As head of state, the emir makes all major executive decisions and legislation by order, all in accordance with Islamic precepts. The current emir, sheik Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The government's legislative branch consists of the Council of Ministers, which is composed of the leaders of Qatar's 15 ministries, and the Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura), as well as a 35-member body appointed by the emir. Members of the Advisory Council come from all sectors of society. The Council of Ministers proposes laws and decrees, while the Advisory Council reviews legislation put forward by the Council of Ministers. The emir eventually approves all proposed laws. Civil and criminal laws are part of the jurisdiction of the secular courts, which includes a higher and lower criminal court, civil court, appeals court, and labor court.
Qatar has no political parties. The emir of Qatar, Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani has made political changes, including liberalizing media restrictions in 1996 and holding the country's first democratic elections.
Ages ago The Arabian Gulf was attacked by pirates. These pirates stopped all ships and took the merchandise to sell it over in the gulf. This is when the United Kingdom played its roll in helping the counties that surround the Arabian Gulf: Qatar, Sharijah, Bahrain and Oman. Dubai and Bahrain were not pirate centers, they represented entrepôts where pirates could sell captured goods and buy supplies. The inclusion of these ports brought two other extended families, the Bani Yas and the Al Khalifa into the British’s way. During the next 100 years, the British signed a series of treaties having wide-ranging requirements with other tribes in the gulf by the end of World War 1. In the early 1900s, the Al Saud from Saudi Arabia threatened Qatar despite its strong Wahhabi rulers. Only through British assistance could the Al Thani and other area rulers retain their authority.
Since 1971 Qatar was announced as an Islamic State after it got its independence from the United Kingdom. Qatar joined the United Nations on 16 September 1971, only two weeks after declaring independence. Qatar has joined the GCC – The gulf cooperation Security Council in 1981. In June 1995, Sheik Hamed Al Khalifa Al-Thani replaced his father Sheik Khalifa bin Hamad-Al-Thani, who had been the emir since 1972. The March 1999 municipal elections applied on universal suffrage, and woman were included in the first candidates though none were elected. However, in May 2003, Qatar appointed its first woman cabinet member as minister of education.
Fist of all, Qatar is located in the Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. Qatar’s area is a total of 11,437 sq. km and 11,437 of it is land. Qatar’s climate is ordinarily desert, hot, dry, humid and sultry in summer. Qatar’s environment current issues are limited natural fresh water resources that are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities.
Qatar’s agriculture products are fruits, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, beef, and fish. Qatar’s export partners are Japan 49%, Singapore 12%, South Korea 12%, Thailand 4%, and USA 3%. Qatar’s Natural recourses are very few, though, they are very concentrated. Qatar’s major natural recourses are petrol, natural gas, and fish.
Qatar’s population is 769,152 depending on the statistics of year 2001. The age structure is as follows: 0-14 year olds 25.77% (101,155 males, 97,086 females), 15-64 year olds 71.75% (391,178 males, 160,1665 females), 65 years and over 2.48% (13,625 males, 5,443 females). The population of the birth rate is about 15.91 births per 1,000 populations, and the death rate is about 4.26 per 1,000 populations. Qatar is an Islamic State, obviously, 95% of the population is Muslim. Qatar’s first language is Arabic and commonly English as second language. Forty percent of the ethnic group is Arab, 18% Pakistani, 18% Indian, 10% Iranian, Other 14%. Qatar is an Islamic nation. Over 91% of the population is Muslim. About 6% of the population is Christian. Protestant growth is increasing and about 2% is Protestant in Qatar.
Needless to point out however, in the state of Qatar oil works as the backbone of the economy, it plays a big roll in industries and makes up more than 30% of Qatar's economy, 70% of the exports earnings, and 66% of government revenues. The following are the rates in which Qatar’s economy rises. First, the industrial production growth rate, this takes 4% of Qatar’s economy.
Second, Electricity consumption, which is 5.2 billion kWh, Electricity production, is also 5.2 billion kWh; Electricity production source is 100% fossil fuels. Qatar’s import partners are 1st the United Kingdom 25%, 2ndFrance 13%, 3rd Japan 10%, 4th United States 9%, 5th Italy 6%. Qatar economy exports is as follows: Japan 43%, Singapore 8%, South Korea 6%, US 4%, UAE 2%. $13.1. Qatar external debt was as following, US$29.0 billion, and the total debt service: US$5.3 billion in accordance to 1999 statistics.
