Country: the United States of America

Pearl MUN 2004, GA

Student: Abdullah Al-Mdaires



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The American National Anthem



The Star Spangled Banner

Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming;
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there:
Oh, say! does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In fully glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh, long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution!
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust":
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.


The United States of America





The United States: Country Profile

 

Political structure:-

The United States of America is one of the most important countries in the world. It is made out of 50 states. It is a federal government which shows that democracy is very important in the United States. It government is broken down into three branches which are the executive branch, legislative branch, and the judicial branch.

The executive branch consists of the chief of state who is the president and vice president. The legislate branch consists of the congress and the House of Representatives, and these two sub branches were very strong at passing bills for the Iraqi combat. The judicial branch is the branch that consists of Supreme Court United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts. America’s democracy depends on a constitution at 17 September 1787.

When it comes to elections there are some main rules that a president must have. The president of the US must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, must be at least 35 years old, and be a resident of the country for at least 14 years. Off course the president of the US changes every 4 years, however he can be reelected twice in 2 consecutive times.

The US is the most politically stabled country in the world and that is because of some reasons. First, The 2 main parties that are always present in the congress and president elections are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Second, it is advance in all ways economically politically and many other arenas. For these parties there are interest groups which help fund these organizations usually companies that are major supporters these two groups have. For example, Bill Gate’s Microsoft supported the democratic party by making two hundred computers in every campaign the democratic party had..

 

Geography

The United States of America is the third largest country in the world after Russia and Canada. Its location is in North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico. Its area is 9,629,091 sq. km which includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Its climate tropical in Hawaii and Florida, Arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm winds.

There are many natural hazards that occur in the USA which are tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development.

One of the most important issues in America and its neighboring states is pollution which is not only in the US but also in the world. In America the air pollution is

A result from acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. Also, the water pollution is from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification

 

Natural resources

The first ingredient of a nation's economic system is its natural resources. The United States is rich in mineral resources and fertile farm soil, and it is blessed with a moderate climate. It also has extensive coastlines on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as on the Gulf of Mexico. Rivers flow from far within the continent and the Great Lakes -- five large, inland lakes along the US. border with Canada -- provide additional shipping access. These extensive waterways have helped shape the country's economic growth over the years and helped bind America's 50 individual states together in a single economic unit.

The United States of America is a huge country thus means that it has many natural resources. As for ground resources it has coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, and timber. These resources were produced, because the climate and the geographical location of the United States of America between oceans and having some forests helped.

As for Agricultural resources we would have wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products, forest products, and fish.

 

Cultural factors:-

The United States of America is a place were many civilizations began and some ended. It is a grouping of many ethnic groups and religious groups, all religions are there in USA. USA was made and evolved by many people many different nationalities that gathered together and formed the new strong America. Its population is 290,342,554 people; the population is broken into ethnic groups which are white 77.1%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1.5%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.3%, other 4%. As we can see the whites are the majority of the population.

There are many religious groups in The United States of America that Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%, none 10%. The Christians are the majority of the population because Protestants and Catholics represent Christians.

There are many religious and ethnic problems in the US, but the main one is the ethnic problem which is between blacks and whites. Blacks suffered hundreds of years in the hands of white racists that killed many blacks. However, a new problem brought by Bin laden at September 11 when he bombed America’s twin towers, and caused a disgrace were Arabs in America were politically, sexually, and socially abused by some American whites and blacks.

 

Economy:-

The United States of America has one of the most solid economies, were there is the latest technology. The US economy is yearly rising in all ways, which shows that its economy is stable in a yearly increasing way. As we can see many things harmed the US strongly, however its economy stood solidly and strongly. US business firms enjoy considerably greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products.

The US’s GDP grows yearly in an average of 2.4%. With a per capita GDP of $37,600 the US strengthens yearly economically. The composition of sectors of the GDP are agriculture: 2% and industry: 18% and services: 80%. Oil is one of the most important factors that strengthen economies of countries, In USA there is oil but they also export and import oil.

A small amount of these products is exported, because for the Agricultural resources the US is self sufficient. The US exports for natural resources are Canada, Mexico, Japan, the UK, and Germany, France and the Netherlands and some other countries. Also it imports its resources from Canada 17.8%, Mexico 11.3%, China 11.1%, Japan 10.4%, and Germany 5.3%.

