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Spain is a constitutional monarchy. The Spanish constitution was ratified on December 1978, and made effective on 29 December 1978 The government of Spain is divided into three basic branches. The head of state is King Juan Carlos I, but the monarch is only a figure head.
The first branch of government is the executive branch, the executive branch is headed by the president who is nominated by the monarch but is subject to approval by the democratically elected Congress of Deputies. The Council of Ministers is the cabinet whose members are selected by the president. There is also Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government.
The legislative branch of the Spanish government is a bicameral legislature (Cortes) that consists of a 350-seat Congress of Deputies elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a 259 seat Senate of which 208 members are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 members are appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms.
The legal system in Spain is based on a civil law system with regional applications. The judicial branch consists of a Constitutional Tribunal that has jurisdiction over constitutional issues. The Supreme Tribunal heads a court system comprising territorial, provincial, regional, and municipal courts. Spain has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
Spain has numerous political parties. These are some of the political parties in Spain that are the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Popular Party (PP), and the United Left (IU) coalition. Key regional parties are the Convergence and Union (CIU) in Catalonia and the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) in the Basque country. The party which won the majority of votes in the last election which was held on March 2004 was the Spanish Socialist Workers Party led by Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero which meant that they held the majority of seats in the council of deputies meaning that they form the government of Spain.
Spain is located in Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France. Spain shares borders with Andorra, France, Gibraltar, Portugal, and Morocco. The terrain in Spain is comprised of large High flat to dissected plateaus surrounded by rugged hills, lowland areas such as narrow coastal plains, and mountainous regions such as the Pyrenees in the north of Spain. Spain has an important geographic position overlooking the Straits of Gibraltar.
The natural resources of Spain are Coal, lignite, iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, and hydroelectric power. The agricultural and fisheries in Spain produce grains, vegetables, citrus and deciduous fruits, wine, olives and olive oil, sunflowers, livestock.
The population of Spain consists of 41.2 million people. The population of Spain is divided into distinct ethnic groups that include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Andalusians, and the Gypsies. Over 90% of Spainís population is predominantly Roman Catholic. The official Language of Spain is Spanish, but Basque, Galician, and Catalan-Valenciana are widely spoken.
Spainís economy is a mixed capitalist economy. The major industries in Spain are processed foods, textiles, footwear, petrochemicals, steel, automobiles, ship building, machine tools, tourism, consumer goods, and electronics. Spain is self sufficient in many fields including industry and agricultural sectors. The Spanish economy is becoming more liberal, privatized, and deregulated.
Spanish Exports are worth $122.2 billion and the major exports of Spain are automobiles, fruits, minerals, metals, clothing, footwear, textiles. The major markets for Spanish exports are the EU, and the United States. Spanish imports are worth $156.6 billion and are petroleum, oilseeds, aircraft, grains, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, fish, and consumer goods. The major sources for Spanish imports are the EU and the United States. Meaning Spain has a trade deficit of $34.4 billion.
The Gross Domestic product (GDP) of Spain is at $649.8 billion. Per capita income in Spain is at $15,771. Spain is part of the European Monetary Union thus Spainís currency is the Euro Dollar which was adopted for everyday transaction by 1 January 2002
The Spanish military is divided into the following branches the army, Spanish legion, navy, marines and air force, the paramilitary forces include the national police force, the civil guard, and the coastal civil guard. The army is responsible for the territorial defense of Spain and of fulfilling Spainís international security commitments itís comprised of 95,000 members. The Spanish Legion which is also part of the Army is responsible for protecting Spainís overseas territories itís comprised of 6,500 personnel. The navy is responsible for defending Spain against potential enemies, protecting and assuring the protection of ocean and coastal routes and approaches to ports and maritime terminals. The navy numbers about 22,900 personnel including marines. The marines are part of the navy it is responsible for the protection of naval installation and acting as rapid reaction forces which are ready for embarkation. The marines numbers 5,500 troops. The air force with personnel strength of 22,750 personnel. The air forceís mission is the control over national airspace through the use of offensive and defensive interceptor operations. The first branch of the paramilitary forces is the civil guards which numbers 75,000 personnel. The function of the civil guard is responsible for rural police functions. In addition to its rural police functions, the Civil Guard is responsible for firearms and explosives control; traffic policing on interurban roads; protection of frontiers, airports. The enforcement of environmental and conservation laws, including those governing hunting and interurban transport of prisoners. The coastal civil guard is responsible for the protection of ports, communication routes, and coasts. The coastal civil guard is responsible for the enforcement of environmental and conservation lawsí including the oneís governing fisheries. The national police is responsible for issuing identity cards and passports, as well as for immigration and deportation controls, refugees, extradition, deportation, gambling controls, drugs, and supervision of private security forces. The National Police force is made up of 60,000 personnel. The Defense budget of Spain for the year of 2002 was $8.6 billion.
