegal diamonds creates a threat, diamonds are sold, the money gained will allow military groups to buy the weapons. This is a huge disturbance for world peace. Liberia urges all nations and groups to stop buying the illegal diamonds, and do not sell weapons for those groups.
Civil war in Liberia –between the Krahn and the Gio and Mano peoples—erupted in 1990, when the president time of ruling has ended. A International West African force, the ECOWAS Monitoring Group, tried to regain order in the area , but the leaders of two rebel groups, Charles Taylor and Prince Johnson, challenged for power after the president's downfall and execution. The war dragged on for seven years as new groups arose and neighboring countries became stuck in the conflict. The effect on the civilian population and the economy was destructive.
After a series of unsuccessful attempts, a peace treaty was achieved in 1996. In the elections that too place the following year, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia Party, led by Charles Taylor, achieved a clear majority. As Liberia's 21st president, Taylor faced the frightening duty of rebuilding and reuniting the nation and restoring its authority in the area. The Liberian government was approved by the world community and the UN at the end of year 1996. The relationship of Liberia and other neighboring countries was getting better, with countries like Guinea.
Issue # 1: The Issue of the rights and availability of generic drugs.
Generic drugs are drugs that are sold less expensive; however, those medicines have the same medical value of the original drugs. Generic drugs are protected by the original medicine of the assurance of the patient. Some medicine companies spend huge amounts of money on creata new medicine, on research, labs, trails and other needs for creating these medicines. At the end, the medicine created will not need more than, lets say, $3, because it just doesn't have any material that costs money. However, these companies will add a fee on the medicine to change it to, for example, from $3 to $30, to recover for the funds of the research and labs. This addition to the medicine's cost can cost a human life. Then another lab, breaks down the medicine and find out the ingredients and the way to create it. Then they will create the same medicine, however, the same medicine will be sold for the original $3. Those new created drug is a generic drug.
Liberia is not saying that it is not against this, however, this should be controlled to follow the rules and guidelines. If high priced drugs were changed and created a generic drugs, then the drug company will lose all its money. However, those high priced drugs are to high to be affordable by the African, poor citizens. How do those companies expect a worker who gains $15 per month to buy this $30 medicine, or sometimes it might cost more than that. This cost added to the original price cannot be compared to lots of human lives. What Liberia suggests is that those generic drugs are created within the country with the rights from the creator, and are not allowed out of the country. This will supply all the citizens with the needed medication. Not only that, but also before the drug is sold, the identity of the costumer must be known and that he belongs to the country, to avoid selling to foreigners. This will solve the problems and allow citizens to get the appropriate medication, and the companies.
Issue # 2: The Issue of the rights of displaced people
Displaced people are people that were forced to leave out of their country due to a political or natural struggle. These people who left their countries, have been suffering of the lose of their rights. Those displaced people will refer back to other towns. For example, many Liberians have left their towns in the time of the civil war in Liberia, 1990 to 1996. These Liberians went to other regions of the country, there, they were living in camps and other group living areas. These people are living within the country, so no organization is currently taking care of them in their areas. There are some organizations that take care of refugees, like the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), but these organizations can't get in the country to help these refugees, if they do, then they are violating the national sovereignty of the country. This is the problem here.
Liberia is serious about this problem; especially that Liberia itself has its own refugees. Liberia suggests that the current refugee organizations can take care of the refugees, and without violating the national sovereignty of the any country. The refugee organization can send the aid needed for the refugees, and then the country will deliver it to the refugees. This way, the refugees are getting what they need, and the organization is not violating the nation sovereignty. Other than this, the organization can send the funds to raise the camp for the refugees to the government, which will then be responsible for carrying out the building and supplying the refugees with the needed life supplies. This maybe the right way to solve the problem of the refugees without violating the national sovereignty.
Issue # 3: The issue of the trade of nuclear and other Weapons of Mass Destruction
The nuclear weapons are just like a knife held in the world community's neck. These nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction cause a great threat to the entire world, from the youngest baby to the oldest adult, without any exceptions. There are lots of the world countries that possess nuclear and other types of weapons. This threatens the world and community peace, the thing that all countries hate. This is a serious problem, the more the number of the countries that possess the nuclear weapons, the more there is threat of peace. Especially that peace is the hope of every single nation, by possessing those extremely dangerous weapons; the hope of peace is getting further. Some countries really don't want to quit this peace dream easily, like the United States of America, which is working so hardly to disarm those nuclear countries from those weapons. Just like the situation in Iraq, the US solders have been sent to disarm a big country that is suspicious of possessing nuclear and biological weapons. Liberia, for example, has disarmed all its child solders and citizens, just to obtain the peace and calmness in the area.
The nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction are want to possess those types of weapons, because when they possess these weapons the country the country will be stronger from the military side. Many countries claim to use these weapons as self-defense, however this self-defense is a threat to the world. Thus, what Liberia suggests is that the UN will be given the right to disarm any country that is trying to or already possess those weapons. This is a way to keep the world from having these deadly weapons. No one has the right to own those weapons except the 5 permanent members of the Security Council. Other countries should not have these weapons. The UN will send inspector to all suspicious countries. This will keep the countries who might misuse these weapons out of reach of those weapons. This the way to solve the problem as Liberia sees it.
Question: - The Issue of the rights and availability of generic drugs. Submitted by: - Liberia Student: Abdullah Al-Ibrahim
Defining generic drugs as drugs that are created to substitute brand-name products,
Noting that generic drugs are sold way less in cost than other brand-name products, as stated in a commercial of a generic drugs "It can save you hundreds of dollars,"
Having studied that doctors believe that generic drugs are just as reliable ad affective as its brand-name counterparts,
Declaring that not all brand-name products have equivalent generic drugs,
Affirming that many brand-name products are protected by patents and are only allowed to be supplied by the brand manufacturer, however when the patents expire, other manufacturers produce a generic version,
Taking into consideration that half of the drugs in markets are available in generic form, as stated in an article "About Generic Drugs" in www.canadianmedsonline.com
Deeply concerned that many nations and their civilians cannot afford buying brand-name drug, and the live of a human cannot be compared to money added to the cost of a drug,
Emphasizing that countries and the United Nations will cooperate to supply affordable drugs to nations in need of drugs,
1. Resolves the creation of a sub organization of the WHO (World Health Organization) which will be responsible for the issue of the generic drugs as explained further on this resolution, this organization will be called OGD, (Organization of Generic Drugs);
2. Further resolves that the OGD will have its headquarters near the WHO headquarters, A. This will make it easier for the WHO to choose 15 members for the organization, 1. 5 members will be professional doctors, 2. 5 experienced lawyers who understand law and laws of patents, 3. 5 financially educated and experienced people who are able to negotiate with the given sides, B. the WHO will select those members based on a guideline that will be create by the WHO to be suitable;
3. Requests that the OGD will create a lab neighbouring the headquarters which will be holding the latest medical technology supplied from the WHO, the lab will have medical workers employed by the WHO to be able to test and create medicines;
4. Trusts that all countries suffering from the spread of dangerous diseases, or knows that citizens of the country are unable to afford the cost of the drugs available, to report to the OGD so that the OGD will take serious action towards the situation,
5. Affirms that the OGD members of the OGD will classify the nations reporting according to the difficulty of the issue using the following guidelines: A. The amount ocases of diseases and the death of citizens, B. The income per person and calculate weather the citizens are capable of affording the brand-name drugs, C. Create a branch of the OGD in each of high classified, that will have OGD representatives;
6. Confirms that the OGD will contact and negotiate with the brand-name producer of the drug of the most spread cases in reporting counties, as the members of the OGD will: A. Offer an amount of money to the brand-name drugs to be able to produce the generic version of the drug in the laboratories of the OGD, B. Financial negotiators will negotiate with the companies the amount of money given to the companies and make sure that it is reasonable, C. The lawyers of the OGD will follow the steps of the exchange and make sure that no rules are broken, and the patents are still not violated, D. These steps will be followed, so that only the OGD has the right to create a generic version of the brand-name drug;
7. Draws attention that no other group, company or organization has the right to create a generic drug except the OGD;
8. Invites the OGD take action towards the countries that are classified as a serious situation first, because the higher situation has a higher priority of being solved first;
9. Recommends that if any brand-name company does not allow the OGD to share the drug created or wants to get more money on the drug, the OGD will not share the drugs with this brand company, and the OGD will carry further researches on medicines for the disease;
10. Urges that all countries weather suffering from insufficient medicines or have a large number of citizens that have financial problems and cant afford buying brand-name drugs, to report to the OGD organization;
11. Further requests that the OGD will supply these medicines through shipping, or air transport, to make fast transport time, the medicines will be sent to the branch created in the country, then this branch will sell a quantity within the branch itself, and sell some to pharmacies (if available), the generic version will be sold in a cost determined by the OGD, which will certainly be much cheaper than the brand-name product,
12. Further recommends that the OGD will have some mobile pharmacy that will be moving around to be able to reach citizens that can't reach the branch, if the country is large in area, and there are citizens that need the drugs,
13. Further invites all nations to vote for and support this resolution.
Hello ladies and gentlemen,
As we all gather here, rich and poor, in peace and war, we are all trying to solve problems all over the world, just to make it a better place to live in. We are all concerned about all the peoples that die from war, crimes and diseases. Well, as you all know, millions and millions of people die yearly from diseases is it because there is no cure, No! It is because they can't afford buying the medicines to cure the disease. These poor people should get those diseases, we can’t compare money to a precious human live. Yes, support Liberia to help these hopeless people.