Every country has labor and its one of the most important things in each country, labor is when converting natural resources into goods. The number of available workers and, more importantly, their productivity help determine the health of an economy. Throughout its history, the United States has experienced steady growth in the labor force, and that, in turn, has helped fuel almost constant economic expansion. Until shortly after World War I, most workers were immigrants from Europe, their immediate descendants, or African-Americans whose ancestors were brought to the Americas as slaves. In the early years of the 20th century, large numbers of Asians immigrated to the United States, while many Latin American immigrants came in later years.
Every country has imports and exports and the US has many imports and exports. The US exports capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products to many of its export partners who are Canada 23.2%, Mexico 14.1%, Japan 7.4%, UK 4.8%. Also, the US imports are crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages and these imports come from the US’s import partners who are Canada 17.8%, Mexico 11.3%, China 11.1%, Japan 10.4%, and Germany 5.3%. Also, the United States of America has many economic partners that are its exports and imports, and the main partners are UK, Canada, and Japan. These are alliances that were done by the US with some countries, because of some economic treaties with these countries.

The economy of the United States of America is very stable, because of many reasons. First, its export partners and import partners are very strong countries like Japan and the United Kingdom. Second, many countries like Columbia depend nearly 40-50% on its exports and imports to the US. This shows how many countries GDPs depend on the US. Third, the US’s economy is growing every year and its GDP is getting higher, which shows how the country’s economy is stable. Economically the US is a very stable country, and this stability is a result of many things happening in the US history.

 

Defense:-

The military power house currently in the world is The United States of America, and it has the most technological weapons in the world. Also, the Biggest and the best nuclear arsenals found in the world are in America, which means the most destructive weapons are with the US.

The US military consists of 1.37 million active duty forces, 1.28 million ready and stand-by reserves, and 669,000 civilian employees. A person is qualified to enter the Military when he or she reaches the age of eighteen. Over all the US’s military is the strongest military is the strongest military in the world in training and advising and defenses and attacks. The US is involved in many important defense treaties, because of its democracy the treaties that it signs become an important treaty.

The branches of the US military are four which are Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. Its military expenditures can be set at $276.7 billion, making up 3.2% of its GDP. The Army’s, Navy’s and Marine Corps’, Air Force’s, and Coast Guard’s mission is to fight and win US wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders.

 

Views on World Problems:-

The US is a major factor that helps a country feel safer, because its defense is strong and it’s loyal to its allies. When President Bush took the government to his hand many things happened many that changed the US policy a bit. First, the September 11 issue when Bin Laden kidnapped planes and ran through the Twin towers in New York a war was declared by President Bush Jr.

The second day a war was declared against terrorism and it began with Afghanistan then Iraq. Not many countries opposed the war in Afghanistan; however many countries opposed the war on Iraq which caused a lot of changes in the US foreign Policy. Second, the Issue of Iraq and liberating Iraq from the hands of the evil dictator Saddam Hussein.

Third, a last issue to take account of is the road map issue; this issue is one of the most distinguished issues that the US is talking about. The Road map will be a settlement for the Palestinians and the Israeli’s; however the response to this was negative from Arab countries except some countries. In the other Hand the UN and the European Union are welcoming this idea produced By the US and the UK.

Fourth, the Issue of Nuclear proliferation in North Korea is the most dangerous issue. First, North Korea declared that it has Nuclear weapons which are a great threat to USA and got bomb us anytime. Second, North Korea does not allow UN inspectors in to inspect its nuclear arsenals that must be destroyed. Finally, the US does not allow a country to violate treaties, and a treaty was signed that just allows some countries to own Nuclear Arsenals and North Korea is not one of them, but The USA is one of these countries.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of 26 countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949. In accordance with the Treaty, the fundamental role of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means. NATO is playing an increasingly important role in crisis management and peacekeeping. The NATO is headed by the US which keeps it a very important event in US history.

