Event: Pearl-MUN 2004

Country: Thailand

Student: Fatima Abdulkareem





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The Thai National Anthem


Thailand





Country Profile



Political Structure:

The Thai government type is a constitutional monarchy (which is a consistent government ruled by a monarch, a ruler by heredity). The capital of Thailand is Bangkok, it claimed its independence in 1238, and its national day is on December 5. Its legal system is based on a civil law system. Thailand has 73 provinces, which are divided into 699 districts, each province has a governor, and every district has a district officer. The governors are appointed by the minister of the interior, except for the governor of Bangkok. Each city in Thailand is governed by a mayor and a council, both of them is elected by the people of the city. There are four Political Parties in Thailand, they are the: Democratic Party (DP), National Development Party (NDP), Thai Nation Party (TNP), and Thai Rak Thai Party (TRT). The political parties of Thailand do not have any internal political conflicts in any kind. The Chief of state is King PHUMIPHON; the head of government is Prime Minister THAKSIN. In the Executive Branch of the government there are no elections.

As for the Legislative Branch of the government is called also the National Assembly, this Assembly consists of a House of Representatives which consists of 360 members, and a Senate with 270 members. The House of Representatives members are elected by the people for a four year term. The senators are chosen by the ruling parties in the House and are formally appointed by the monarch. The senators serve a six year term. Then the National Assembly selects the Prime minister, and then the Prime minister after being appointed by the monarch selects a cabinet called the Council of Ministers. This Council of Ministers has the maximum number of 48 members. Finally, comes the Judicial branch; this branch is in other words the Supreme Court, the judges in this branch are appointed by and only by the monarch himself.

 

Geography:

Thailand is a beautiful multi elevated and tropical country which lies in the southeastern Asia. Where it borders four countries. They are Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Malaysia. Burma borders Thailand from the Northwest, and borders Laos from the east and Cambodia from the south east, and finally Malaysia from the south. The Andaman Sea lies to its west, while the Gulf of Thailand lies to its south. The land in which Thailand claims is about 514,000 kilometers square, that includes both land and water. Thailand's coordinates are between 15 degrees to the north and 100 degrees to the east. Its coastline reaches up to 3,219 kilometers long.

Thailand's climate is tropical, when mostly it's humid and rainy. When the weather is dry it becomes cool, and when the weather becomes hot it becomes humid and stuffy. The highest point of elevation in Thailand is 2,576 m above sea level. And that point is located in Do Inthanon. The lowest point of elevation is 0 m below sea level and that is located in the Gulf of Thailand. Rivers such as the Chao Phraya and lesser rivers are main rivers in Thailand. There are lots of lakes found in Thailand about 21 lakes. Nong Khu, Nong Kong Kaeo, Nong Lam Masak, Nong Lat Khwai, Nong Lat Luang, Nong Lila, Nong Long Wang Phai, Nong Maha Wan, Nong Malun, Nong Marong, Nong Mu Ho, Nong Nam Khun, Nong Ngan, Nong O, Nong Phra, Nong Phraya Wang, Nong Pla Lak, Nong Prachak, Nong Ri.

These are the lakes that are in Thailand. These are a part of the mountains found in Thailand : Doi Tung, Doi Khun Tan, Thung Salaeng Luang, Klong Lan Waterfall, Doi Suthep, Doi Inthanon, Huai Nam Dung, Oob Luang, Doi Chiang Down, Doi Luang, Doi Phu Ka, Doi Mae U-Kho, Lan Sang, Khao Yai. There are four major land regions, or terrains, they are the Northern Mountains, The Khorat Plateau, The Central Plain, and The Southern Peninsula.

 

Natural Resources:

Natural resources form a very important part of a country's income. That is why Thailand gives interest in developing and advancing it resources in every way. Some of Thailand's natural resources are: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish (such as anchovies, mackerel, crabs, and shrimp), gypsum, lignite, fluorite, and arable land. The agricultural resources that Thailand has are: rice, tapioca, rubber, corn, sugar cane, coconuts, and soybeans, cassava, cotton, maize, pineapples, tobacco, bananas, silk, and jute which is a fiber plant that is used in making rope. From its natural agricultural resources, Thailand exports seafood and rice.

