Event: Pearl-MUN 2004

Student: Mishal Karam

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The Syrian National Anthem




Country Profile


Political Structure:

Syria is an Arab country that has its own unique government structure, like many other countries. Syria is governed under a 1973 constitution that declares the country of being a democratic socialist republic, the chief executive and head of state is the president. Who is elected to a seven-year term. The president of course has ministers that are headed by a prime minister; they may also have many vice presidents. The running political organization in Syria is The National Progressive Front formed in 1972. It is made up of a group of six parties. The main component in them is the Baath Arab socialist party. Syria also faced a struggle over power in 1969. Syria was administered by the French after World War 1 and then got independence in 1946. Then in the Arab Israeli war in the year 1967 Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel. Syria and Israel have held occasional peace talks over the return of the Golan Heights.

On June 10, 2000 the corpse of president Hafiz Al Assad had hardly cooled when the powers that be in Syria changed the age at which ministers are allowed to hold the office. Enabling his son Bashar to be named as the sole presidential candidate. Hafiz AL Assad was no first rate statesman. He was never democratically elected in 1970. He was the leader of the Quasi military dictatorship, with a corrupt Baathist political faction. Hafiz Al Assad upset as many Arab states as he won friends while siding with both superpowers. Israel who is neighbouring Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Egypt and Turkey came to view Hafiz Al Assad's Syria as a thorn in the side of the Middle Eastern peace. Hafiz had maintained over 35,000 troops in Lebanon while he held sway over the Hizbullah guerrilla movement after the Israeli with drawl.



Moving on to Syria’s geography, Syria is in the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea and is between Lebanon and Turkey. Its area is 185,180 square meters including 1,295 square meters of Israeli occupied territory. Syria’s bordering countries are Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey. Its climate is mostly desert hot, dry summers and mild rainy snowy winters. Syria is primarily made up of desert and has mountains in the west; also Syria is a narrow coastal plane.

There is one main river that passes through Syria, which is the Euphrates that passes also through Turkey and Iraq. A very important lake in Syria is the Orontes. This lake is joined to the Mediterranean Sea, the only sea near Syria. Syria has four main geographical areas that are, a narrow fertile coast plane 20 miles in width that is Jabal AL Nusayriah. Then there is the valley of the Euphrates. Also there is the Syrian Desert. Syria’s fertile regions are in the north in river valleys along coastal strips and forest regions.


Natural Resources:

Syria has many types of natural resources that are like, Petroleum, natural gas, phosphate rock, asphalt, salt, iron ore, copper, lead, and gold in the mountain regions.

Syria exports machinery, transport equipment, iron, steel, refined petroleum, textiles, and chemical products. The major natural resource of Syria is Agriculture. It is also exporting supplies to Iraq after the recent war because Syria is closer to Iraq. Also all of their products are cheaper than supplies from other countries.


Cultural Factors:

Syria’s population is made up of 17,585,540 people according to July 2002.

Syria’s ethnic groups are made up of 90% Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, and other that for 9.7%. Rivalry among the countries various religions and ethnic minorities has been a perennial source of instability in Syria. During the 1980s the primary cause of conflict was domination of top level political and military posts by the minority Alawi community to which Assad belongs. Sunni fundamentalists have posed the most sustained threat to the Baath regime. The government referred to these militants as Brotherhood, the most important Aleppo based Islamic Liberation Movement established in 1963 which is the Islamic Liberation Party, founded in Jordan in the 1950s. Shabab Muhammad, Jund Allah, Talia Muqatila, established by the late Marwan Hadid in Hamah in 1965 and led then in 1987 by Adnan Uqalah.



In Syria’s economy it is participating in future business cooperation with Canada. Syria has an injunction order on Egyptian to shares, it also has a gas line between it and Egypt. Syria also has a transport agreement with Iraq. Syria is also participating with the United Nations. Syria’s statist economy has been growing, on average more than its 2.4% annual population growth rate. Recent legislation allows private banks to operate in Syria, although a private banking sector will take years and further government’s cooperation to develop. External factors such as the international war on terrorism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the war between the US-led coalition and Iraq probably will drive real annual GDP growth levels back below their 3.5% spike in 2002. the currency in Syria is the Syrian pound (syp).



Syria’s defense is made up of the air force, army, and navy. Lets begin with the air force, it was established in 1948 and its size makes it one of the largest air forces in the Middle East. The Syrian air force includes 60,000 personnel. Moving on to the army, they have 31 infantry regiments and three artillery regiments. In the year 2002 the Syrian army had 215,000 soldiers and also 4,700 tanks. Then comes the Syrian navy, which was established in 1950 and in 1985 the navy consisted of 4,000 regular and 2,500 reserve officers and men. They had 41 vessels and two or three submarines and 22 missile attack aircraft.

Syria does not trade any very important weapons. They only trade small arms light weaponry like rifles. In the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Illicit trade in small arms and light weapons Syria participated. A lot of other countries like Norway, India, Cuba, Pakistan, Sweden, and Canada. They all represented their countries in this Conference for the trade of weapons.


Views on World Problems:

Syria has a number of allies and enemies; in 1991 they joined the US led coalition to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. Syria was also economically constrained by its trade agreements with the USSR. After the recent war on Iraq the Iraqis have been buying wheat and other supplies from France and Australia and other countries. Then the Iraqis thought why to do that when Syria is 12 hours by transport truck for food and supplies. This shows that Iraq is one of the Syrian allies. Also Syria is now bringing oil from Iraqi refineries and putting its pipeline to use and making more income. Saudi Arabia is an old friend of Syria’s, it is unlikely for Syria to jeopardize their relationship with Saudi Arabia. Palestinians are Syrian allies so Syria after the war in 1973 has considered Israel to be an enemy. The peace treaty between Syria and Israel did nit go as well as they hoped it to be.