Throughout history, the United States has had many different countries as their allies and as their enemies. After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States has been actively searching every area of the world for allies in the new coalition against terrorism. So far, the United States has been successful, with only a few countries such as Iraq, Iran, North Korea, and Afghanistan being non supportive. The closest allies of the United States have been mainly Great Britain and Canada. Other supporting countries have been the member countries of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) as well as Somalia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. NATO is made up of the countries of Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Slovakia, Romania, Lithuania, Estonia, Bulgaria, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States

 

 

History:-

The discovery of America was the beginning of the United States. It was discovered by Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus, America since then was a very important part of the world were its lands were rich of joy and sadness of war. Many things faced the USA and are still facing it some of the main things were color prejudice, and World War I and World War II. However, the US defeated these barriers till it became the strongest country in the world.

At the year 1914 a war began this war was between Germany, Austria, and Hungary against France, Russia, and Britain. The US was not a part of this war, because of some political reasons. However, an attack then was made, because Germany asked for that by attacking US marines. As soon as the US began its crucial attacks on Germany, the War ended in the year 1917.

At the year 1941 after World War I there was a new war, World War II which was thought to be the end of wars. The United States of America was harmless they did not want attack any body, but the Japanese were not as cool as they looked like. They attacked Pearl Harbor, and also a war was declared by Germany against the US. In addition, this war was also ended by the US by dropping 2 nuclear bombs in Japan.

Wars did not stop America was again involved in two wars the Gulf war and the cold war. The cold war in early 1990s was the stop of communism and the Soviet Union, the US did that to reduce communism in the world. The Gulf war was when Iraq invaded its neighbors Kuwait, many resolutions passed on this issue but one was done with major actions which was the US were allowed to enter Kuwait and liberate it. So it was also liberated, many wars passed that the US ended and begun. The US has a very important history and its history shows how solid its actions are.

The United States cast its first veto in the United Nations Security Council in 1970, during the presidency of Richard Nixon, when Henry Kissinger was the national security adviser. It was an historic moment, since up to that time Washington had been able to score heavy propaganda points because of the Soviet Union's profligate use of its veto. The first US. veto in history was a gesture of support for Britain, which was under Security Council pressure to end the white minority government in southern Rhodesia

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. Eight of the last 10 vetoes at the Security Council have been by the United States, and seven of these have been of draft resolutions criticizing the Israeli Government in some way. Most recently, in September 2003, the US vetoed a resolution drafted by Syria that denounced Israel's threat to "remove" Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Washington said the resolution was "flawed" because it did not include a "robust condemnation of acts of terrorism" by Palestinian militant groups.

In December 2002, the US blocked a draft resolution criticizing the killing by Israeli forces of several United Nations employees and the destruction of the World Food Program warehouse in the West Bank. In total, the US has blocked 36 draft resolutions on Israel. The US first used its veto in March 1970. Along with the UK it blocked a draft resolution on what was to become Zimbabwe. The US has vetoed 10 resolutions criticizing South Africa, eight on Namibia, seven on Nicaragua and five on Vietnam. It has been the lone voice in blocking a resolution 54 times.

The cold war dominated politics for many years. On one side the USA became Leader of NATO (an alliance of western nations against communist powers). On the other side the USSR dominated Warsaw Pact, a military alliance of eastern European states that supported communism .when the Hungarians in 1956 and the Czechs in 1968 tries to act independently, soviet forces were sent in to regain control.

 

 

 

Policy Statements

 

Issue #1. The Question of the right and availability of generic drugs.

The US is the main country that distributes generic drugs. A generic drug is a copy of a brand name drug whose patent has expired. The original manufacturer of a drug receives a patent on the drug and is the only manufacturer who can produce and sell the drug during this patent period. Once the patent expires, other manufacturers may produce and sell the drug. These manufacturers usually sell the drug under its common or generic name. Generic drugs are less expensive because generic manufacturers don’t have the investment costs of the developer of a new drug. New drugs are developed under patent protection. The patent protects the investment—including research, development, marketing, and promotion—by giving the company the sole right to sell the drug while it is in effect. In the United States, trademark laws do not allow a generic drug to look exactly like the brand-name drug. However, a generic drug must duplicate the active ingredient. Colors, flavors, and certain other inactive ingredients may be different. Brand-name drugs are generally given patent protection for 20 years from the date of submission of the patent. This provides protection for the innovator who laid out the initial costs (including research, development, and marketing expenses) to develop the new drug.