Qatar maintains a modest military force of approximately 11,800 men, including an army (8,500), navy (1,800) and air force (1,500). In August 1994, Qatar signed a defense agreement with France in which it agreed to purchase several Mirage 2000-5 aircraft. Qatar has also recently signed defense pacts with the US and the UK. Qatar plays an active role in the collective defense efforts of the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Qatari forces played an excessively important role in the gulf war in 1990/1991. Qatar’s military branches are: Army, Navy, Air Force, and Public Security. The Qatari military expenditures are worth $816 million. Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.1%. Qatari’s can fit for military service when they’re between 15-49 years old. Days after the Sept. 11 attacks, Qatar granted permission for the United States to send a group of warplanes, organized as the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing, to al-Udeid. They flew attack missions over Afghanistan and were supported by KC-10 and KC-135 refueling aircraft also based at al-Udeid. Al-Udeid is by no means the only important US. military base in the Gulf area. Nearly 10,000 US. Army soldiers are at Camp Doha in Kuwait and an additional 4,200 troops are in Bahrain, headquarters for the Navy's 5th Fleet. Several thousand are in Saudi Arabia and a few thousand in Oman. Qatar is small, but its location on the western shores of the Gulf, bordering Saudi Arabia, make it well suited for air operations against Iraq. There is even a team of Army veterinarians based in Qatar. They provide medical care for the military's bomb detection dogs and they conduct food safety inspections in six locations in the Middle East. In Qatari military no woman are allowed to join, however, some age groups of men which are mostly between ages 15-45 are allowed to join the military. France have sent groups to Qatar regarding the mass disruption weapons, and none were found, however, France noticed that the mass destruction weapons in Iraq have disappeared.
Views on world problems
Qatar’s relationship with neighbors is very good and positive. Qatar has always pursued an independent foreign policy reflecting a substantial degree of self-assurance. Policy is governed by the country’s determination to ensure its external control and inner stability and maintain its international prestige. During the Vulgar Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, Qatari units fought on the side of the Arabian states against the Iraqi aggressor. Since then, Qatar has made tentative efforts to re-establish contacts with Iraq, which have intensified since it took over the chair of the OIC in November 2000. Qatar insists on Iraq’s strict observance with all UN resolutions, but expresses sympathy for the troubles of the Iraqi population.
The US, France and Britain are – in that order far and away Qatar’s most important Western partners. They guarantee Qatar’s security and have a strong economic and military presence in the country. Especially since taking over the OIC chair, Qatar has been keen to foster visible relations with the other permanent members of the UN Security Council. Japan and Korea continue to play an important role as the main buyers of liquid gas from Qatar.
Since the settlement of the dispute over the Hawar Islands, which had gone on for years, by an International Court of Justice ruling on 16 March 2001, there has been a visible improvement in Qatar’s relations with its neighbors, especially Bahrain. Relations with Egypt have been normalized.
Talking about Egypt the reduction in the number of Egyptian guest workers continues. Palestinian President Arafat has visited Doha a number of times. During the visit of the then Israeli Prime Minister Peres in April 1996 an agreement on the mutual establishment of trade missions was reached. Although the Israeli trade mission, who was opened in Doha in the spring of 1996, has been officially closed – under pressure in particular from Saudi Arabia – in connection with the OIC summit held in November 2000, Israeli diplomats remain in the country. As long as the Middle East conflict continues, there can be no question of Qatar opening a trade mission in Tel Aviv. Qatar achieved full independence in an atmosphere of cooperation with the and friendship with neighboring states. Most Arab states, the UK., and the USA were among the first countries to recognize Qatar, and the state promptly gained admittance to the United Nations and the Arab League. Qatar established diplomatic relations with the USSR in 1988. It was an early member of and a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Since 1971, Qatar has been ruled by a traditional monarchy under the conditional establishment that declared Qatar an independent Islamic state. Sheik Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, who had acted as emir since 1972, was replaced by his son in June 1995 while he was traveling. Since then, the former emir has renounced his claim to the throne, and the domestic situation and relations with neighboring countries have stabilized. Then Qatar began climbing its way to the top by being a member in many or the world’s major regional organizations such as the OIC, UN, and GCC. In September 1992 tensions arose with Saudi Arabia when a Qatari border over to the Hawar Islands post was allegedly attacked by Saudi forces resulting in two deaths. Relations have since improved and a joint commission has been set up to demarcate the border as agreed between the two governments. The territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands and the maritime boundary dispute with Bahrain were solved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague
The June 1999 agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Saudi Arabia. Saudi-led mediation efforts continue. In the agreement Bahrain kept the main Hawar Island but dropped claims to parts of mainland Qatar, while Qatar retained significant maritime areas and their resources.