View on World Problems:
Spain has been a member of the United Nations since 1955. Spain has been a member of (NATO) (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) since 1982 which is a military alliance, Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral security activities. Spain is a member of the (EU) (European Union) which is a European economic, military, and political union. European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy because Spain prefers to coordinate with other (EU) members on many international issues through the European political cooperation mechanism. Spain has diplomatic relations with all countries except North Korea. Spain maintains a special relationship with Latin America because of the links that bind the Spanish speaking Latin American countries to Spain. Spain maintains economic aid and technical cooperation programs and cultural exchanges with Latin America. Spain has good relations with its European neighbors France and Portugal. Spain also has good relations with the United Kingdom although they are tense concerning the sensitive issue of Gibraltar. Spain has an external debt of $90 billion according to a 1993 estimate.
Spain continues to focus on Africa it is especially concerned about the issue on Morocco because of its close geographical proximity to Spain, as well as the tensions about territory and the demarcation of land and sea borders. Spain is also interested in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea because of the discovery of substantial oil reserves in former colony. Spain still maintains a large aid program in the former colony. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues because Arab countries supply Spain with oil and gas and several Arab countries have substantial investments in Spain. Spain has good relations with the United States through a variety of treaties and agreements which are concerned in the field of security, science and technology, economics and finance, defense, culture, and political consultation. Spain has contributed troops and aid to the war on terror and operation Iraqi freedom. Spain withdrew its soldiers after the 3/11 attacks and is reassessing its security priorities, but still holds the position that it is against terrorism and will cooperate with the US. in combating terrorism. Spain still is a non-aggressive country which is proven by many international incidents because it participates through its international alliances.
The Civil war between the Nationalist and Republican forces lasted from 1935-1939. Following the Victory of the Nationalist forces in 1939, General Francisco Franco ruled Spain. Spain after the civil war was tired from political and economic turmoil. Spain was officially neutral during World War II, but followed a pro-axis policy. The Allies isolated Spain after the post war period. In 1959, under an International Monetary Fund stabilization plan, the country began liberalizing trade and capital flows, particularly foreign direct investment.
Francoís regime terrorized Spain. It was an oppressive regime best characterized as a military dictatorship. During the Franco years many Spaniards left the country and immigrated elsewhere. Despite economic reforms Spain remained the most closed economy in Western Europe. In the 1960ís and the 1970ís Spain was transformed into a modern industrial economy with a thriving tourism sector. Spainís economic expansion led to improved income distribution and helped develop a large middle class. The social changes brought by economic prosperity eased Spainís transition to democracy.
After the death of General Franco his designated heir Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon assumed the titles of king and chief of state. He replaced Francoís last prime minister with Adolfo Suarez in July, 1976. Suarez entered office with the promise of new elections within one year. His government also enacted laws to liberalize the new regime. Spainís first elections since 1936 were held on June 15, 1977. Prime Minister Suarezís Union of the Democratic Center (UDC) won the largest proportion of seats in the Cortes. Under Suarez the new Cortes set about drafting a new constitution which was approved in a referendum on December, 1978.
On February 23, 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes and tried to impose a military-backed government, but the rest of the security forces remained loyal to the government and the bloodless coup was put down.
In October 1982, the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), led by Felipe Gonzalez Marquez won a majority in both houses of the Cortes. Gonzalez and the PSOE ruled for the next 13 years, During Marquezís tenure, Spain joined NATO and the European Community. In March 1996 Jose Maria Aznarís Popular party (PP) won a majority of the votes. During Aznarís first tenure the government moved to decentralize powers to the regions and liberalize the economy. Spain also fully integrated into European Institutions, qualifying for the European Monetary Union. Spain participated in the air war against Serbia in 1999. Spanish police and Armed Forces personnel participated in International peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Kosovo.
Spain has long suffered from terrorism especially from the terrorist group the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) launched a series of terrorist attacks over the decades killing approximately 800 people. The other major terrorist group is the (GRAPO) which seeks make Spain a Marxist nation it has claimed responsibility to many terrorist attacks. These two organizationís capabilities were hampered because most of their members are caught or outside Spain.
The (PP) in a landslide victory won the reelection in March 2000, obtaining a majority in both houses of government. His government was a staunch supporter of the war on terror and the war with Iraq. On the 11th of March a series of terrorist attacks on the Spanish capital of Madrid killed approximately 200 and injured 1400 people which were carried by an Al Qaeda affiliated group. After the 3/11 attacks in Spain the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) led by Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero won a landslide victory sweeping it to power on a platform opposing the war on Iraq and promising to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq.
