Country: The Kingdom of Norway
Event: Pearl-MUN 2004
Student: Ahmad Al-Qamlas
Norway or also known as The Kingdom of Norway, the local name of Norway is Kongeriket Norge; it is a constitutional monarchy country. A country with a constitutional monarchy is a country in which powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation. The government structure of Norway is broken down into a King, Queen, Crown Prince of Norway, and the Crown Princess of Norway. The King of Norway is HM King Herald V, the queen of Norway is HM Queen Sonja, the crown prince of Norway is HM Prince Haakon, and the crown princess of Norway is HM Princess Mette-Marit.
There are a number of parties in Norway. Starting of which the Center Party that is managed by Aslaug Marie Haga, including the Christian's People Party and this party is directed by Valgerd Svarstad Haugland, and the Coastal Party managed by Steinar Bastesen, also many more parties like the Conservative Party, the Labor Party, the Liberal Party, the Progress Party, and the Socialist Left Party.
In Norway around the 1848 many issues between the workers in the factories emerged, because of some political movements done by the government. Thus the Liberal Party which was the first party to form. It was formed in 1884. Since the Medieval times Norway was a Kingdom. There aren't any serious internal political conflicts that may lead to a revolution or that may threaten the safety of the country and the people living in the country.
Norway is a mountainous country. About half of the land area comprises eroded bedrock remains of mountain ranges. Landscape variation contrasts between ancient, pre-Ice Age, horizontal, land formations, and steep perpendicular elements created by glacial activity. Norway's total area including the islands belonging to it is 385 155 km2 (around 150,000 sq. mi). The mainland of Norway is 323 758 km2. The areas of the islands (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) is 61 397 km2, the water area in Norway is 16,360 sq km, one of the longest coast lines are found in Norway with a measurement of 21,925 km, which includes the mainland coastline and the coastline of the two large islands, and many other small islands used as airports. Norway is bordering the North Sea and the North part of the Atlantic Ocean; Norway also borders Finland that are 729 km long, Sweden which are 1,619 km long, and lastly Russia with 167 km long borders. Norway's climate is rainy around the year around the west coast areas, and a more cold and cool summers. The highest point in Norway is in Galdhopiggen 2,469 m, and the lowest point is the Sea with 0 meters. Norway is mostly glaciated at high points and areas. Many mountains are found around Norway, including many fertile valleys used in planting. Many scattered plains are found all around Norway.
2.94% of the land in Norway is arable land, or otherwise land that is fit for cultivation, 0% is used for permanent crops, and 98.06% is land used for other activities. Two many natural hazards that pose as a threatening natural hazard, avalanches because of the many mountains found, and rockslides also because of the many mountains found. Norway's topography is a mountain plateau intersected with deep valleys and fjords. Only 4% of the country is cultivated land. About 0.5% of the country's area is towns and built-up areas, populated by 70% of Norway's inhabitants. Inland, the weather is more stable than on the coast with more continental conditions. The geographic coordinates are 62 00 N, 10 00 E. The country's longest river is Glåma in the south-east. Approximately one fourth of the country is forested. Norway is located near the Norwegian Sea; it has a number of lakes but most importantly the Mjøsa Lake, 362 sq. km, which is the largest lake in Norway.
Norway's natural resources where the important factor that helped Norway grow to what it is today. The most important natural resource to Norway was the petroleum and natural gas. The 2 natural resources where extracted and found near the northern sea region. Petroleum and Natural gas were not the only natural resources found. Fair amounts of copper, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, hydropower where found in many scattered places around Norway. Mostly in regions where mountain where found in large numbers.
In the eastern part of Norway most of the grains and the vegetables were planted. The most successful vegetables to be planted were potatoes, barley, oats, and wheat. These were planted in the Northern part of Norway because of the mountainous terrain and poor soils. Although Norway is self sufficient with many of the necessary material, it also needs to import some vegetables, fruits, and some grains. Because of the mountains and the bad soil, the agriculture income is only 5% of the annual GDP
The eastern part of west and northern part of Norway specializes in livestock and dairy farming. Although the forestry industry counts for a small percentage of the annual GDP, many trees are cut down around the South and the West of the country were most of the productive forest are found (around 60 to 50 percent of the forests are found there). Since the 1970's the Fishing Industry has contributed nearly 7% of the total export revenue. Fish farming has been developed by the government on a large scale especially salmon. Norway is one of the leading countries in the Fishing Industry; it catches yearly about 2% of the total fish being caught. The fleet of Norway has reached to Canada and is expand rapidly to new area around the world.