 

Cultural Factors:

Thailand has a large population rate but unfortunately they also have large HIV/AIDs rate. The Thai population is about 64,265,276. The nationality of Thai people is Thai. There is a diversity of ethnic groups in Thailand but two are the main ethnic groups which are the Thai which make up 75% of the population. And the Chinese which make 14% of the population. Where the rest of the population is made up of small ethnic groups and they make 11% of the population. These 11% of the other population are made up of Cambodians, Vietnamese, Malaysians, Brumes, and from Laos. Religion is the belief, value, and practice based on what a person believes in a supernatural power or about whom is the real ruler or creator of the universe. So there must be many religions because each person's thoughts are different. So Thailand has several religions, but the most common religion in Thailand is Buddhism, because itís a religion that was created by them, it represents about 95% of the population. Then come the minorities like the Muslims which are 3.8% of the population. And Christians are about 0.5%, 0.1% Hinduism, and then 0.6% of other different various religions. There are no disputes concerning religion in Thailand. There are two different languages in Thailand; they are Thai and English as a secondary language. Then there are the ethnic and regional dialects. Most of the Thai population is literacy; they form 96% or the population. They could read and write. Most of Thailand's culture came from Malaysia. Because it is near to it and mostly the countries in south East Asia have common or same cultures to each other because of their race. Also one of the most important thing in the Thai culture is that it was never been colonized by a foreign country, that is why they have obtained their cultures through many years and some still keep practicing them till this day.

 

Economy:

The World's highest growth rate from 1985 to 1995 - averaging almost 9% was the economy of Thailand. Thailand's economy is mostly made up of agriculture which adds up to the most part of the economy, industry (which is textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer), services, tourism, and manufacturing, mining, fishing, and foreign trade Thailandís main export partners. Thailand's export partners are: US 19.6%, Japan 14.5%, Singapore 8.1%, Hong Kong 5.4%, China 5.2%, and Malaysia 4.1%. The exports (the thing it sells) are $67.7 billion. Thailand exports computers, transistors, seafood, clothing, and rice. Thailand's import partners are the same as it export partners but Taiwan adds up with them having 4.4% from Thailand's import partners, Japan 23%, US 9.6%, China 7.6%, Malaysia 5.6%, and Singapore 4.5%. Some the Thailand's imports (capital goods, intermediate goods, and raw materials, consumer goods, and fuels). The imports that Thailand buys raises up to $58.1 billion. Thailand's GDP is about $445.8 billion for year 2002's estimate. The Monetary System used in Thailand is called the "baht"; its currency code is "THB". Thailand is a minor producer of drugs. It also a member of economic, cultural, and social cooperation called the (ASEAN). ASEAN stands for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

 

Defense:

Thailand's army is strong. It is huge compared to other countries army's. It is also large if it was compared to its population. The Thai military is made up of about 10,724,565 men. The military is branched into an overall of four branches. They are the Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy, Royal Thai Air Force, and the Parliamentary Forces which are made up of six branches. The Parliamentary Forces include the Border Patrol Police, Thahan Phuran. Special Action Forces, Police Aviation Division, Thai Marine Police, and the Volunteer Defense Corps. The age in which Thai men must join in is between 15 to 49 years old. But the military age is 18 years old. The military expenditures raise up to 1.775 billion dollars. And that money is about 1.4% of the Thailand's GDP.

 

Views of World Problems:

Thailand has been a member in many organizations such as : APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMISET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO. It is also an observer in: OAS, OIC. A partner in OSCE. And a signatory in ICCt. Thailand doesn't have enemies as they call them but it has a sort of problem with it bordering neighbors which are Laos, Cambodia, and Burma. The situation with Laos and Cambodia had been resolved in peaceful and safe negotiations. But the problem with the borders and Burma is kind of hard to decide on whether it had been resolved or in the process of being resolved because as everyone knows Thailand is a peaceful country and didn't get into a lot of war, in despite of Burma which is acting hostile and is manufacturing drugs and sending them into Thailand illegally. Some of the Thai allies are Japan, the United States of America, also the United Kingdom, and Malaysia. There are many more countries that are allies with Thailand because of Thailand's peaceful habit. Thailand is very concerned about peace in its area and in the world. As every country's or person's dream, world peace, Thailand urges all organizations to establish peace through the entire world.