Issue # 1 The question of UN involvement in the situation in Iraq:
The honorable representative of the Kingdom of Spain to the Security council believes it is vital that the international community choose this definition for this particular issue as "the inquiry about the possible participation or contribution of the United Nations organization in the state of affairs in the Middle Eastern state of Iraq which is a sovereign Muslim, Arabic speaking state with defined political borders".
The Kingdom of Spain is deeply alarmed at the recent situation in Iraq in which many Coalition soldiers and Iraqi civilians have lost their lives. We have seen a clear pattern of refusal of the Iraqi population to allow the occupying powers from operating sufficiently. The Coalition provisional authority has no detailed workable plan that can deal with all the recent problems that have arisen in Iraq. Iraqi resistance to the occupying members has increased thus resulting in lax security in Iraq.
The United Nations has issued various resolutions concerning including resolutions1483,1500,1511 but these resolutions have not indicated a direct role for the United Nations in Iraq, and we believe that these resolutions do not give the United Nations the role it deserves. The Kingdom of Spain supports the involvement of the United Nations and views as a necessary force for the returning of Iraq into a stable democratic country. The Kingdom of Spain also believes that the United Nations should become the principal Administrator politically, economically, and militarily. Spain believes that the United Nations should follow the proposals of the United Nations Special Adviser Lakhdar Brahimi including his proposals concerned with the creation of an Iraqi caretaker government and election that would be held in January 2005.
Issue # 2: The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Haiti:
The honorable representative of the Kingdom of Spain to the Security Council believes that the council should adopt this definition in the basis for guaranteeing peace and security in Haiti. The Kingdom of Spain defines the issue as " assuring harmony and safety in Haiti a state located in the Western Hemisphere". The situation in Haiti is a long prolonged situation spanning decades of dictatorship followed by political turmoil for the last two decades. The situation in Haiti was highlighted with the recent fleeing of President Aristide and the installation of a transitional government. United States led Multinational Interim Force (MIF) which is already involved in Haiti to return law and order to the country. The soldiers are also there to support the efforts of the newly installed government of Haiti.
The United Nations has just issued a resolution 1542 Colonization Mission in Haiti (MINTUSAH). Among its tasks, MINUSTAH should establish a secure and stable environment, foster democratic governance and institutional development, assist Haitiís Transitional Government in organizing free and fair municipal, parliamentary and presidential elections as soon as possible, strengthen the rule of law and support the countryís human rights institutions and groups. The Kingdom of Spain aids the position that peace and security should be guaranteed in Haiti. The Kingdom of Spain believes that the existing United Nations resolution concerning the establishment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti. The Kingdom of Spain also thinks it is important that the United Nations should establish special agencies to deal with the humanitarian, Social, and political problems in Haiti.
Issue # 3: The question of establishing an effective, binding, and internationally observed protocol on preemptive warfare:
The representative of the Kingdom of Spain to the Security Council accepts as true this and only this definition to the issue at hand. The definition is " the creation of an efficient, compulsory, and universal observed procedure concerning preventative combat". This question was highlighted during the recent conflict in Iraq when the United States and the United Kingdom attacked Iraq saying that they attacked Iraq as preventative step. This preventative step is costing a great deal of money and lives and is making the Middle East a more unstable region.
The United Nations issued a very substantial resolution concerning the role of the security in the prevention of armed conflict, resolution 1366, but there is no United Nations resolution which establishes an internationally observed protocol on preemptive warfare. Spain is in favor of an international protocol on preemptive warfare because it will lead to a more peaceful and secure world in which diplomacy takes precedence over warfare. Spain believes that an international agreement should be agreed upon to create an international protocol on preemptive warfare whose signatories will be responsible to taking steps to stop warfare. If any signatory breaks this protocol it will be punished severely through actions outlined in the protocol. Spain calls for the establishment of steps to prevent warfare including the creation of United Nation agencies that will be responsible of enforcing the protocol. It will also have to create certain agencies which will be responsible for conflict resolution to be dealt according to the procedure of the international protocol on preemptive warfare.
