Country: United Kingdom
Event: Pearl-MUN 2004
Student: Mays Al-Sa'ad
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The UK is a constitutional monarch. The head of state is a monarch with limited powers. The Parliament, the legislature, consists of the House of the Commons, House of the Lords, and the monarch which is also referred to as the Crown.
The House of the Lords consists of 500 life peers, 93 hereditary peers, and 26 clergy. There are no elections in the House of the Lords. On the other hand, the House of the Commons consists of 659 seats and the members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier. The House of the Commons is far more influential than the House of the Lords. This makes the British system unicameral, which means that it consists of a single legislative chamber. The chief executive is the prime minister, who is a member of the House of Commons. The executive branch includes Her Majesty's Government; commonly referred to as "the government." The government is composed of ministers in the Cabinet, most of whom are members of the House of Commons; government departments, each of which is responsible to a minister; local authorities; and public corporations. The Chief of State is Queen Elizabeth (since 1952) and her heir is Apparent Prince Charles. The Prime Minister if Anthony (Tony) Blair (since 1992). The Cabinet of Ministers is assigned by the Prime minister. The Cabinet has about 20 members, or ministers, all of whom must be members of Parliament (MPs). Members of the Cabinet are leaders of the majority party in the House of Commons or, more rarely, members of the House of Lords. There are no elections; the monarchy is hereditary. The British monarchy has been a hereditary position since the 9th century However, following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister. Because the House of Commons is involved in both the legislative and executive branches of the British government, there is no separation of powers between executive and legislature as there is in the United States.
The constitution of UK is unwritten. It is partly statutes and partly common law and practice. The Judicial branches are the House of Lords (highest court of appeal,; several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are appointed by the monarch for life), Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts),Scotland's Court of Session, and Court of the Justiciary. UK has more than ten political parties as well as political pressure groups. UK's political parties are Conservative and Unionist Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Labor Party, Liberal Democrats, Party of Wales, Scottish National Party or SNP, Sinn Fein, Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP, Ulster Unionist Party.
UK has a total area of 244,820 sq. km, 3,230 sq. km are water. UK is a small nation in physical size( twice as large as New York). It is located in Western Europe, the islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea are part of the UK. Also, UK is northwest of France. The only country that borders UK is Ireland, the land boundaries between those two countries are 360 km. It is bordered on the east by the North Sea and on the West by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The United Kingdom is bordered on the south by the English Channel, which separates from the continent of Europe.
The island of Great Britain can be divided into two major natural regions—the highland zone and the lowland zone. The highland zone is an area of high hills and mountains in the north and west. The lowland zone in the south and east consists mostly of rolling plains. The zones are divided by an imaginary line running through England from the River Exe on the southwest coast to the mouth of the River Tees on the northeast coast. The lowland zone has a milder climate and better soils for farming. Historically, most people in Britain have lived in the lowland zone rather than in the harsher highland zone.
UK is warmed by the Gulf Stream flowing out of the North Atlantic Ocean. The climate, in general, is mild, chilly, and often wet. Rain or overcast skies can be expected for up to 300 days per year. This makes UK lush and green, with rolling plains in the south and east and rough hills and mountains to the south and north. Since UK has a moist climate with much rainfall, rivers and lakes are numerous. Rivers in central and eastern Britain tend to flow slowly and steadily all year long because they are fed by the frequent rain. There are more than 25 rivers and lakes in the UK; the longest rivers are the Thames and the Severn. Also, UK contains a number of small islands. In addition, it has more than 20 ports and harbors. Finally, UK's natural resources are coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land. The use of those natural resourced will be explained further in the economy section.
UK has a population of 60,094,648, with a growth rate of 0.3%. The ethnic groups in the UK are English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%. While the religions are Anglican and Roman Catholic 40 million, Muslim 1.5 million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 500,000, Hindu 500,000, Jewish 350,000. The spoken languages are English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland).
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is one of the quartet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. Over the past two decades the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is inte, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. It's agriculture products are cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 10% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while industry continues to decline in importance. GDP growth slipped in 2001-03 as the global downturn, the high value of the pound, and the bursting of the "new economy" bubble hurt manufacturing and exports. Still, the economy is one of the strongest in Europe; inflation, interest rates, and unemployment remain low. UK has a very high GDP which is $1.528 trillion. Even though it has a very high GDP, 17% of it population remain under poverty line. The GDP growth rate is 1.8%. UK's currency is the British Pound and its code is GBP, which is equivalent to about $0.67, and is rising day by day.
