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Political structure (Bader):
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a monarchy. Al Saud is the ruling family of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has 13 Administrative divisions, which are Al-Bahah, Al Hudud al Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Medina, Al Qasim, Al Riyadh (capital), Al Sharqiyah, Asir, Hayel, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, and Tabuk. The legal system is based on the Islamic law (The Sharia) and several material policies have been set up, special committees handle the commercial arguments. Most of the laws in Saudi Arabia are set by Islam. Saudi Arabia has not accepted obligatory ICJ authority.
In the executive branch, the chief of state is H.R.H King Fahed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982) and is also the prime minister. The monarch is the chief of state as well as head of government. The crown prince is H.R.H Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, who is also the half brother to the monarch and the heir to the thrown. The monarch is hereditary; therefore there are no elections usually. The monarch and crown prince are usually bothers or father and son.
The cabinet is the Council of Ministers, which are selected by the monarch. The Council is made of many royal family members. The legislative branch is made up of the Consultative Council, also known as Majlis Al Shura. In Majlis Al Shura everything that concerns Saudi Arabia is discussed there. This made of 120 members and a chairman, who is appointed by the monarch. The Judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Council of Justice. Since the Sharia is the basic law in Saudi Arabia all decisions taken by the court are fair since it is based on Islam. Saudi Arabia does not allow ant political groups or parties. However in the present time many cases have showed up including terrorist attacks by some of Bin Laden’s followers who try to force their orders. Technically, the Shura advises only. In practical fact, the king is not all-powerful and most act with advice and approval from the family. King Saud was kicked out for not doing this. So there are some democratic aspects to the monarchy.
Saudi Arabia is located in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen. Its geographic coordinates are 25 00 N and 45 00 E. Its total area is 1,960,582 sq. km, land area 1,960,582 sq. km, and water area is 0 sq. km. Saudi Arabia’s slightly less that one-fourth the size of the US. Its border countries are Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, UAE, and Yemen. A large section of boundary with Yemen is not defined, the status of boundary with UAE is not final, and the Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands are disputed by Saudi Arabia. The coastline is 2,640 km. The climate is harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature. Thus, the terrain is mostly uninhabited, due to sandy deserts. The lowest point of elevation extremes is the Persian Gulf, 0 m, and the highest point is Jabal Sawda’, 3,133 m. Saudi Arabia’s natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, and copper. Its land is 1% arable land, 0% permanent crops, 39% meadows and pastures, 1% forest and woodland, and 59% other. It’s irrigated land is 4,350 sq. km.
Saudi Arabia’s current environmental issues are desertification, depletion of underground water resources, the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive sea water desalination facilities, and the coastal pollution from oil spills. Frequent sand and dust storms are Saudi Arabia’s natural hazards. Saudi Arabia’s international environmental agreements are the party to Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, which are signed, but not ratified, and Law of the Sea. Moreover, extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal.
Natural Resources (Fahad):
The most important natural resource in Saudi Arabia is oil. Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves (more than 260 billion barrels) count for more than one fourth of the world’s oil reserves. Saudi Arabia produces a little less than ten million barrels a day in which eight million barrels are exported. Saudi oil is exported to various different parts where 1.8 million barrels go to the united States the rest of Saudi’s oil goes to Europe, Japan and Arab nations. It is extremely cheap to produce oil in the Kingdom where it only costs $1.00-$2.00 per barrel, in addition it has extremely low finding costs, estimated at around 10 cents per barrel. Even though oil and other petroleum products accounts for more than forty percent of Saudi’s GDP it has been successful in mining some other resources such as hydrocarbons, gold, uranium, bauxite, coal, iron ore, phosphate, tungsten, zinc, silver, copper, and natural gas. The kingdom is trying some serious diversification attempts among the most important are producing petrochemicals.
In the recent years Saudi Arabia has also been successful in agriculture with wheat, dates, tomatoes, and watermelons, being the most important crops. The most obvious problems facing agriculture in Saudi Arabia is the lack of fresh water.
Cultural Factors (Altaf):
Both the Bedouin society and Islam have played an important role in shaping Saudi culture. The Saudis believe that nomadic Bedouins have features of important social and cultural values such as honor, valor, chivalry, and hospitality. In pre-Islamic times, in other words jahiliyya, the Bedouin poetry was one of the most developed, inspiring and influential composition of cultural aspect on the Arabian Peninsula. Poetry was also an oral tradition, where Poets use to recite or sang their poems, and for those who listened, they use to memorize the poems and retold them to others. The Arabian literature was influenced by the Bedouin poetical tradition, and is carried on until this very day.
