In pursuit of political stability, the Pakistani government has shifted through many forms such as parliamentary, military and presidential. Today the Pakistani government goes by the constitution of 1973, as amended in 1985 that follows the parliamentary system in which a president is elected to rule the country (as in Head of State) and the prime minister acts as head of government based on popular vote. The Bicameral Legislature or else known as Council of Advisors consists of two houses the Senate (upper house) and the National Assembly (lower house).
After the death of General Mohammad Zia Ul-Haq in the year of 1988; many different forms of politics affected by ethnic traditions, religious beliefs and division of powers rose to take control of and rule the country. Preference of provinces and old cultural rivalries or clashes obstructed the way to national compromise and integration. The political parties that played a major role in this setback were the Pakistan Muslim League, Awami National Party, Pakistan Peopleís Party, the Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz, Jamaat il-Islam, Jamiat ul-Ulamaa il-Islam, Jamiat ul-Ulamaa el-Pakistan and Solidarity Movement (Tehrik il-Istiqlal).
The Pakistani Judicial System is made up of the Supreme Court, provincial high
Courts and lesser courts that practice civil and criminal jurisdiction. For example, the Federal Shariíat Court decides whether or not a civil law is un favored or prohibited by the rules of Islam, Pakistanís dominating religion.
The administrative division consists of four provinces Balochistan, the North-West Frontier province, Punjab, Sindh; which is one territory- federally administered tribal areas; one capital territory and the Pakistan administered portion of the disputed Kashmir and Jammu region- Azad (free) Kashmir and the Northern Areas.
Pakistan is a country with a measurable amount of foreign relations. It is a member of the United Nations, of the Commonwealth of Nations Economic Cooperation Organization, South Asian Association for regional cooperation and many other internationally prominent organizations. In the year of 1947 British India was separated into Pakistan; a Muslim state. It had two sections, East and West. The separation of land between Muslim Pakistan and largely Hindu India was not thoroughly resolved. A third war broke out in 1971 between them resulting in another separation (East Pakistan) which became the nation that is nowadays known as Bangladesh. So, the relations between India and Pakistan are very bitter. A fight over the state of Kashmir is still in effect between the two countries. Also relationships with Afghanistan are not very strong due to the massive deforestation of certain parts of Pakistan and the misuse of natural resources caused by the colossal amounts of Afghan refugees entering the country every year.
Pakistan is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea. Its bordering countries are India (on the east), Iran and Afghanistan (on the west) and China (in the north). Pakistan as a whole is slightly less the twice the size of the American state of California. It has a coastline of 1,046 km, a land area of 778,720 sq. km, a total water area of 25,220 sq. km within borders and a total area of 803,940 sq. km.
The climate of Pakistan is generally hot in the dry desert, it is temperate in the north-west and Arctic cold weather exists in the northern areas. The terrain consists of a flat Indus plain in the east part, mountains up north and north-west and the Balochistan plateau in the west areas where it borders with Afghanistan.
The major water source in Pakistan is the renown Indus river which runs from the north-east all the way down the country and empties into the Arabian Sea in the south.
Pakistan, as Indiaís neighbor, has land that is not as rich in natural resources. That is not meaning to say that Pakistan does not have natural resources, only that the variety is not as plentiful. The types of natural resources available in Pakistan are agricultural products (cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs), extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, coal of poor quality, copper, iron ore, salt and limestone. Not many of the above listed natural resources are exported, very few are. The exports are textiles, usually cotton cloth, yarn and garments; from the agricultural exports are rice and cotton (see above). The rest are leather, manufactured sports goods and carpets and rugs. Oil and Pakistanís large supply of natural gas are neither exported nor imported but they are only fit to supply the countryís big population. Oil and natural gas are Pakistanís major natural resources.