The production of oil and natural gas are vital for UK's economy. UK exports 2.205 million bbl of oil per day. While it exports 15.75 billion cu m per day. UK's other export commodities are manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco. UK gets $286.3 billion just from those exports. UK's export partners are US 15.5%, Germany 11.2%, France 9.4%, Ireland 8%, Netherlands 7.1%, Belgium 5.2%, Italy 4.4%, Spain 4.3%. On the other hand, UK's import commodities are manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs. UK pays $330.1 billion for those imports. UK's import partners are Germany 12.9%, US 11.9%, France 7.8%, Netherlands 6.3%, Belgium 5%, Italy 4.4%. Obviously, UK isn’t very self-sufficient from the imports and exports aspects. There is a $43.8 billion difference between the imports outcome and the exports income. Also, UK gets a lot of its money form taxes.
UK's labor force is 29.7 million, 1% of them work in agriculture, 25% in industry, and 74% work in services. The unemployment rate is 5.2 %. It’s industries are machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods. So, UK is self-sufficient regarding industries. Finally, the industrial production growth rate is 3.4%.
UK has three major military branches which are Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force. UK's military expenditures are $31.7 billion, and are increasing day by day. After the Cold War, there has been two-and-a-half fold increase in UK's military capability. UK has a developed army consisting of 14,877,666 military manpower. It possesses mass destruction weapons, including nuclear weapons. Ut claims that it possesses only 200 nuclear heads, but many people believe that UK possesses thousands of nuclear heads. Also, recently UK has hired 80 professional scientists for developing its atomic bombs. The citizens are no happy about that at all, and are calling the government to stop that. Further more, UK is has found safe methods for nuclear testing instead of underground testing, which is banned. Also, The war in March-April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq, together with the subsequent problems of restoring the economy and the polity, involve a heavy commitment of British military forces.
Today the British army consists of infantry, or foot soldiers; cavalry, initially soldiers on horses, and the Army Air Corps, which operates helicopters and other aircraft. The army also includes a force of some 4,000 soldiers form Nepal called the Ghurkas, which are known for there bravery.. The army’s support arms include the Royal Artillery; the Royal Engineers; the Royal Signals, which handle communications; and the Royal Intelligence Corps. The Territorial Army, also known as the militia or volunteer force, is a general reserve force. The British Army is the key land component in NATO’s rapid reaction forces. The army is controlled by the Defense Council through the Army Board, composed of both civilian and military members.
As I said one of UK's military branches is the Royal navy. Today, Royal Navy ships are present at all times in British waters to assist merchant ships. British ships contribute to NATO’s standing naval forces in the Atlantic, the English Channel, the Persian Gulf, and the Mediterranean. The navy also has a fleet of nuclear-powered submarines. The Royal Navy is governed by the Admiralty Board under the secretary of state for defense and includes an infantry arm, known as the Royal Marines, as well as a Royal Navy Reserve and a Royal Marines Reserve.
The Royal Air Force is very important for UK's defense. The Royal Air Force became an important part of the Allied war effort in World War II. Today the Royal Air Force has more than 40 squadrons and contributes approximately 100 fixed-wing aircraft and 40 helicopters to NATO’s rapid reaction forces. It is under the Ministry of Defense and administered by the Air Force Board headed by the secretary of state for defense.
View on World Problem
Great Britain, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council (the most powerful part of the UN), a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy; it currently is weighing the degree of its integration with continental Europe. It is an important contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. Britain also plays an important part in the European Union (EU), an organization dedicated to economic cooperation among European nations. Britain’s defense policy rests on membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), along with 15 other member states, including the United States. The members of the NATO are UK's military alliances, which are Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovakia. As a member of the Western European Union (WEU), the United Kingdom is part of a forum that consults and cooperates on defense issues concerning European NATO members. Britain also belongs to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), whose 55 member nations work to foster and protect human rights. Britain is an original member of the Council of Europe, whose 40 parliamentary democracies work together on human rights and social and cultural issues.
Perhaps the most historically significant international organization the United Kingdom belongs to is the Commonwealth, which evolved out of the former British Empire. It consists of 54 members worldwide that have a historical connection to Britain. The British monarch is recognized as the nominal head of the Commonwealth. It brings together leaders and groups from developed and less-developed areas of the world to support each other economically, politically, and socially, thereby linking widely differing cultures.
Britain belongs to many other international bodies. One of the most important is the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF oversees the international financial system and assists member nations that are experiencing financial difficulties. Britain also joined with other industrialized countries to form the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which promotes collaboration on economic issues, gathers statistical information, and offers advice to less-developed countries. Finally, UK has no external debts. However, third world countries owe the UK 1.4 billion pounds.