The kind of the is yearly caught by the Norwegian Fleet contain capelin, herring, mackerel, cod, sandeel, saithe, salmon, and prawns. In the 1970 the catching of whales was allowed in Norway, in the 1980's it was banned by the government, but in the 1990's it was allowed by the government to hunt whales, but not any kind only mink whales. Through the 1970 to 1974 the Oil Industry blossomed into a highly revenue industry, around 830 million barrels were exported in the beginning of the 1990s.
There are two major ethnic groups found in Norway the Norwegian and the Samis. Over the recent years the number of immigrants coming to live in Norway has increased rapidly, many people come to Norway seeking work, more than 300,000 thousand people has immigrated to Norway.
Norway is a country that is religion free, which means that it does not obligate a person to practice a specific type of religion. There are a number of religions in Norway. The most religion practiced by Norwegians is the Evangelical Lutheran with 86% of the population practicing it. 2nd is the Protestant and Roman Catholic with only three percent practicing it, most of the people that practice the Protestant and Roman Catholic are all concentrated in a specific area. After the Protestant and Roman Catholic is 1% of the countries people which practice a different religion, and 10% of the population don’t practice any religion.
Internal conflicts do not pose a threat to Norway, although Norway had it's share of internal conflicts in the past, bas as the years passed internal conflicts decreased greatly, these day there isn’t any internal conflicts with in Norway..
The economy of Norway was one of the most growing economies in the last 30 years. One of the reasons the lead to the growing of the economy in Norway was the free marketing rule that was affirmed by the government to help the growing and the rising of the economy. The government controls main areas where petroleum is highly found in large amount. Including the wide selection of natural resources found within the land of Norway. In the end of the 1990's the petroleum and the gas counted to be as much as 35 % of the total exports. Norway was counted as the third highest exporter of petroleum, after Saudi Arabia and Russia. Norway secured 43$ billion for the future generation, after the petroleum finishes. The purchasing power of Norway was 149.1 $ billion dollars for the year 2002. The agricultural sector had a GDP of 1.9% of the total revenue for Norway, while the industry sector was 30.8% and the highest sector was the services sector which was 67.3%. 2.4 million dollars was the yearly expenses for labor workers.
The budget of the Norwegian Government is $164.7 billion. The main exports the are being sent from Norway are petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing. Daily 3.408 million barrels are being produced by the Norwegian Government; 3.466 million barrels are being exported daily from Norway. 88,870 oil barrels are imported from countries of the EU. 54.6 billion cu m is the daily production of natural gas. 50.5 billion cu is the daily natural gas exports. The agricultural products are barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish. 68.2$ billion are being spent on importing agricultural goods.
Most of the exporting partners for Norway are from the EU (European Union) like UK 18.1%, Germany 13.8%, France 11%, US 9.2%, Netherlands 8.2%, Sweden 8%. Norway also imports goods like machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs. As most of the Importing partners for Norway are from the EU so is the Exporting partners Sweden 17.7%, Germany 13.4%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 7.7%, US 5.7%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.2%, Italy 4%. 1.4$ billion are spent yearly on economic aid, sent by Norway to other countries. The Monetary System used in Norway is the Norwegian kroner. 1 Norwegian kroner is equal to 7.98 American Dollars. Its large shipping fleet is one of the most modern among maritime nations. Metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are the most significant traditional industries. Because of Norway’s great economy, Norway is under no external debt. The high price of oil in mid 1980 led to a high reduction in the taxes, and also a high increasing in workers wage and daily spending money.
In the economic field, Norway's links with Europe are influenced by its accession to the EEA Agreement. The purpose of this agreement is to ensure that Norwegian companies have the same operating parameters as companies inside the EU, and to lay the foundations for close cooperation in areas such as environmental protection, research and education.
The Norwegian Royal army includes many branches under it which is the Norwegian army and the Royal Norwegian Navy which includes under it the Coast Artillery and Coast Guard, and lastly the Royal Norwegian Air Force, and the Home Guard the at which a person can join the army is 20 years old. The males between the ages of 15 to 49 that are ready for the defense of Norway are 1,099,314, and the males that are useful and fit are 910,628. 3.113$ billion is the expenditure for the defense paid by Norway yearly. 2.13% of the GDP is spent on the Defense of Norway. The minister of defense of Norway is Kristin Krohn Devold. The Norwegian forces played an important in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) where it is going back to continue its mission in Kabul.
It is the intention of the Government that Norway’s military participation in operations abroad in 2004 should be maintained at a high level. In the Defense Budget for 2004, endorsed on 4 December, funds amounting to NOK 700 million have been allocated for this purpose.
The Government aims to maintain engagement in the three principal operational areas of Afghanistan, Kosovo and Iraq with relevant and highly regarded force contributions. In addition Norway will take part in UN-led operations and certain other selected operations.