The total population in Pakistan came up to 150,694,740 in the 2003 July estimate. The population is mostly made up of 15-64 year olds who make up 56.5% of it (male 43,571,093; female 41,651,872). The 0-14 year olds make up 39.3% of the population which is quite a significant amount when seeing that there are only 14 years in between whereas the 15-64 year olds have 49 years between them(male 30,463,958; female 28,726,776). The minority of the population are the 65 years and over group which make up only 4.2% of the population which is nothing compared to the above percentages(male 3,051,674; female 3,229,367) (2003 est.).
The Pakistani ethnic groups are the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants). Most Pakistani people are followers of the Muslim religion which makes up 97% of the countryís peopleís religion (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu and other religions make up a mere 3%. With big countries, there always come different languages or accents and in Pakistan these are the Punjabi language, 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%.
Since Islam is the dominating religion, at a 97% of the population being Muslim, there is not much religious conflict within Pakistan.
Trade is essential for Pakistan, as are trade relations. This is because Pakistanís own land cannot provide itís community with all that they require for daily life. Pakistanís many trade partners are UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, China , Japan, Malaysia, Germany and the UK.
Pakistan is a low-income, under-developed and impoverished country. Its constant confrontation with India puts pressure on the large military expenditures which increase the countryís already enormous foreign debt. Pakistan depends very much on foreign aid or help in order to develop and revive the countryís suffering economy. The path to development is partially obstructed by the rapidly growing population and equally increasing debts. The country suffers from poor foreign investment, internal political disputes and the ongoing altercation with neighboring India. The fact remains that 35% of the Pakistani population lies below poverty line. While trying to help and solve the internal economic problems, Pakistan is making steps (though slow) towards progress.
Pakistanís current currency is the Pakistani Rupee or the PKR , in short. The countryís fiscal or financial year is from the first of July until the thirtieth of June.
The five sections that make up Pakistanís defense force are the Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces and National Guard. To join the Pakistani military you must be of 17 years of age or older.
Pakistan is frequently heard to be importing weapons of mass destruction or WMD and nuclear weapons from such countries as China and North Korea.
Views on World Problems:
There are many world problems, some big and some small. In our time we have faced a big one; the war in Iraq. The worldsí super-power countries and the cosurrounding Iraq will all have different and important views that will affect the outcome and results that the war will have.
For this particular problem, Pakistan, and its newly-created strong ally China have come to a decision. The two countries have declared that they do not want war and do not think it wise to continue. They have based their decision on the fact that too many Iraqi and foreign helping lives have been lost in the ongoing process.
Another problem that is directly related to Pakistan is the Kashmir problem. This is very large and troublesome conflict between Pakistan and neighboring India. The decision is between the two angry countries. It could lead to a nuclear war. Not only will the nuclear weapons (if used) or Weapons of Mass Destruction (WOMD) affect Kashmir or local areas, but they will affect many of the surrounding countries as well, and very badly. It would leave the countries and their neighbors in ruins and have huge and dangerous radioactive effects that may linger in the areas for decades. The use of these nuclear weapons will surely have fatal effects on many of the Kashmiri inhabitants and introduce to the area different forms of cancer (ex: Leukemia) and radioactivity-induced diseases.
The views of Pakistan on this major problem are widely spread and controversial. Different political parties have different views. Many say that Pakistan should go along with a decision to go to war and fight over the much-disputed Kashmir region and settle once and for all to whom the area belongs to, India or Pakistan. Others say that though the disagreement and on-going fight between the two countries cannot continue, there is no need for the start of a nuclear war that will destroy the entire region and beyond that.
After breaking away from the century-lasting British rule and Indian boundaries due to the Partition Plan on August 14Th., 1947 after World War 2 (WW II) Pakistan became a separate country. The founder of the "Islamic Republic of Pakistan" was Quaid-I-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah. The country was well-off to be alone because of the convenient existence of the Indus River that runs from top to bottom of it and of course that Pakistan is not a land-locked country and has free access to the Arabian Sea in the south. If not for the abundance of water in Pakistan, it would have faced major problems on impact of separation. Urdu, which is a mixture between the Indian and Islamic Persian languages became the national language but English was widely spoken and therefore remained as the official language (one of the by-products of long-time British rule). In the year of 1970, Pakistan had a war with India. A result of that was the further separation of Pakistan into East and West sides. Finally, the East side was made into the separate country now known as Bangladesh.