Saudi Arabians dress according to both their religion and tradition in order to resemble their past. The men wear a long sleeved shirt that goes down to their ankles with a ghutra that is worn on the head. While the women wear a darrah that is decorated with tribal artistry, such as beads. However is mentioned by law that they must wear an abaya, which is long black cloak when they leave their home. Women wear the Hijab and cover them selves in order for the men not to be attracted to them and they wear the daraa not only because it is tradition. Due to what ever actions the woman or man might do affects his/her reputation, thus the women cover themselves form head to toe to maintain an good reputation, take the path that God has intended for him/her to take and to keep away from the Sin and evil doing.
Islam was developed in Saudi Arabia in the 7th century and was influenced by almost every aspect of its cultural life, such as arts, architecture, language and literature. Today, Saudi Arabia’s religious authority, which controls the cultural description strictly, forbids movie theaters, eating pigs, drinking alcohol, and singing or dancing at religious traditions. When the law is followed strictly throughout the kingdom.
The Islamic religion is the essence of Saudi Arabia’s culture and was developed in the Arabian kingdom. Mecca and Al- Medina are Islam’s holiest sites, which are located in the country. Islam is a monotheistic religion; the Koran is its holy book and Friday, which is known as the Sabbath day, is the most important day of the week. The Jews and Christians are considered fellow people of the book and Muslims generally treat them with respect. In Islam it is believed that Mohammed was the last prophet of God, and God has dedicated the holy Qouran to him. Saudi Arabia’s constitution is the holy Qouran and the Islamic law is the fundamental of the Saoud Arabian legal system is the Islamic Law.
The Holy Qouran gave women economic and social rights. Under Islam a woman is enjoined to behave modestly in public and is generally expected to give a full commitment to making a family home. It would be a mistake to limit a woman ‘s role in Saudi Arabia to just home making. In Saudi Arabia there has been increasing opportunities for women in both education and employment. The Saudi Arabian government has undertaken the beginning of a national education program for girls. By the mid-1970s, about half of all Saudi Arabian girls were attending school and five years later, education was available to all Saudi girls.
In the mid-18th century the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab formed his fundamentalist sect, who was supported by Saudi armies, which was the movement soon established a nationalist Arab state in the Najd. In 1802 the Wahhabi captured Mecca, although they were later banished, they were not defeated. The Wahhabi and Saudis retreated to Riyadh, where they founded their capital. There the Saudis re conquered most of the land they had lost. Unfortunately, in 1865 the dynasty fell into a civil war and the kingdom was divided among various clans and the Ottomans. The Saudi family, which was defeated, fled into exile in Kuwait. In 1902 Abdul Aziz ibn Saud retook Riyadh and four years later his forces controlled the Najd region. He captured the Hasa region and the Jebel Shammar, Mecca, Medina, and Asir. He then proclaimed himself King of Al Hijaz. However, after unifying the conquered territories, he renamed his territories as Saudi Arabia.
Oil has a great impact on Saudi Arabia, because with one-fourth of the world's proven oil reserves, Saudi Arabia is likely to remain the world's largest oil producer for the future. During the first eight months of 2003, Saudi Arabia supplied the United States with 1.8 million barrels per day of crude oil, or 19%, of US. oil imports during that period. It also has a great impact on Saudi Arabia being able to be a rich country and a developed one. It also has a great impact on Saudi Arabia’s upper class, being rich and able to afford many expensive things. Without oil people all over the world would no want to came to Saudi Arabia, because it would be poor without it and it would not be able to offer jobs to people.
Religious Ideology: Wahhabism as a political/cultural ideology (Muneera)
Saudi Arabia houses the two Holy mosques, so it is THE holy country and throughout history the Al- Saud ruling family have felt the pressure and the need to follow and adhere to the Islamic faith in all ways. The power of the religious establishment dates back 300 years to an alliance between Mohammed bin Abdulwahab, the founder of Wahhabism, the kingdom's sole permitted religious doctrine, and the Al Saud dynasty, for whom the country is named.
Wahhab was born in a small central Arabian town in 1703 as the Ottoman Empire was in its long, final decline. His influential text Kitab Al- Muwahideen (The Book of Unity) because followers of this sect call themselves the muwahideen (Unitarians) those who uphold firmly the doctrine that God is one, the only one (wahed).