 

History:

People have lived in Thailand for more than 5,000 years. Thailand had been changing a lot during the period of the 1300's till the 1970's. It faced problems but eventually solved them. The first Thai nation was established in 1238 it was called Sukothai (which mean Dawn of Happiness). It was ruled by king Ramkhamhaeng, he invented the Thai alphabets. The Sukhothai expanded and by 1350 it was occupied and became Thailand. In 1350, a group of Thai people established the kingdom of Ayutthaya, in the late 1300's Sukhothai wasn't that important and Ayutthaya then became the city and kingdom from the mid- 1300's to the mid-1700's. In that period many wars where fought by the Ayutthaya with the Malays, Burmese, and the Khmer of Cambodia. A European contact began when Portuguese traders came to Ayutthaya in the early 1500's. During the 1600's Spain, England, France, Japan, and Netherlands also established a trade there. A new dynasty was established after the Burmese destroyed and invaded the capital of Ayutthaya, but the Thai forces drove the Burmese out of the country. In 1782 the nation's name changed to Siam.

During World War 1 Siam supported France and the UK against Germany. Mean while the government was changed from an absolute monarchy, to constitutional monarchy. The country's name was changed to Thailand in 1939. In 1940 during World War 2 Thailand wanted its land back from the French, Japan was supportive. 1941, Japan invaded Thailand for several hours then they signed a treaty of alliance with Japan. Then same year Japan attacked the US, Thailand declared war on the US and the UK in 1942. During the war, a Free Thai Movement worked against the Japanese within Thailand. During 1965 in the Vietnam War, Thailand sent troops to fight on the side of the US. Since the 1970's, Thailand has been one of the most prosperous nations in Southeast Asia. In March 1992 a new civilian government was formed. 2003, Thailand closed its border with Cambodia after riots started. Thailand is with the war on Iraq because it is for the Iraqis sake that Saddam Hussein has been extracted from his position.

 

 

 

Policy Statements

 

Issue # 1: The question of the rights and availability of generic drugs.

This question is defined as a simple definition that is getting medical drugs for a lower price from what the producer is selling it for and that is for the cause of helping needing people that don't have a large or even well fitted financing aid to aid them in the case of need when they are infected with a disease. Thailand is not a very rich country, and it suffers from the highest percent of HIV/AIDs infected people which are about one million people. It has tried to aid as much people as possible to try solving this problem. Unfortunately, the drugs used to cure people or reduce their pain are expensive and not all Thais could afford to buy. They tried to get the full supply from the).

People infected with HIV-aid have demanded the government to issue a compulsory license to allow cheap local production of the drugs due to the low income of the Thai citizens. Together with zidovudine (AZT), didanosine, also known as ddI, makes up an anti-retroviral drug cocktail prescribed for HIV-infected Thais to prolong their lives. While Thailand's Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) began producing AZT in 1995 at about a fourth the price of the imported version but still it is out of reach for HIV infected people for the high price of it. The ddI drug costs about 49 baht ($1.25) per tablet in Thailand, putting the monthly cost of the two-drug cocktail at about 8,000 baht ($205) in a country where the minimum monthly wage stands at 5,400 baht ($138). It is too much of a cost for Thais to afford it. Quoted by Lamented Paisal Tanhood, chairman of the HIV Infection Network: "Only 5% of about one million people with HIV have access to ddI because it's so expensive, so cutting the price a bit is not a good solution for underprivileged people." This shows how much the Thai's are trying to lower down the prices of drugs so that a lot of sick and suffering citizens would get cured or just even get eased from pain for a while. And not only for people infected with HIV but also with people that are infected with other diseases and don't have the financing aid to get cured due to the high prices of medical treatment.

So the Thai government urges all countries to try to lower down the prices of drugs so that their people would rest in peace instead of in debt.

 

 

Issue # 2: The question of measures of stop the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.

This issue is the most important issue in the UN for the several past years. It has been the concern of every country in this world. Nuclear and mass destruction weapons. Many peaceful countries such as Thailand urge countries to stop trading with nuclear or with mass destruction weapons. These weapons are nothing except a threat for the neighboring countries that really do not want a war that is caused by a threat. These weapons have made countries be hostile and very insufficient and made other countries to get scared from them and get nuclear and mass destruction weapons just to show that they are not scared by that country.