The US supports having generic drugs, because the US believes in many things and these drugs are mainly produced by the US. First, there are many people who are poor and are sick with many sicknesses how can these people could afford paying for buying some generic drugs. However, the US agrees that the generic drugs should be found in pharmacies, but it would be treated the same as any other drugs. Second, the USA is the main producer of Generic drugs, and the USA helps some countries by letting them afford these drugs. The US surely agrees that there should be generic drugs found in pharmacies. The US supports the use of generic drugs all over the world because it helps many people. The problem of generic drugs is that it is not available for some African country who are poor, but its available to us the US which have some poor people but not like Africa. So thus the USA asks the UN to act upon this issue and the US will support the UN completely in any good solution.

 

Issue # 2. The question of the trade of in Nuclear and other Weapons of Mass Destruction.

Nuclear weapons are very bad and should be taken away from some countries. First, nuclear weapons are counted as WOMD, which means that they are very dangerous. Second, Nuclear weapons could kill many innocent people if used, and cause destruction and breakdown of countries. Lastly, Nuclear weapons are weapons that shouldn’t even be given to countries that misuse them such as Iraq. The trade of these weapons is very dangerous if they fall in the wrong hands a disaster could happen especially if it was a terrorist group that caused problems before.

USA is completely against the use of WOMD; however it believes that the countries that misuse these weapons and threaten other countries by these weapons should disarm. Some countries also carry threats to other small countries, by threatening them in using the weapons against them. However, many countries now have these weapons and are trading these weapons between each other, and this should stop, because some of these countries are causing instability to the world. For example, North Korea owns nuclear weapons and it threatens countries that it will use Nuclear weapons if it needs to. A question should be asked that how could north Korea owned these weapons

The United States of America wants to find a way to disarm such countries, also the US urges the UN to act upon and take it as the most dangerous issue in the world and acts upon that.

 

Issue # 3. The question of insuring human and political rights of ethnic and religious displaced people.

An ethnic group is made of people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture. Many countries were formed by ethnic groups form different parts of the world and these people build up the land will live in. Many countries now respect these ethnic groups and guarantee them their human and political rights, however many countries are now fighting and having civil wars because of this issue which should be stopped. For Example, the US guarantees all human political rights for any religion or race which was a problem that is US overcome in the last years.

The USA is a country that supports democracy and believes in equality, and its constitution states that. In the US point of view we say that we should get rid of all differences between groups and treat the same, but that is not what is happening in African countries that are fighting civil wars because of ethnic disputes we must stop this issue in all its ways. The USA supports all countries that believe in equality for people and who are not racist. The US knows that some countries do not see the US as it is respecting some religions, however the US responds if suspecting some one for millions of people’s sake is racism, so what is not racism? We do not suspect people because of their race but because of their actions. The US urges countries and governments to respect every person’s right, because he is a human and a valuable piece of the society. In the other hand, the USA asks the UN to act upon this issue in all ways the UN is able of, because this issue is not only killing innocent people in Africa; but it is growing and letting people think in different ways and fall for false believes.

 

 

 

 

Resolution




Country: United States of America
Committee: General Assembly
Issue: The question of the trade of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.


Defining nuclear weapons as explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, used primarily in military applications as stated,

Noting with Regret, as Encarta.com stated, that nuclear weapons have many effects like Penetrating Radiation, climate change, damaging buildings by blast effects thermal effects,

Noting that the International court of justice ICJ declared in the year 1996 that any use or the threat to use of nuclear weapons in armed conflicts would generally be contrary to the rules of international law on armed conflict , particularly international humanitarian law,

Further notes that proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery, constitutes a threat to international peace and security,

Concerned by the threat of illicit trafficking in nuclear, chemical, or Biological weapons and their means of delivery, and related materials, which adds a new dimension to the issue of proliferation of such weapons and also poses a threat to international peace and security,

1)Requests the formation of a UN sponsored organization UNPDO (United Nations Peaceful Disarmament Organization) that will headquarters in Switzerland and will be active as soon as this resolution passes,