The Norwegian Defense Ministry aim is to have Armed Forces of high quality, capable of rapid reaction and both relevant and effective in the context of the new spectrum of threats and missions both at home and abroad. The Armed Forces’ contribute to international crisis management and stabilization.
One of the main objectives behind the establishment of the Army, Navy and Air Force High Readiness Forces is to provide a rapid response capability which can be used to ensure more effective defense at home. The greater part of Norway’s armed forces, which now consist of just such High Readiness Force elements, will at any given time be based at home, ready to respond rapidly to any threats, crises or other situations in which support to the civil community is needed.
In the area of foreign and defense policy, Norway and the EU have many common interests and developments in the EU are therefore extremely important for Norway.
Views on world problems:
Norway is one of the countries the contribute greatly to problems that occur around the world either by sending aid, or giving at loans at low interest rates, or by sending military forces to help secures safety and serenity in the country or region. Norway has contributed greatly in helped the refuges and sending aid to Africa. Norway strictly prohibits and acts the would hurt or harm humanity.
Norway is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and participates actively in regional organizations such as the Barents Council, where matters relating to the environment, development and nuclear security in the northern regions are priority issues.
Norway also plays an active role in international peace and reconciliation efforts. The key areas here are the Middle East and Central America, where Norway has contributed towards agreements between the Israelis and the Palestinians and, in Guatemala, between the guerrillas and the government.
Norway has played an important role in international environmental policy, both at official level and through environmental organizations, and also through its former Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland and her role as Chairman of the UN-appointed Brundtland Commission on the Environment and Sustainable Development. Today, Norway contributes one per cent of GNP for development aid, and works in close cooperation with non-governmental organizations, which play an important role in aid policy.
Since Norway is one of the few neutral countries around the world has not many enemies. Norway believes that there is no solution with wars, wars only lead to death and disasters.
Around 14000 years ago, hunting people inhabited Norway, they had Paleolithic Cultures, which were derived from western and central Europe. Farmers from Denmark and Sweden also settled in Norway, the settlers spoke the German language that was used in Germany back then. Their houses were located near big lakes, or near the near the sea shore. Natural boundaries which were the mountains where used to divide between the settled areas. Around the 8th century Ad nearly 30 kingdoms were formed in Norway that time.
In 1837 the Norwegian Royal Family was ended when the last living hair for the thrown died. When the Norwegian Royal Family died Norway was united with Denmark. Norway became part of the Danish Kingdom in 1586, in 1814 as a result of Napoleon Wars Norway separated fro the Danish Kingdom and united with Sweden. When Sweden recognized Norway's independence in 1905 Norway was independent.
The throne was offered in 1905 to Prince Carl. A monarchy kingdom formed aster accepting the throne. He was renamed Haakon VII. He died in 1957, his son took over the throne after him, his is Olav V, which died in January 1991. The son of Olav V took over the throne after him. He was called king Harold V, in world war one Norway was not eager to participate in the war. As a result of that in world war two Norway was invaded by Germany, around 400000 German Soldiers were stationed in Norway, as a result Norway changed from a neutral country to a collective security country.
In 1949 Norway was a member the UN, and a signer of the Northern Atlantic Treaty. Trygee Lie was the first General Secretary, and Lie was from Norway. Elections were made to agree on Norway entering the EU on 1972 and 1994, both failed and Norway didn’t enter the EU.
Issue # 1: The question of the rights and availability of generic drugs.
Generic drugs that often do not have a brand name. Generic drugs are also often cheep drugs. Generic drugs are often needed by poor countries in Africa. But the companies producing them copy righted these generic drugs making it impossible for these poor countries to produce, and they have made them too expensive for these countries to buy.
Norway stands against making these countries hopeless and not being able to have cheep useful medicine to cure the sick children, and the helpless old people.
On April 8-11, 2001, in Hosbjor, Norway, the WTO and WHO sponsored a meeting called the Workshop on Differential Pricing and Financing of Essential Drugs. This meeting included about 80 experts from both developed and developing nations, focusing not only on the pricing of both patented and generic drugs, but also on getting the drugs to countries in need.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) has settled an agreement after two hard years of work to property protection and public health, agreeing to allow the export of generic drugs. This also allowed countries to produce generic drugs only for public use and not for commercial use, this also allowed countries to produce these drugs for countries that can't produce these drugs, but not to sell them to other countries, there was one rule which was to send records of each country that exports and imports these drugs to the WTO which will manage control over these countries.
Issue # 2: The question of measures of stop the trade of nuclear and other weapons mass destruction.