The four provinces currently in existence within the Pakistan borders are Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, and NWFP (North-West Frontier Province. Disputes between the two countries, India and Pakistan remain over the interconnected Kashmir region.
Issue # 1: The issue of rights and availability of generic drugs:
Basically, generic drugs are drugs or medicines that are less expensive than the original brand-name drugs even though they treat the same sicknesses in the same way with the same effect. So, they are the exact same as the brand-name drugs Panadol and Aspirin for example) but go by the scientific name of the drug and not the brand name. Almost all brand-name drugs have patents. A patent is the time period in which nobody but the original maker of the drug can produce and sell it to the public. When the patent of a certain brand-name drug expires, a generic drug can be produced in its place for people or countries that cannot afford to purchase the original.
The issue of generic drugs affects Pakistan in a way that isnít small. Pakistan, as a poor, underdeveloped country with a rapidly growing population must have many widespread diseases and a need for a great variety of drug imports or supplies. As mentioned before, Pakistan is a poor country which is in debt and therefore cannot buy as many supplies of brand-name drugs as they need; they must either produce the drugs or receive imports of cheaper generic drugs.
Now Pakistan is trying to solve this major problem by producing and manufacturing drugs in the country selling for inexpensive prices that the general population can afford. A new company has been said to manufacture top-quality drugs in carefully and closely monitored and observed conditions with cheap rates for their medicines for the Pakistani public. Furthermore, Pakistan is a part of the United Nations which has a health branch called WHO (World Health Organization) which is aiming to make drugs more available for the Pakistani general population and is helping many Asian and African underdeveloped and non-industrialized countries very much in order to solve their enormous problems. It also encourages Asian developing countries like Pakistan to produce their own drug supplies.
Issue # 2: The issue of the rights of displaced people:
Displaced people are people who are either driven from their land by invasion or people who are not from their own country. Meaning that they are no longer living in what used to be their country as citizens in it. An example of this is when Iraq invade Kuwait, for a short while the Kuwaiti people were displaced because they were no longer citizens of their own countries because the invasion had made Kuwait a part of Iraq for that time.
In Pakistan displaced people are a major issue; Kashmiris living along the Pakistani and Indian Line Of Control (LOC) all belong to neither of the two countries. In 2002, 30,000 people living along the Lone Of Control were displaced. The displacement in this area is caused by the Pakistani-Indian ongoing dispute over the Kashmir area between them. Because neither of the two countries posses this area and have been fighting over it for more that thirty years, it does not belong to anyone. So, all the people living in it or along the LOC are displaced; like we say in Kuwait "Bedouin" which means "without nationality".
Pakistaní policy towards this issue remains yet unclear but it seems as if Pakistan is using its security along the LOC to gain Pakistan the long-sought-after territory of Kashmir. This is predicted because Pakistani security along the LOC have been reported to have been providing much aid to the Indian refugees and Indians who have fled to the Pakistani side of the Line Of Control but not so much for the ones belonging to the Pakistani side. This shows how the security is willing to help the government to gain possession of the Kashmir region; they are aiding the Indian side Kashmiris to leave the area and lessen the Indian population while keeping the Pakistani one in so that it can be the dominant population in the Kashmir area. This will give Pakistan a bigger and better chance and excuse for making Kashmir a part of their country.
Issue # 3: The issue of the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction:
Weapons of mass destruction are weapons that have the capability of destroying a large amount of land or covering a large area in terms of destruction.. These weapons come in biological, chemical, radiological and nuclear forms, nuclear being the most used. These weapons can sometimes be illegally imported or exported by underground tunnels or disguised as so to be traded in secret. Some countries manufacture and export these weapons illegally and some have the right to own them. Because all of these illegal trades are done in secret, information is not always accurate and not everything can be known.