2)Resolves that the UNPDO will:
A. consist of 10 IAEA superior inspectors and negotiators,
B. consist of 15 representatives of countries in the SC,
C. Also it will consist of 100 scientists and military experts from SC countries that will explore and find out ways to have defense systems that stop effects of nuclear weapons and other WOMDs,
D. Provide incentives for some countries that are suspected of trading Nuclear and WOMD arsenals to close its nuclear and WOMD factories and these incentives will be:
I. Providing them with funds which will be in a separate account that the UN will have, if needed, to implement the required disarmament action,
II. Ending UN-imposed sanctions that may already be in force against them,
III. Ending UN-imposed embargoes that may already be in force against them;
IV. Providing nations with different world technologies in all ways like science and nuclear development,
V. Encouraging other UN specialized agencies to give countries incentives to disarm, like resuming food aid,
E. monitoring water and land borders for countries via space satellites provided by the UN, to check that countries do not trade nuclear and WOMD arsenals, and this will only happen to countries who are suspected to trading nuclear and WOMD arsenals;

3) Further Resolves that the UNDPO will have conferences:
A. a yearly conference will be held for all UN members,
B. another conference every six months for all NPT treaty signatories,
C. a monthly conference for the IAEA superior inspectors and negotiators and the 15 representatives of the countries in the SC;
D. If an emergency happens a meeting will be held immediately at the main branch of the organization;

4) Declares the organization will try to close all companies suspected to have WOMD and nuclear arsenals and trade these arsenals by:
A. having attorneys putting law suits and sewing these companies for having dangerous arsenals that could harm the people in many courts of justice if the country does not act,
B. having the members of the organization producing a report to the General Assembly which will have evidence that will show that the company is guilty and then produced to the SC to take action against the company suspected,
C. asking the country the company is in to close down or search this company for these arsenals if found they will be confiscated by the government to the UN,

5) Emphasizes that there would be two branches of UNDPO in every continent. and that branch’s locations will be:
A. Asia: Indonesia and Egypt,
B. Europe: Norway and Denmark,
C. North America: U.S.A and Canada,
D. South America: Argentina and Brazil,
E. Africa: Nigeria and Liberia,
F. responsibilities will:
I. make people aware of the Dangers of WOMD by media and advertisements that would encourage people,
II have conferences that show that the use of Weapons Of Mass Destruction is dangerous and these conferences will be broadcasted in the National television;
III. report if any company in the continent and region is producing or trading weapons by collecting evidence from various people or groups and by inspecting companies if the country allows that,
IV. making a yearly marathon that will take place in each country’s capital city that will involve many things like sports and other activities which will hopefully take people’s attention, thus will make people care for what could WOMD’s have as side affects ;

6. Urges all States, in accordance with their national procedures, to adopt and enforce appropriate effective laws which prohibit any non-State actor to manufacture, acquire, possess, develop, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery, in particular for terrorist purposes, as well as attempts to engage in any of the foregoing activities, participate in them as an accomplice, assist or finance them;

7. Further urges the UN to have consequences that are going to be decided by the SC for:
A. Companies that provide WOMD arsenals to some terrorist groups,
B. Countries that trade and provide WOMD arsenals to some terrorist groups and also countries;

8. Further declares that this organization will help and plan with sates to:
A. Have effective measures to establish domestic controls to prevent the trade of WOMD and their means of delivery, including establishing appropriate controls over related materials;
B. Promote the universal adoption and full implementation, and, where necessary, strengthening of multilateral treaties to which the state is party of,
C. Adopt national rules and regulations, where it has not yet been done, to ensure compliance with their commitments under the key multilateral non-proliferation treaties,
D. Develop appropriate ways to work with and inform industries and the public regarding their obligations under such laws.

 

 

 

Opening Speech

 

Honorable delegates, most distinguished chairs

Good morning

We are gathered today to find solutions for three main problems facing our world, and one of them is trading WOMD between countries and terrorist groups and companies or other parties, the US would like to highlight this issue because it does not only concern the US, however all the world is concerned in this issue, as we are seeing in these days terrorist groups are trying to make up nuclear weapons by getting arsenals of these weapons from some companies and countries that work undercover. In this meeting we are willing to help search and find solutions to this problem. Many of these companies that are trading these arsenals are causing instability in the world. By stopping these organizations we could have peace which is what the US wants and wanted for the past years.

And God bless America and God bless the world.