In 1987 Syria’s policy toward the superpowers and its Middle Eastern neighbors, as well as much of its domestic politics, continued to be affected profoundly by the Arab-Israeli conflict. Syria perceived regional politics in bipolar terms. Dividing the Arab world into two camps: the rejectionist front of Syrian allies, and the capitulationists who advocated concessions to Israel. Categorical classification of the Arab world seemed only to highlight its regional isolation. Syria also has membership in the UN, the UNRWA, the WHO, Interpol, UNESCO, and the UN Security Council.



In June 2000 Hafiz Al Assad died of complications of heart disease. After that they allowed Hafiz Al Assad's son Bashar to succeed him as president. In July Bashar was confirmed in office by a national referendum. Bashar Al Assad joined in the condemnations of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. in May 2002 the United States singled out Syria as a threat to global security for its alleged support for terrorist groups. Hafiz Al Assad had seized power in 1970 giving the Baathists more than half the posts leaving the rest to divide among other parties. In 1973 a war broke out between the Arab nations and Israel.




Policy Statement

Issue # 1: Generic Drugs

First of all generic drugs are when patent protection for a brand name drug expires generic versions of the drug can be offered for sale. The government of Syria reported that drugs used for treating HIV/AIDS are available through the national AIDS control program run by The Directorate of Environmental and Chronic Diseases of the Ministry of Health. The government noted that the Ministry of Health is making efforts to ensure that the drugs used to treat AIDS related opportunistic infections are made available through Syria’s Public Institute Pharmaceuticals Trade.


Issue # 2: Displaced Person's Rights

The meaning of displaced people is when armed conflicts occur and cause people to leave everything behind. In 1967 Israel has occupied the area of the Golan Heights. The heights cover 1,250 square kilometers (483 square miles). 40,000 people live in the Golan Heights area. They are divided into 20,000 Arabs and about 20,000 Israeli settlers.


Issue # 3: WOMD

Weapons of Mass destruction are weapons that kill or injure civilian as well as military personnel. Weapons of Mass Destruction can be Bio weapons, Chemical weapons, and Nuclear weapons. Syria remains a security concern on two important counts: terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Syria which offers sanctuary and political protection to groups such as Hizballah, Hamas, and other groups. Boarder access to Russian expertise could provide opportunities for Syria to expand its capabilities of producing nuclear weapons. Syria has a Chinese research reactor at Dar Al Hajar. Since the 1970s Syria has pursued what is now one of the most advanced Arab state chemical weapons capabilities. It has a stockpile of nerve agent sarin and has engaged in research and development of more toxic nerve agents such as VX. Syria is continuing to develop an offensive biological weapons capability.

For the issue of generic drugs Syria’s government through the ministry of health urged the United Nations to support endeavors to guarantee that drugs for the treatment of Aids related opportunistic infections are offered at reduced prices. For the issue of displaced people Syria feels very strongly for its displaced people in the Golan Heights. Syria is signing peace treaties with Israel over the Golan Heights. Finally for the issue of weapons of mass destruction Syria’s owning of weapons of mass destruction is a major threat to many countries. Syria offers sanctuary to terrorist groups as you have read. The IAEA should investigate in this matter and protect the nuclear research reactor that was shipped from China.





Delegate: Mishal Karam
Country: Syria
Issue: the role of other countries highlighting the misuse of weapons of mass destruction,

Defining weapons of mass destruction as any weapon that kills or injures people,

Taking into consideration that most countries in the world own weapons of mass destruction and other countries are pointing out their misuse for their own weapons,

Believing that many countries own weapons for the safety of their countries although some misuse their weapons and might start conflicts between countries,

Showing that countries like the United States that has accused another country about having and misusing weapons of mass destruction like the issue of Iraq will be stopped,

Bearing in mind that most countries have been wrongfully accused about misusing their weapons and some major and minor conflicts have started because of that,

1. Resolves that the UN will form a new organization called the United Nations Weapons observing organization (UNWOO);

2. Also resolves that all countries that have accusations about other countries should come to the UNWOO headquarters which will be in Geneva, Switzerland and should take these matters seriously and search for the weapons in the accused country;

3. Notes the UNWOO will have penalties for countries that wrongfully accuse other countries and start conflicts;

4. Emphasizes that the UNWOO will help in stopping many conflicts between countries by searching into the country itself for weapons of mass destruction and their origins;

5. Confirms that they will look into this matter by searching the country for weapons that could be used to harm;

6. Declares that there will be no more conflicts between countries and even might prevent some wars and will help in stopping countries from using weapons of mass destruction and observing them.




Opening Speech

Syria, where is Syria and what kind of country is it? Syria is an Arab country that overlooks only one sea, which is the Mediterranean Sea. Also there are only two rivers that pass through it and the most important one is the Euphrates. Syria has many allies like most Arab countries and has little enemies. Syria has suffered from a major war with Israel back in 1973 and Israel has occupied the Golan Heights in Syria and is Negotiating with them over it. Syria is a warm and dessert country. More than that Syria is a very important country in helping Iraq with its supplies.