Event: Pearl-MUN 2004Students: Abdulrahman Al-Ghanim
Peru is a constitutional republic with the center of power in the capital Lima. There is a precedent and a prime minister and a one chamber congress elected for five years. The oldest political party in Peru is the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance and there are two revolutionary movements the Sendero Luminoso and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement who are helped with money from drug traffickers. For some years Peru was ruled by military governments but the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance won a democratic election in 1985. However increasing terrorism from the Sendero Luminoso, severe economic problems and corruption led to the election in 1990 of Alberto Fujimori. He improved the economy and dealt with the problem of terrorism but his violations of human rights in dealing with terrorism, the rigging of his election for the third tome in 200 and bribery scandal led too him running away from Peru. New democratic elections were held in 2000/2001.
Peru is in the western south America and is boarded in the north by Ecuador and Columbia and to the east is Brazil and Bolivia and to the south is Chile. It is on the pacific ocean to the west. Itís total area is about 1,300,000 km squared and it has coastal plain on the west mountains in the Andes in the center and jungle in the east. There is a large lake, lake Titicaca between Peru and Bolivia and there are three rivers, the Napa, the Mar anon and the Ukiah all of which flow into the Amazon river in Brazil.
Peru is rich in natural resources such as copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, tin, iron ore, coal, phosphate, hydropower and natural gas. Most of Peruís electricity is provided by hydropower, but her rich reserve of oil and natural gas have not yet been fully developed, and she does not yet export these natural resources. However she does export gold, copper, zinc, coffee, sugar, cotton and fish. Peru is able to feed herself and has a successful agricultural sector of the economy and produces rice, wheat, coffee, potatoes, corn, poultry, beef, dairy products, fruit and fish.
Some of Peruís political problems have been caused by the make up of the population of 28500000 which has caused ethnic conflict. The bulk of the population is either Amerindian or mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) but political and economic power is heated by the minority white population of Spanish descent. Most of these white people live in the cities where most money for development has gone. As a result of this the revolutionary such as Seadero, Leminoso and the Tupac Amaru. Revolutionary movements gained great support in the rural areas.
The method used by the central government against the revolutionary movements caused a great deal of trouble in the rural areas and increased tension between the different ethnic groups in the country. Religion helps us to unify the country because 90% of the population is Roman Catholic. Although Peru has two official languages Spanish and Quechua, Spanish in the language of the educated ruling white class, while Quechua is the language of the people in the rural areas. In this way language is also a cause of ethnic division.
Peruís main trading partner is US. which takes 28% of her exports and provides 26% of her imports of machinery, transport equipment, foodstuff, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, and drugs. Peruís other major trading partners are China, UK., Switzerland, Japan and Spain and her neighbors in South America. She is a member of the world bank and the I.M.F. and the world trade organization. She is developing her own industries such as mining of metal, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, ships, buildings and metal fabrication. Under the present government there has been strong economic growth of about 5% and the rate of inflation is low but there is a widespread of unemployment and about half the population live below the poverty line. Peru has a large external depth of about 29 billion dollars, but the study of economic growth have her currency stable and quite strong.
Peru is not a strong military power although she does have an army, navy and an air force and her total military expenditure is only about one billion dollars a year. She does not have any armament industry but imports her weapons, mainly from the US.
Views On World Problems:
Peru has no conflicts with her neighbors and a land dispute with Bolivia dating back to 1884 is not a source of any serious problem. Peru is a member of the UN. and its and agencies and of the organization of the American States. As she is a small country and poor country Peru does not have an active foreign policy. She generally supports the US. on world issues but she has refused to support America over Iraq and the US. is not happy with Peruís failure to control the cultivation of Coca which is the base of cocaine. Even though Peru is a close ally of the US. and cooperates with other south American countries to protect their common interests she has a strong sense of her national interests and is determent to protect her independence.
Peru has had democratic governments only for the last 20 years when military governments came to an end. The democratic governments have had great difficulty in dealing with violent revolutionary movements, the Sendero Leminoso and the Tupac Amaru Revolution. The government of Alberto Fujimori took harsh measures against these movements and these measures caused trouble not only among supporters of human rights but also among the people in the rural areas. Fujimori was forced to runaway from Peru because of these harsh measures because of a bribery scandal and because he obtained a third period of president by unconstitutional means when he was force out of office by demonstration and by pressure of a broad a new democratic elected president took his place. This government still has the deal with the revolutionary movement and with the growing power of the drug balance, and their activities have caused problems with the US..