This issue with the WMDs affect Pakistan especially strongly. Reports have been confirmed that there has been illegal trade between communist country North Korea and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for nuclear weapons. North Korea has been suspected especially by the US. for owning Weapons of Mass Destruction, and now, with all the recent , North Korea has seen it a fit time to trade with its secret ally, Pakistan while countries are searching for WOMDs in Iraq. Pakistan may be badly affected by this trade with North Korea because North Korea is a major threat and enemy to the United States and Pakistan may lose the strong bond that the both countries currently hold. Also the US is a big financial supporter and if the alliance is lost, the country may go into economic suffrages. Pakistan is in danger of losing many bonds with countries world-wide for this illegal trade and actions.
Pakistan has not yet clearly spoken out on these claims that they have traded illegally with North Korea but the United States has suspected Pakistan to have been supplying North Korea with the materials needed for making these illegal Weapons
of Mass Destruction. The US now considers Pakistan a major headache because Pakistan is serving as a vital partner in the War Against Terrorism and on the other hand is supplying the enemy with its needs. This, as the US says is "double dealing" and Pakistan must terminate these connections with North Korea because the search for Bin Laden (predicted to be hiding in Pakistan) and the War against Terrorism in Iraq (which Pakistan is contributing to) is enough to deal with at the moment.
Submitted by: PakistanDelegate: Najeeba Hayat Issue: The issue of trade and possession of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction involving "secret ties: between countries.
Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction are weapons that are capable of destroying very large areas at once. These weapons come in biological, radiological, chemical, and nuclear forms,
Aware of the illegality of the trade of these weapons and their gigantic capability for destruction,
Bearing in mind that the lives of thousands of people are at stake if these weapons are secretly imported (or manufactured) and abused in the wrong hands,
Deeply concerned that illegal possession of WOMDs might result in using them against the US. and its economy might drop and make its life loss in a great number which will lead to the collapse of the world because of the U.S.ís current position as a superpower and aid-provider to many different countries around the globe,
Taking into consideration the results of the drop of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan in the year of 1945.
Taking note that the US. has said that Pakistan has been "double-dealing" because of their help in the War Against Terrorism and the search for Al-Qaeda members and now is taking an opposing attitude in providing uranium supplies to its "secret" ally (and U.S.ís enemy) North Korea from Khan Research Laboratories to produce WOMDs even though the Pakistani government deny these accusations,
Alarmed by the late action taken by the United States towards this major issue,
Deeply disappointed that the UN has not fulfilled its duty completely in monitoring illegal trade of weapons and supplies and "secret ties" between countries that claim to be controversial in aims and beliefs (a.k.a. North Korea and Pakistan),
Proclaims that hidden ties between countries should be very closely investigated to reveal if there has been any illegality (or even hidden WOMD trade or supply) in the countriesí actions so that an end could be brought to this important issue,
1. Declares the creation of an organization targeting this specific and highly significant problem; the United Nations Organization for the Detection of Secret Ties Between Countries and Trade or Supply/Support of Weapons of Mass Destruction (UNODSTBCTS/SWMD). A. This organization will consist of one International Headquarters and 6 others located in spread-out regions of the world prone to trouble with these sort of problems, B. Each headquarters will consist of as many countries as there are in the said region or continent, C. Each country will have one representative present in the organization that will each have an Assistant Representative that will assist and share into the works of the original representative and take over the position temporarily if the Original is absent from the position or permanently: 1. By choice if he/she had completed their time in the organization, 2. Or voted out by the International Headquarters after the five year duration, A. How the UNODSTBCTS/SWMD works: 1. All 27 countries belonging to the International Headquarters are to have their representatives and Assistant Representatives chosen by