Issue # 1: The question of UN involvement in the situation in Iraq:
1. Requests the convening of a National Iraqi Conference, the participants in the conference will be chosen by an Iraqi preparatory committee, the conference will have between 1,000 to 1,500 participants representing every province in the country, all political parties, tribal chiefs and leaders, trade and professional unions, universities, womenís groups, youth organizations, writers poets, and artists as well as religious leaders, and the task of the participants is as follows: A. The election of an Iraqi caretaker government headed by a prime minister, the role of this government would be decided at the conference, B. The discussion of a future structure of an elected Iraqi government, C. The election of an interim president as a head of state with two vice presidents, D. The election of a consultative assembly to help advice the caretaker government, E. The setting of a date for a national election;
2. Have resolved the creation of the United Nations Mission for the Stabilization of Iraq (UNMSI), Power for security should transfer from the coalition forces to UNMSI, UNMSI will be responsible for the following tasks: A. A peace keeping and security force comprised of soldiers and police officers responsible for assisting any sovereign Iraqi government. The number of soldiers would be chosen depending on the circumstances of Iraq, B. To assist the Iraqi police and security forces, C. To support the Iraqi caretaker Government, D. To help to stabilize the political, economic, and social situation in Iraq, E. Responsible for the coordination of all UN operations within Iraq including humanitarian aid, human rights issues, and refugee issues;
3. Have resolved the formation of a joint UN-Iraqi electoral commission. Which tasks will be: A. The assessment of Iraq so it can propose electoral constituencies that adhere to certain standards that they are not discriminative geographically, economically, or politically, B. The preparation of Iraq for the first free and democratic elections by operating various educational campaigns, C. The monitoring of the elections to guarantee that they are free and to report any cases of discrimination, violence, or intimidation;
Issue # 2: The question of guaranteeing peace and security in Haiti.
1. Have resolved the establishment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (UNSMH), the stabilization force will have an initial time period of six months, with the intention to renew for further periods; and requests that authority be transferred from the MIF (Multinational Interim Force) to UNSMH, UNSMH will have the following tasks: A. To help in the creation of a secure and safe environment in Haiti: I. To support the Haitian Transitional government in the establishment of secure and save environment in Haiti, II. To assist the Haitian National Force in training, restructuring, and law enforcement duties III. To assist the Haitian Transitional government in extending state control to all parts of the country, IV. To assist in the restoration and maintenance of law and order in Haiti, V. To protect international personnel and civilians who are exposed to imminent danger B. To help in the creation of a stable political environment: I. To support the constitutional and political process under way in Haiti and foster principles and democratic governance and institutional development II. To assist the Haitian Transitional Government in its efforts to bring about a process of national dialogue and reconciliation, III. To assist the Transitional Government in its efforts to organize, monitor, and carry out free and fair municipal, parliamentary and presidential elections at the earliest possible date, especially providing administrative, logistical, security and technical assistance to Transitional Government in the electoral process. IV. To assist the Transitional Government in extending its authority and the fostering of the principles of good governance through Haiti C. Human Rights: I. To support the Haitian Transitional Government and human right organizations in there efforts to instill and protect human rights in all sectors of Haitian society, II. To monitor and report on the Humanitarian situation in Haiti in cooperation with the office of the United Nations commissioner for human rights;
2. Urges all International organizations in particular the United Nations organs, bodies, and agencies to assist the Transitional Government of Haiti in the design of a long-term development strategy to this effect;
3. Calls upon the Member States to provide substantial international aid to meet the humanitarian needs in Haiti and to permit the reconstruction of the country, using the United Nations bodies and agencies as the main coordinator fir these international aid efforts.
Issue # 3: The question of establishing an effective, binding and internationally observed protocol on preemptive warfare:
1. Have resolved the creation of the International protocol on preemptive warfare, this will be a United Nations sponsored and enforced protocol, by adhering to certain procedures when a country is likely to use preemptive military action: A. The creation of a treaty which calls for the end of all kind of warfare, whose signatories must adhere to this treaty which contains the following: I. An end to the use of preemptive action as a cause for war, II. All signatories who do not abide by the treaty will be subject to severe consequences from the United Nations Security council III. The reporting of all military or armed incidents to the United Nations Security Council which will take the necessary action to end warfare and punish the offensive signatory,
2. Further resolves the creation of the United Nations Disarmament committee sub committee on preemptive warfare which will be responsible for the following tasks: A. The reporting of all aggressive actions to the United Nations Security council, B. Conflict resolution for future armed conflicts, C. The conveying of a monthly report about the different military situations around the world to the United Nations security council, D. The enforcement of the United Nations protocol on preemptive warfare and reporting any incident of the breaching of this protocol to the United Nations Security council.
3. Calls upon all member states to sign the International protocol on preemptive warfare, so we can guarantee hat the protocol will be binding and efficient in ending preemptive warfare.
The Kingdom of Spain is concerned about the situation in Iraq. We would like to see a comprehensive solution to the problem. We would like to see an Iraq which is democratic and independent, and distant from its brutal and dictatorial past. We would like to see an Iraq that is a beacon of peace ant stability in a volatile region. The Kingdom of Spain would like to see greater United Nations involvement in Iraq because it believes in the role of the United Nations as a multinational authority capable of uniting the world in taking one position concerning Iraq.
The Kingdom of Spain will also like to see a UN protocol on international warfare. A protocol that all countries will adhere by. A protocol which will stop the war mongers of this world, and allow the peace mongers to live on. The Kingdom of Spain is ready to cooperate with any country or organization willing to create a binding international protocol on preemptive warfare.