That is something wrong and has to be stopped because I every country I this world would have the chance of getting nuclear and mass destruction weapons then they would, which would make the whole world an insecure place to live or even exist in. Nuclear weapons are the main destroyers of man kind, they make humans lose confident from each other, cause wars, and kill every body. So as the name of Thailand stop the trading of nuclear weapons and mass destruction weapons and try solving other important issues like world peace instead of causing chaos in the world.

 

 

Issue # 3: The question of the human and political rights of religious and ethnic minorities/displaced people.

Thailand has had a lot of refugees coming to it as well as several groups of different ethnic and religious beliefs than Thais. But the Thai government has eased it up for such people and made them welcome in their country. They even made initiatives for displaced people from Burma to work legally in various provinces in Thailand.

That is a good step that the Royal Thai government has done for the Burmese. Also, Thailand has been very cooperative with such people they even made camps for them to stay in. there is also 120,000 refugees placed in Thailand, and also the UNHCR assisted in refugee camps in Thailand. But despite that it is the wish of the Royal Thai Government that no more refugees should enter Thailand and, although there is no formal plan, but there are a lot of refugees in Thailand and it may not have more than the number it has which is estimated that at least 632,978 displaced people are still currently living or hiding in that area of borders, they also have destroyed about 2,536 affected villages which are usually burnt. So what Thailand is trying to say or show is that these refugees or "displaced people" should be stopped if a country would want to function well and not have any difficulties in getting into progress.

 

 

 

Resolution

 

Delegation: Fatma Al Abdul Kareem
Submitted by: Thailand
Forum: General Assembly
Issue: The question of the rights and availability of generic drugs

Defining generic drugs as getting medical drugs for a lower price from what the producer is selling it for and that is for the cause of helping needing people that don't have a large or even well fitted financing aid to aid them in the case of need when they are infected with a disease,

Alarmed by the massive amounts of HIV/AIDs infected people which can not get the cure for HIV/AIDs for its high cost,

Fully Aware that this issue has been resolved, but still it is causing problems for people that can not afford the prices for generic drugs,

Pointing out of the importance of the existence of generic drugs to help people that are ill and can not get cured by trademark medicines,

Taking into consideration that over 1,000,000 people living in Thailand have HIV/AIDS and can not be treated due to the high cost of trademark medicines and generic drugs,

Deeply disappointed that even the minister of health of Thailand can not even cure his wife which has HIV/AIDs all because of the high prices of drugs,

1. Declares the formation of the organization UNGD which stands for the United Nations for generic drugs. It will be made up of a member from every country in the united nations, and 30 specialized doctors, and the location of this organization would be decided later once the resolution is passed,

2. Encourages all countries that are financially capable and not capable to participate in the UNGD to:
A. Help people that are not capable of treatments
B. Distribute the generic drugs only to hospitals not pharmacies
C. The generic drugs would be distributed to only government or public hospitals

3. Resolves that the UNGD organization would do the following for countries that have a high range of unresolved disease issues:
A. Give the needing country a supply of generic drugs that the doctors ion the UNGD organization would see necessary,
B. Check the condition or status of the country that needs generic drugs and gives it the type of drugs they need;

4. Further resolves that these generic drugs would be given from the UNGD to countries and the ministry of health of all these countries would distribute them to the public hospitals;

5. Noting that the generic drugs would be sent to countries by land and both the organization and the country would have an agreement for the amount and type of generic drugs that would be sent;

6. Confirms that if any country violates or was selling these Generic drugs then the issue would go to the Security Council and they will take action as they see fit for this situation.

 

 

 

Opening Speech

 

In the land of mountains, in the land of greenery, on the white shores, on the raging braking waves, in the most peaceful spot in the world, millions of people suffer, because of high cost of medical care, or because of intruders contiguously spreading in all the area to settle down breaking, burning, or even destroying villages, or suffering from the threat in which every person fears after the events of World War 2, nuclear weapons.

There lies the shadow of the innocent, the scared, and the suffering. That is Thailand, a country of peace and happiness, threatened by several issues but standing high and strong in front of their fears.