Defining nuclear weapons as weapons that cause great harm among humanity and its effects lasts centuries and generation to come. Defining weapons of mass destruction as weapons that cause great destruction to a region or a place and its effects may last for generation (same as the nuclear weapons).
Norway condemns any kind of weapons that cause any type of harm to humanity, for these weapons don’t only cause harm to humanity it effects the environment and the animal kingdom greatly, these weapon that are so called used for defense reasons can lead to the death of million of people in matters of seconds. Norway stands against any un useful use of nuclear power. Norway doesn’t condemn the use of nuclear and weapons of mass destruction only, but it also condemns the action of trading these weapons, as well as producing them.
When a country trades with these weapons the so called deal between the country selling and the country buying doesn't only outcomes with great amounts of income to the seller country but also great danger, for there is a big chance these two countries get into a fight. That will lead to wars, and as a result many people will die and the environment will take many years to recover. So the trade of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction is a highly not accepted practice to Norway.
Issue # 3: The question of the human and political rights of religious and ethnic minorities/ and displaced people.
Defining religious and ethnic minorities as groups of people whom are made of small number of person that have the same believes and principals. Defining displaced people as people whom are forced to flee their homes because of a war. These cases are the most cared for cases. Norway has sent many financial aid and medical aid to countries in Africa and in the Middle East, in these two regions there are many displaced people found. There are around 40 million men, woman, and children around the world that are displaced, many of them the cause is civil war, lack of natural resources, and lack of food and water in a country.
Norway cares greatly for this issue, it contributed a lot to this crisis and will continue contributing to this crisis, because it regards humanitarian agony and Norway works its best to stop and demolish any agony facing the humanity. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) plays a central role in the work to assist and protect refugees. Norway has consistently been a major contributor to the organization. Norway is also a contributor to the Palestinian refugees which helps displaced people in Palestine. Norway has sent aid to Afghanistan the aid was financial aid and it was 86$. In 2003 Norway has sent 52 aid packs to Afghanistan. These aren’t but small contribution to what Norway did to the world and it is only a few of the aid that Norway sent to many regions of the worlds that are in need.
Issue: The question of the human and political rights of religious and ethnic minorities/ and displaced people. Country: Norway Delegate: Ahmad Al Qamlas
Defining Displace people as people living in places were war is happening, displaced people are also people that do not wish to be living in that place.
Further Defining Religious and ethnic groups as groups of people whom are made of small number of person that have the same believes and principals.
Applauding the efforts of the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) the helped an estimate of 50 million person in 5 decades.
Noting with regret there are around 40 million men, woman, and children around the world that are displaced, many of them the cause is civil war, lack of natural resources, and lack of food and water in a country
Deeply concerned that this issue at hand will rise to a be a greater issue that will lead to many other problems, and that if this issue is fixed, many other issue will be fixed to since many issues arise from this issue.
Taking note that displaced people are mainly concentrated in Asia, Africa, and in the formal USSR countries.
1. Declares the formation of a sub organization for the United Nations called The United Nation Displaced People Aid UNDPA. This organization will mainly help displaced people and then it will by that help maintain the rights of the religious minorities;
2. Noting that The Head office of this organization will not be chosen yet, the head office will be chosen by the general assembly after this resolution passes;
3. Further noting that there will be a sub office in each continent and in each continent there will be small sub sub offices and these offices will report to the sub office weekly and the sub office will report to the main office monthly;
4. Affirming that this organization will be composed of: A. Monitors to check the statues of displaced families, B. Reporters to write reports based on the observation of the monitors, C. Investigator to find areas where displaced people are found, D. People the monitor how the office is working and sends a report to the main office that has a detailed report of how the work is going on there;
5. Draws the attention that organization will: A. Help people find jobs, B. Help people by financial support, C. Build school that are free of charge located near areas of displaced people that will be free of charge, D. Provide the medicine to families that need it, E. Provide medical care e.g. doctor consulting, operation, etc.;
6. Supports all the countries that have helped decrease the number of displaced people;
7. Recommends that all the countries support this resolution and vote for it not against it;
8. Encourages the acts of the UNHCR for decreasing the number of displaced people through the world;
9. Further encourages countries to look at their people and to overcome displacement.
Honorable chair fellow delegates Welcome...
From the land of the calm lakes and green mountains welcome, form the land where no is not an obstacle for it to pursue her objectives, from the place where the rights of a person is our number one priority welcome. Norway greets you .
Ladies and gentlemen in our world today we are facing many threats to mankind, people have lost their rights, children starving in the street, old people seeking for medicine, but no where to find, ladies and gentlemen is that the world you want to live I think not think, ladies and gentlemen we must work to together to help make this world a better world for our people and for us, thank you, and welcome again from Norway..