Issue # 1: Generic Drugs
The conflict over HIV generics reached a peak at last November’s World Trade Organization (WTO) meeting in Doha, Qatar, when the 142-member body ruled that developing countries could override drug patents in national health crises. But the Doha Declaration requires each developing country to establish its own manufacturing base if it wishes to use generic drugs. The Declaration has no provision allowing export of these drugs. Transportation for producing drugs takes years of preparation and a lot of money. Doha’s failure to cover exports, declared Amar Lulla, Cipla’s outspoken Joint Managing Director. Even when allowed to export, generic companies must register their products in each country and market, something that can take many months and a lot of bureaucratic red tape. As Grover pointed out, the patent battle has exposed the real stakes at hand. It is not really the African HIV market, which in fact represents only one percent of global HIV sales, but "their [the multinational brand-name companies" hegemony in the multibillion-dollar global pharmaceutical industry." The international corporations worry that AIDS provides a wedge for foreign generic producers to gain legitimacy and a foothold in other markets. It is a valid concern: Cipla, the third-largest drug maker in India, is an 87-year-old company with 1,023 generic products in 130 markets; its US marketing partner is Andrx. Cipla’s eight HIV drugs are making money, but it sees bigger profits in the blockbuster drugs of the 1990s, like antidepressants, which are going off patent soon.
While HIV drugs have caught the world’s attention, the Indian generic companies have made steady gains in major drug markets including the US, Germany, Britain, Brazil, China and Japan. I conclude, Qatar thinks that generic drugs may likely instigate the average of AIDS, which is until today 0% in Qatar.
Issue # 2: Displaced People
In response to a directive of the Emir of Qatar, Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, the State of Qatar decided to extend urgent assistance to the flood-affected people in Kassala State. An official source at the Qatari Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed the condolences of the Emir, Government and People of Qatar to the families of victims of the floods, affirming that the Qatari support comes in the context of the fraternal relations between the Sudanese and Qatari peoples.
Other than that issue, Qatar has no displaced people. However, Qatar is concerned about the major problem the Arab world is facing about displaced people, Palestine. Qatar is really concerned about Palatine like other Arab’s are. The majority of Palestinians are displaced; as a result, Israeli government encouraging it’s soldiers to invade into some Palestinians houses and subvert them to leave or they’ll bring down the house. What I’m trying to say is that these displaced people are a result of cupidity and avarice of the Israeli ruler, and that’s what made Qatar disturbed.
Issue # 3: Weapons Of Mass Destruction
Qatar has no mass destruction weapons, however two of the most important countries in accordance to Qatar do, so as the following I’ll talk a bit about those two countries. On Iran, we have seen for some time indications of a clandestine program to develop nuclear weapons. The United States and its allies expressed concern at the Evian G-8 Summit about Iran’s covert nuclear weapons program, stating that "we will not ignore proliferation implications of Iran’s advanced nuclear program" and that "we offer our strongest support to comprehensive IAEA examination of this country’s nuclear program." The world has put Iran on notice that it must stop pursuing nuclear weapons.
We know that Iran is developing a uranium mine, a uranium conversion facility, a massive uranium enrichment facility designed to house tens of thousands of centrifuges, and a heavy water production plant. This costly infrastructure would support the production of both highly enriched uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. While Iran claims that its nuclear program is peaceful and transparent, we are convinced it is otherwise. In Iraq, coalition forces acted to enforce UN Security Council resolutions and have assumed the responsibility of disarming Iraq -- an Iraq that both actively pursued weapons of mass destruction and harbored terrorists on the most-wanted lists.
