Country: The Sudan

Event: Pearl-MUN 2004


Student: Maha Sartawi

 



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The Republic of Sudan National Anthem





The Republic of the Sudan

 



The Sudan




Political Structure:

The president of Sudan is Lt. Gen Omar Hassan Ahmad El-Bashier, the first vice president is Ali Osman Mohamed Taha, the second vice president Moses Machar, the assistant of the president Mubarak Al-Fadil Al-Mahdi, and the presidential adviser Ali Hassan Taj Eddin. The government is red by friends of the military and the National Congress Party, which espouses a religious platform. The government allows political partnership under a 1998 law: " to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and cease from supporting or using violence against the regime." The political parties which agreed to this law are the National Congress party, the Popular National Congress, and the Umma party, the Democratic Unionist party. The presidentís elected by popular vote for a five year term; last election held on December 200, next to be on 2005.

 

Geography:

Sudan is located in northern Africa, bordering the red sea between Egypt and Eritrea. Sudan is total area is 2,505,810 km sq., Sudan has 129,810 km sq. of water, and 2,376 km sq. of land. Itís neighboring countries are Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of Congo 628 km sq., Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 388 km, and Uganda 435 km. Sudan has 11 rivers, but the most important on is the Nile River. The capital of Sudan is Khartoum, and the largest city is Omdurman.

 

Natural Resources:

Sudan is natural resources are petroleum, small reserves of iron core, zinc, and silver gold. But the most important natural resources that help in itís economy are millet, peanuts, sesame, and sugarcane. Sudan exports natural resources to China, Saudi-Arabia, Germany, India, United Kingdom, Indonesia, and Australia. Its major natural resources are cotton, gum Arabic, and live animals. The irrigated land is 19,500 sq. km. The Land use of Sudan for agriculture is Arable land 7.03%, and permanent crops.

 

Cultural Factors:

Sudanís population of 39,114,160 people, they have lots of different languages, but the one mostly spoken is Arabic. The religions are Sunni-Muslim 70% (north), Christian 5% (south), and other beliefs 25%. The ethnic groups are Black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, and others 3%. Sudan has a great variety of immigrants, but the most important recent group is West Africans (Hausa, Fulani, and Borno). The West Africans constituted 5% of the population. These West African immigrants are not part the civil war. The civil war is the non-Muslim peoples fighting with the Muslim about the control they have on the government.

 

Economy:

Sudan has a GPD of $52.9 billion; they export oil and petroleum products cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum Arabic sugars to Ohio 55.7%, Japan 14%, and Saudi-Arabia 4.9%. They import foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicine chemicals, textiles, and wheat from China 19.7%, Saudi-Arabia 7.4%, Germany 5.5%, India 5.5%, UK 5.4%, Indonesia 4.7%, and Australia 4%. Sudanís economy is really poor; Sudan has been struggling through hunger, specially that lot of rebellions from neighboring countries and coming to Sudan. The oil production helped maintain GPA growth at 5.1% in 2002. Agriculture production remains Sudanís most important sector it contributes 43% of GPD. But because of the climate and drought ensure that much of the population will remain at or below shortage live for years.

 

Defense:

Sudan doesnít have much of a military, Sudan is busier in a civil war and its people are well trained from civil war. Sudan defense branches are the Army, Navy, and Air Defense force. There are 306,695 male who are in the military, they get to the military annually at the age of 18 years old. The defense expenditures are $610 million, 7.2% of the GPD.

 

Views of World Problems:

Sudan doesnít play a leading role in influencing world problems. It is opposed to upgrading and globalization. This has resulted to be that Sudan is an under-developed state, and its rapidly declining economy. Sudan is mostly in world issues with the States, Germany, Saudi-Arabia, because she is drowning in debt. And mostly because Sudan has a greater issue a civil war that has been going on for a long time, it hadnít stopped, even though there have been a lot of peace planning.

 

History:

Elections were held on April 1986, the government headed by Prime Minister Sadiq Al Mahdi of the Umma party, consisted of a partnership with the Umma, DUP, and several southern parties. The civil war in the south was a disaster. When Sadiq refused to approve a peace plan reached by the DUP and the Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) in November 1988, the DUP left the government. And a new government was made by the Umma party and the Islamic zealot National Islamic Front (NIF). In February 1989, the army presented Sadiq had a choice between accepting the peace plan or be thrown out. On June 1989, military officers under Colonel Omar al-Bashir replaced the government with the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation. In 1955, southern hatred of northern control concluded in a uprising southern troops in Equatoria Province, for the next 17 years theyíve been fighting. In 1972, after the signing of the Addis Ababa agreement granting southern Sudan wide regional independence on internal matters, but a 1983 declaration by President Nimeiri dividing the south into three regions this aimed at a fight with north and south. In 1985 the new government canceled this declaration and settled the war with north and south. In 1986, the Sadiq al Mahdi government began peace negotiations with the SPLA, during that time the SPLA and a number of Sudanese political parties met in Ethiopia and agreed to the "Koka Dam" declaration, which called for stopping Islamic Law and call together a legal conference. In 1988, the SPLA and DUP agreed on a peace plan calling for the ending of military deals with Egypt and Libya. In 1989, the Sadiq government approved this peace plan and engaged several rounds of talks with the SPLA. At the same year the military government, which took over on June 1989, rejected the DUP-SPLA agreement and stated it wished to negotiate with the SPLA.