the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, 2. The International Headquarters will have chosen maximum 7 Powerful and Influential Country Representatives (PICRs) that have the right to veto by the General Assembly, 3. The International Headquartersí PICRs will chose all representatives and their Assistants for the rest of the 6 Headquarters around the globe. Also they will chose 5 that are allowed to veto out of each, 4. If the situation arises where a certain non-PICR-represented country is involved in WOMD or "secret tie" problems that country will, if approved by International Headquarters, have the right to veto (temporarily, until the case is resolved), 5. All resolutions or solutions to problems involving the subject must be approved by the International Headquarters to be passed, 6. For the right to officially investigate for "secret ties" between countries the 5 PICR-represented countries must approve within a Headquarters. 7. Each UNODSTBCTS/SWMD Headquarters will have 3 teams of Private Investigators to investigate the situation of suspected countries and bring back information on whether or whether not to take action. Also there are 3 Search Teams, who are the ones who "take action," by searching the country for WOMDs after the International Headquarters approved it armed and trained, 8. Any country refusing to be investigated will be prosecuted accordingly by the United Nations, B. The International Headquarters consists of 27 members: 1. 3 are Middle-eastern Representatives, 2. 4 are S. American Representatives, 3. 6 are European Representatives, 4. 5 are African Representatives, 5. 5 are Asian Representatives, 6. 4 are N. American Representatives, C. Locations: 1. The International Headquarters: Lisbon, Portugal, 2. M.E. Headquarters: Abu Dhabi, UAE, 3. S. America Headquarters: Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4. Europe Headquarters: Rome, Italy, 5. Africa Headquarters: Khartoum, Sudan, 6. Asia Headquarters: Beijing, China, 7. N. America Headquarters: New York City, New Jersey, D. The UNODSTBCTS/SWMD International Headquarters will meet once every two months. The regular Headquarters will meet 3 times per month on the exception of June 25Th-Sept 3rd unless an emergency arises;
2. Affirms that all selected representatives have a strong political background and are specialized in dealing with issues involving weapons;
3. Highly encourages any country that is bothered, affected or suspicious of anything related to WOMDs or secret ties by neighboring or otherwise countries to report it immediately to the UNODSTBCTS/SWMD. Alliance or ties to that specific country should not affect or bias the report in whatsoever way;
4. Further notes that the UNODSTBCTS/SWMD will not have the authorization to investigate a country if there is nothing against it;
5. Designates that for any country suspected of any "secret ties" or illegal activity the following steps will be taken: A. The Private Investigators will be sent to inspect and investigate the case of that country, B. Reports will be sent back daily or every other day to the PII office (Private Investigators Information office) where the reports and collected information will be arranged and sorted into a final report that will be submitted to the Headquarters Representatives, C. If after two meetings the Headquarters had approved the report on substantial evidence it must be sent to the International Headquarters for final approval, D. If the International Headquarters had finally approved the report, the Search Team will be sent, armed and guarded if on WMDs but if on "secret ties;" the 7 PICRs for the IHeadquarters will discuss the case with the countriesí leaders,
6. Confirms that the UNODSTBCTS/SWMD shall always take extreme caution while "Searching" or "Investigating" not to cause harm to anybody;
7. Confirms that any country refusing to allow UNODSTBCTS/SWMD Investigators or Searchers into itself will be immediately reported to the International Headquarters who will contact the United Nations General Assembly in New York City and certain consequences will be seen to.
Pakistan, a country of beauty, a country of richness in culture and tradition. It is a home to wetlands, dry lands, highlands and lowlands. In Pakistan, there is much to love and much to admire. An invigorating hike up one of the many mountains gives you away to spectacular scenery and a relaxing holiday by the renown Indus River will stay vivid in your memory evermore but, do not get it into mind that Pakistan is also a country free of troubles and worries. At this important point in time Pakistan faces the highly significant problem of being accused of supplying other countries with materials used to make and trade Weapons of Mass Destruction or WMDs and if this problem is not solved soon, Pakistan may lose much more that other countriesí alliances.