Beginning in the 16th century, the British Isles underwent a series of political changes that eventually led to the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. The creation of the United Kingdom brought England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales (the four cultural regions of Britain) under the rule of a central government headed by a common monarch and administered by a single parliament. When Ireland (with the exception of its six northern counties) achieved independence in 1922, the kingdom was renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
England and Wales were the first regions to function under a single government. During the 13th century, England established control over Wales after several centuries of intermittent warfare. The two nations officially merged in 1536 and were known collectively as England.
Scotland and England moved toward union after the Scottish monarchs inherited the throne of England in 1603. Although a common ruler united these two countries, Scotland and England remained separate nations with separate governments. In 1707 the Scottish and English parliaments passed an Act of Union, which merged the formerly independent nations into the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The English established control over Ireland beginning in the 12th century, when English colonists invaded the island. They gradually established English domination over the entire island. Ireland remained a separate country under the rule of the English and British monarchs until the British Parliament passed the Act of Union of 1800. This act created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
However, opposition to the United Kingdom remained strong among Ireland’s predominantly Roman Catholic population. Many Irish citizens resented the long history of domination by Britain’s Protestant majority. In 1922 Ireland achieved its independence, although its six northern counties, where Protestants are in the majority, remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Issue # 1) The issue of the rights and availability of generic drugs.
A generic drug is identical, or bioequivalent to a brand name drug in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use. Although generic drugs are chemically identical to their branded counterparts, they are typically sold at substantial discounts from the branded price. According to the Congressional Budget Office, generic drugs save consumers an estimated $8 to $10 billion a year at retail pharmacies. Even more billions are saved when hospitals use generics. 14 million people die each year from preventable diseases for lack of affordable medicine
UK takes the issue of generic drugs into serious consideration. The United Kingdom also fully supports broad agreement that the World Trade Organization (WTO) has reached. The deal to ensures that poor countries have access to medicines. UK has always tried its best to help African countries, and today we continue to help those countries by supporting the WTO's agreement. We want developing countries to fight AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. We also take into consideration that they are financially incapable of buying expensive medicines, and that's why we are trying to help. Medicines should be available to them in a relatively cheap price. UK also believes that those developing countries should be grateful for the help that they are about to get. UK believes that this deal will make it easier to get agreement on outstanding issues. Finally, UK would like to declare again its support to the WTO's agreement because we know that it is the perfect solution. UK is also welcoming Canada's act of allowing drug companies to legally make and export cheap generic medications. We urge all countries to do so.
Issue: 2)The issue of the rights of displaced people.
Responding to the needs of internally displaced people is one of the greatest humanitarian challenges of our time. Today, at least 25 million people are displaced by conflicts, but unlike refugees these people remain in their own countries. As all countries of the world know, UK believes in human rights, peace, and stability. UK wants this problem to be solved in all countries of the world. The issue of displaced people are a threat to the world, and solution should be found. We believe that it is the role of the UN to solve the problem. UK has played a great role for solving this problem. On of the action that we took is being committed to making Sudan stable. Until today, we have donated 200 million pounds to solve the problem in Sudan. We urge all other countries to do what we did, so that the issue at hand can be solved.
Issue: 3) The issue of the trade of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.
Weapons of mass destruction are defined as weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and or of being used in such a manner as to destroy. The number of mass destruction weapons has increased 10,000 times since the cold war! Well, UK believes that this is a major problem because many countries are not wise enough to posses such weapons. They will use them to threaten their neighbors, gain control, or even threaten international security. As all countries know, UK is committed to maintain international security. But, how can we proliferate mass destruction weapons? Well, the major step that we should take is to impede the trade of the technology of weapons of mass destruction.
There are many countries doing that. UK would like to tell those countries, "You will learn that will learn that your covert programs will not escape either detection or consequences." Also, UK we would like to declare, " We are willing to use "robust techniques" to stop rogue nations from getting materials to make weapons of mass destruction." However ,we are also willing pursue diplomatic solutions whenever possible to stop the spread of weapons of mass destruction, they might also use military assets to interdict weapon of mass destruction materials. UK also believes that violating countries should be referred to the UN. Security Council if any more violations of nuclear non-proliferation agreements are discovered.