Issue # 1: Generic Drugs:
In 1991 Peru introduced patent protection for pharmaceutical products and this has made it difficult of the poor in Peru to have access to medicines. Peru is one of the poorest countries in South America with a high infant and maternal mortality rate and one of the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis in Latin America. The government of Peru is determent to seek international agreements to permit the manufacture of genetic drugs in Peru and other South American countries to provide affordable treatments for the poor of the continent.
Issue # 2: Displaced People:
Peru has over a million displaced people with in its own boarders, who have been forced to leave there homes and villages because of the fighting between the terrorist organization, the shining path and the army. This is not only a great cause of human suffering but a major cause of economic dislocation and instability. It is impossible to educate and employ the displaced people and to provide them with education and health facilities. The government of Peru is determent to restore orders in the country to allow the displaced people to return to their homes, for this purpose it seeks the cooperation of its neighbors Brazil and Columbia to take action against the arms and illicit drugs that people use to pay for them. Peru has already signed an agreement with her neighbors and now looks forward to be carried out energetically. It also calls in all American states to take more active measures against the drug trade which is financing the civil war in Peru.
Issue # 3: Weapons Of Mass Destruction:
Although no country in South America has weapons of mass destruction there is a danger that such weapons might fall into the hands of the many terrorist groups and drugs cartels in several South American countries. They could certainly afford to buy them and use them to blackmail and over throw governments. Peru a terrorist organization the shining path which is financed by money from the illegal cocaine trade in the country has been fighting the legitimist government of Peru for many years. If this terrorist movement get hold of any kind of weapon of mass destruction it could overthrow the government and create a terrorist state that would threaten the whole of South America. For this reason Peru fully supports the policy of the US. and of the UN. to end the trade of weapons of mass destruction.
Submitted by: Peru Delegate: AbdulRahman Al- Ghanim Issue: The lack of availability of genetic drugs for the treatment of diseases in poor countries
Defining genetic drugs as copies of brand name drugs having exactly the same chemical formula as those drugs,
Taking into consideration that genetic drugs are as safe and as effective as brand name drugs and are usually cheaper, nothing with concern that millions of people in poor countries suffer from Malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV/ AIDS, but do not have access to the appropriate drug treatment,
Nothing with regret that the major pharmaceutical companies are prepared to use what ever means possible to protect the patients of their brand name drugs,
Welcoming the consideration being given in Canada and the United States to the manufacture and export of genetic drugs to developing nations,
Expressing satisfaction that the World Trade Organization is revising international patent rules to permit developing nations to import genetic drugs supports India and Brazil in their intention to manufacture genetic drugs for use in those countries.
Deeply disappointed that the UN. has not yet taken decisive action in this matter,
1. Proclaims that every individual has the basic human right of access to medical treatment;
2. Resolves that the UN. give nations in the developing world the right to manufacture genetic drugs for their own use but not for export;
3. Further resolves that the world health organization should purchase genetic drugs from those developing countries able to manufacture them and that it should distribute these drugs to those developing countries that cannot manufacture them;
4. Emphasizes that the UN. has no wish to prevent pharmaceutical companies from making the property necessary for the research, development and production of new drugs. A. That the UN. will request the World Trade Organization, B. (WTO) to check and control the sale of genetic drugs outside the developing countries;
5. Confirms that action in this matter is extremely important because of the increasing health problems in many developing countries which do not have the resources to deal with them.
6. Affirms that the UN. will ask member states to take what ever action that maybe necessary against pharmaceutical companies that try to prevent the manufacture of generic drugs in developing countries.
7. Requests that the world trade organization (WTO) and the world health organization (who) to report every six months on the carrying out of these resolution that pharmaceutical companies should be directed to corporate with the world health organization and the government of developing companies to make sure that if generic drugs can not be manufactured then brand name drugs should be provided at cost.
Peru is a small and poor country in South America, concerned with solving it own problems and wishing to live in peace with itís neighbors, At the same time we know how our own difficulties like diseases poverty, terrorism and the drug trade how important it is for all countries in the UN. to act together to solve these problems, which affect not only Peru but so many other countries in the world. Peru has very few resources but she can offer the benefit of her experience of these major problems so that all nations can help one another to over come them.
Peru is a peaceful country and knows that peace among all countries is very important if we are going to corporate and help in the development of poor nations.