The SPLA is in control of large areas in the south. Three rebellion groups were made in the south, they came together called the SPLA united a press conference in Nairobi, Kenya. Sine 1991, the groups have argued, the rebels have lost all trustworthiness in the West. Since 1993, the leaders of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda have pursued a peace plan for Sudan under the support of the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development but results have mixed.

 

 

 

Policy Statements

 

Issue # 1: The issue of the rights of displaced people:

The displaced people are people, who leave their country to a country that they donít belong in. Using their water, food, and interrupt the country. When these displaced people come into another country, they make the country suffer, and the civilians that are suppose to live happily loose their stability.

Sudan has lots of displaced people coming from neighboring countries. They are causing lots of suffrage to itís people, and shortage of water and food supply. The UN has just spent $115 million to Sudan, and thatís a lot and the UN is thinking over the problem and trying to solve it. Sudan doesnít want these people in the country, because its people are dying, why should its country handle people who their original country is suppose to handle.

 

Issue # 2: The issue of the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction:

Weapons of mass destruction are defined as weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction or of being used in such a manner as to destroy large number of people. Many countries are trading materials for make such destructive weapons. Thanks to the US and the UK those countries will certainly be stopped.

This issue doesnít really concern Sudan because as all the world knows it needs money more then anything else however, Sudan still wants a peaceful world without countries who do not have the right of trading nuclear materials. Those countries should be stopped so that Sudan can live in peace.

 

Issue # 3: The issue of the rights and availability of generic drugs:

There are medicines that Sudan canít afford to get because they are really expensive, however, they are helpful and useful and would cure the diseases that Sudan has. Generic drugs are medicines that are copied to have the same effect as these expansive medicines but with a less expensive price. Millions of people in third world countries are dying because they canít afford these medicines.

Sudan has around 140,000 adults without the number of kids living with AIDS, and are suffering so much, and dying everyday more and more. Thatís why poor countries need generic drugs so Sudan can help its people and save them from death, and make the world a happier place. Sudan believes that itís the responsibility of the |UN to offer these generic drugs around the world.

 

 

 

Resolution

 

Issue: The question of the human and political rights of religious and ethnic minorities/ and displaced people.
Delegate:Sudan
Student:Maha Sartawi

Defining Displace People as people living in places were war is happening, displaced people are also people that do not wish to be living in that place,

Applauding the efforts of the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) the helped an estimate of 50 million person in 5 decades,

Noting with regret there are around 40 million men, woman, and children around the world that are displaced, many of them the cause is civil war, lack of natural resources, and lack of food and water in a country,

Deeply concerned that this issue at hand will rise to a be a greater issue that will lead to many other problems, and that if this issue is fixed, many other issue will be fixed to since many issues arise from this issue,

1-Declares the formation of a sub-organization under the UN called UNDP, United Nations Organization for Displaced People as follows:
A. The head office will be Switzerland after its approval by all the nations in the GA,
B. will have a meeting twice a year, and when ever an emergency arises an emergency meeting will be called and all countries that signed to the is resolution will be asked to be present in this meeting;

2-States the branches of the UNODP will be located in the main areas were displaced people are highly found, and there will be one head office in the region, the head office will send monthly reports to the main office in Geneva, the offices that will be located in places where displaced people are found will be assigned after the resolution is approved;

3-Further States that the offices will increase as the demand for them will increase, and it will be sufficient for the need of that place;

4-Notes this organization will include:
A. Delegate of each country that is in need of labor force, and can afford to pay for them:
B. Requests by companies that are in need of labor forces will be sent to the government of the country;
C. Salary should be paid to the displaced people will be a minimum wage salary;
D. The organization will take 20$ per labor as a monthly charge and the money collected from the companies will be spent on displaced people that were not employed and didnít have the advantages like other people;
E. Delegates of each country thatís economy is suffering from displaced people;

4-Takes Note of applications will be printed by the UNODP to be filled up by labor forces (displaced people) will be formed by the UNODP that will be sent through out countries and sent back to the government of the country;

5-Draws the Attention these applications will include labor forces:
A. Past jobs,
B. What they are good at,
C. What they would like to do;
D. Age,
E. Health Statues,
F. Any certificates gained by the person,
G. Till what level she/he reaches in his/her education,
H. Other important question asked by the companies;

6-Affirms studies over the applications will be done by a panel of professionals and experts that will be chosen after the organization if formed, these experts will be experts in Social Services, Psychology, etc.;

7- further states that this organization will also monitor displaced families, and will observe the families' needs, for example:
A. Food,
B. Medicine,
C. Clothing;

8-Further Draws the attentions this organization will help build schools for children that are in need for education, and will provide any further books or instruments he needs to fulfill their education;

9-Resolves this will decrease the number of displaced people in countries and will help the economy of suffering countries.









Opening Speech