Subject of Resolution: The issue of the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Submitted By: The United Kingdom Written By: Mays Al-Sa'ad
Taking note that weapons of mass destruction are defined as weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and or of being used in such a manner as to destroy large numbers of people they can be nuclear, chemical, biological, and radiological weapons and,
Alarmed that the number of mass destruction weapons in the world has increased 10,000 times since the cold war because of some countries that illegally possessed those weapons, as documented by www .globalissues.org,
Deeply disturbed that Pakistan, a nuclear state that admitted this year that its most revered scientist, Abdul Qadeer Khan, had given nuclear secrets to North Korea, Iran and Libya and has also admitted that Pakistani network sold technology for enriching uranium as well as warhead designs to Iran, North Korea and Libya,
Referring to a June 2002 CIA report, described by Seymour Hersh in the January 27 New Yorker, in 1997 Pakistan gave North Korea high-speed centrifuges and how-to data on building and testing a uranium-triggered nuclear weapon,
Deeply disturbed that in return North Korea gave Pakistan nuclear missile technology and parts as reported by the CIA,
Fully deploring that in 1979 or 1980, Egypt supplied North Korea with number of Soviet Scud B missiles, along with launchers and support equipment. North Korea reverse-engineered the Scud and built an industrial infrastructure to produce its own missiles, eventually at a rate of eight to 10 per month in 1987 and 1988. It sold approximately 100 to Iran, many of which were fired at Iraqi cities during the Iran–Iraq War, as reported by the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists,
Fully Alarmed by the fact that North Korea produced a total of 600–1,000 Scud B and Cs were produced by the end of 1999. Half of them were sold to foreign countries (The Bulletin of Atomic Scientist),
Noting further that Libya, in the past, has secretly purchased longer-range Scud-C missiles,
Bearing in mind that the United Kingdom is not trying to attack North Korea, Pakistan, or Iran and is only using them as an example,
Recalling that secret weapons trade takes place in water,
Keeping in mind that the Bush administration says the US. and its allies are willing to use "robust techniques" to stop so-called rogue nations from getting materials to make weapons of mass destruction,
Having studied that 51 countries possess more than 17,500 kilograms of highly enriched uranium,
Congratulating Libya for giving off its mass destruction weapons,
Guided by that the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT) obligates the five acknowledged nuclear-weapons states (the United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, and China) not to transfer nuclear weapons, other nuclear explosive devices, or their technology to any non-nuclear-weapon state. On the other hand, non-nuclear weapon states parties undertake not to acquire or produce nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. They are required also to accept safeguards to detect diversions of nuclear materials from peaceful activities, such as power generation, to the production of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices,
Expressing our appreciation to all countries who signed the NPT treaty,
1. Requests all nations to sign the Eliminating Trade of Mass Destruction Weapons Treaty (ETMDW) which:
2. Forces all signers of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty to fully respect its obligations (see preamble 14), A. Oligates all countries possessing weapons of mass destruction to not trade those weapons with different nations without the approval of the Security Council, B. Obligates all nations to not trade the technology of weapons of mass destruction weapons, C. Obligates all nations to not trade nuclear/ weapons of mass destruction weapons scientists, D. Allow the 5 permanent members of the SC to buy materials for making weapons because the NPT treaty states that they are allowed to possess such weapons;
3. Confirms that signing the ETMDW treaty is voluntary, however they will be considered as non-cooperating members of the UN and should pay sanctions because as stated in the UN charter;
4. Drawing attention than any country that is in desperate need of materials that are used for making weapons of mass destruction for a descent reason like self defense, medication (uranium),...etc. is to ask permission for the SC and it will decide whether to allow the trade or not;
5. Calls upon the Security Council to approve assigning inspectors at all waterways were secret trade of mass destruction weapons can occur through, who will inspect any ship going form country-x to country-y and will inform the SC of any violations;
6. Emphasizing that if any violation of the ETMDW treaty was discovered the country shall be referred to the UN Security Council or even the International Court of Justice and harsh measures will be imposed upon that country;
7. Resolves that any country that used to trade materials for making weapons of mass destruction and stops, after signing the treaty shall receive the following A. financial or technical aid if they need it, B. the UK will reasonably help it in solving any problem its facing, if the UK is capable of helping, C. the country will be recommended to be an non-permanent member of the Security Council;
8. Declares that the we will take into consideration the status of developing countries who sell uranium or any other substances for making mass destruction weapons as their only source of living, the UK is ready to exchange that uranium with food aids, water supply, or any other thing the country needs so that this resolution won't affect developing countries' economies negatively;
Honorable chairs and fellow delegates,
The sun never sets on the British Empire. Even though UK no longer colonizes one quarter of the world, however this quote is still true in a way. The sun of freedom, technology, just, and peace never sets on the UK. UK is a country with a glorious history, present, and hopefully a bright future. Throughout the years, we did our best to maintain international security. We took strong actions to make the world a better place, and we'll keep on doing that. Unfortunately, our policies are sometimes misunderstood but UK would like to say that it has no wish to trample on the freedom of others, instead we want to defend it. We fight evil in the world, but our ultimate power in not our weapons but our beliefs.
We are proud of everything we did for the world. We are here today to plan for tomorrow, and make it brighter for all of us. We have descent goals that we are willing to achieve in this assembly. We hope all countries will support us to make the world fairer, organized, and just. We want future generations to live in greater peace, prosperity and hope and we are willing to do anything to achieve that.