As part of the Coalition effort to establish an Iraq that is at peace with itself and its neighbors, and that poses no threat to international peace and security, we will make sure that the Iraq disarmament effort is comprehensive, and that the international community and the Iraqi people are assured that Iraq’s capacity for weapons of mass destruction has been eliminated. The Coalition is committed to conducting disarmament in a methodical manner. With the passage of UN Security Council resolution 1483, the shape and scope of any future UN role regarding Iraq’s MD programs, in this new context, remain under consideration.
Submitted by: Qatar Delegate: Fatima Al Habeeb Issue: The override generic drug patents in national health crises.
Defining generic drugs as copies of brand name drugs, that are frequently thirty to seventy five percent lower in price, they are drugs spread worldwide and are encountering the majority of the presidents of the foremost important countries upon the world, and it is also causing much crises and lifelong infirmity, and that would only be relevant to the people who survive AIDS that may kill several people in a matter of days,
Aware that generic drugs are extended throughout the export countries hastily and rapidly, therefore Cipla, the third-largest drug maker in India, with 1,023 generic products sent his generic products to his 130 markets in other major and minor countries upon the world,
Alarmed by that the large amount of people who deal with generic drugs are as of various small poverty-stricken countries that today experience ninety-five percent of HIV-AIDS, in accordance to the statistics that 33.6 million people are effected with HIV-AIDS and can scarcely meet the expense of health care,
Keeping in mind as the Qatari Grover pointed out, the patent battle has exposed the real stakes at hand. It is not really the African HIV market, which in fact represents only one percent of global HIV sales, but "their [the multinational brand-name companies" hegemony in the multibillion-dollar global pharmaceutical industry, the international corporations fret that AIDS provides a wedge for foreign generic producers to gain legitimacy and a foothold in other markets,
Noting with regret while HIV drugs have caught the world’s attention, the Indian generic companies have made steady gains in major drug markets including the US, Germany, Britain, Brazil, China and Japan,
Fully Believing the conflict over HIV generics reached a peak at last November’s World Trade Organization (WTO) meeting in Doha, Qatar, when the 142-member body ruled that developing countries could overrule drug exclusive rights in national health crises,
Emphasizing Doha Declaration requires each developing country to establish its own manufacturing base if it wishes to use generic drugs. The Declaration has no provision allowing export of these drugs. Transportation for producing drugs takes years of preparation and a lot of money. Doha’s failure to cover exports, declared Amar Lulla, Cipla’s outspoken Joint Managing Director,
1. Resolves The enhancement of a secondary organization of the (WTO) by specifying each global crisis will greatly help in supervising the universal predicaments for example the United Nations Global Organization for Drug Tracking (UNGDT), A. For each country the UN decides the amount entering its borders, for instance, some countries need generic drugs in large amounts for there community B. On the other hand, some countries may need generic drugs but in small amounts, however, other countries do not allow generic drugs at all, this organization will help drug tracking,
2. Expresses its hopes by framing the borders of each poverty-stricken country, as well as some other countries who operate generic drugs by the country’s military police;
3. Further resolves the following are some offers given from the organization council to the countries participating.
4. States that the organization will yield each poverty-stricken country a large amount of money to develop its financial status; A. Free medication will also be offered to those countries that participate in this organization, B. Every year the health ministers of each cooperating country in the organization will meet once in different capitals of the participating countries, C. There will only be 40 seats, and are restrained to those countries in need of the money, the medication, and the resolution for generic drugs;
5. Confirms that if anyone is caught violating, or smuggling generic drugs to the country, or to other countries, the security council of the (UNGDT) will take action.
It is the glory of civilization, and the apex in technology …contemporary and recent explains it all. It is the dot in the sea, and the freedom we see. It is the superior over all and the most generous of all. With galloping horses it climbed its’ way throughout history until today. Nobility, bravery and dignity were the traits passed from generations in the past. White zigzags symbolize freedom, peace, liberty, and the rest is to show the universe how tough it was back in history. Palm trees and dates are not the best way to describe a country until today. As you recognize, it’s the country of peace, the country of love and freedom, the country where all are equal, the country where security is frequent.
This is the country, which everyone loves. This is the country that never stops civilizing, enlightening, and learning. This is the country of Qatar.