Their meaning of unity was the state of believing in one. This self-designation points to the movement's major characteristic, its opposition to any custom and belief threatening and jeopardize the glorification of the one God. They attempted to recover what he saw as the original, pure state of Islam by taking out "innovations", newly introduced things that had as they thought polluted its essential monotheism. Wahhab's list of corruptions was sweeping it included being a Shiite and following Sufism. He discarded most of the interpretations of Islam's four great legal schools in favor of an exceedingly literal reading of meticulous ritual and enforcement by draconian punishment. The new belief had no place for free will or human rights, let alone separation of mosque and state.
Mohammed bin Saud, was an ambitious local chieftain of puritan leanings who wanted ideological approval to treat the Ottomans as a foreign occupying power.
Wahhabism gave him religious credibility for an armed campaign to gain stewardship of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. They used this to justify their war because they now thought they were the saviors and those they were fighting those who were infidels, hypocrites and polytheists, and they were the saved group.
The resulting full partnership, Saud granted Wahhab religious and judicial control in his lands and married his daughter, was wildly successful and memorably brutal as they slaughtered thousands of Shi'ites and Sufis (and Sunnis). The House of Saud began a journey that would turn most of the Arabian Peninsula into a Wahhabi theocracy and as the Sauds gained territory they enforced the Wahhabist faith throughout the Kingdom. Wahhabism, an severe form of Islam, has been Saudi Arabia’s dominant faith and so it does not have a constitution or elected legislature and the judiciary rules according to each individual judge's interpretation of Islamic law.
Wahhabis claim the Wahhabi movement is totally flawless where questions of monotheism are concerned, and seize the right to judge and penalize "infidels", "polytheists" and "hypocrites."
Wahhabis say that any deviation from monotheism turns a Muslim into an Infidel and so he becomes an apostate, traitor and the punishment for apostasy in Islam is death. Those whom follow atheistic movements such as communism, secularism, democracy, capitalism and other movements become apostasies and so infidelity also includes the implementation of any of the socio-political organization that is not based completely on the Sharia, or Islamic rule, as Wahhabis understand it.
Hypocrites are a separate group of infidels, a hypocrite is a Muslim who demonstrates adherence to Islam and conceals his infidelity thus Wahhabis can proclaim any Muslim a hypocrite or an infidel. They could then announce that any Muslim is a hypocrite and so they took it upon themselves to do so when there were no clear signs to accuse a Muslim of being a hypocrite.
A Polytheist is one who makes appeals to a prophet, king, ruler or anyone else and asks for help from anyone besides Allah. This is not true in Islam and furthermore in Islam no one has the right to proclaim anyone’s infidelity, hypocrisy, or polytheism. So Wahhabis usually avoid discussing is who or what gave them the right, which in Islam belongs to God and no one else, to take a final judgment on whether a man is a true monotheist especially in the cases of the so-called "concealed" or "secret" infidelity, or "hypocrisy", and enforce the penalty for infidelity, including death? Nobody and nothing in Islam could give them such right, but they CLAIM IT. In actual fact the religious leaders in Saudi Arabia get to make that judgment and recently with the US pressuring reform some of those clerics are taking back there religious fatwa, a decree that in Islam is made with all assurance that the Quran approves by those religious experts, which are somewhat radical.
Defense (Hamad E.):
With a military manpower of 6.1 million, Saudi Arabia has the most powerful military in the GCC, and one of the most powerful out of all the Arabian States. Current armed forces personnel are equal to 202,000. Saudi Military expenditures for the fiscal year 2000 reached $18.3 billion, which constitutes 13% of GDP. Conventional arms imports and exports equal to $143 million. 5,000 personnel are employed in arms production, and it has 4,810,000 weapon holdings.
The Saudi military is composed of several branches: the army, the navy, the air force, air-defense forces and the paramilitary Ministry of Interior Forces (the police force.)
Domestic arms production in Saudi Arabia is somewhat sophisticated. The small-arms industry was established at Al- Kharj, and produces US and West German rifles, machine guns and ammunition under license. In 1985, a $350 million contract was signed with Boeing, and included a joint project airframe maintenance facility, an advanced jet maintenance and repair facility, and most notably, the Piece Shield air-defense system. Saudi Arabia also produces the Al- Faris and Al- Fahed armored vehicles.
With respect to missiles, Saudi Arabia is in possession of Surface-to-Air, Air-to-Surface, Surface-to-Surface and Air-to-Air Missiles. All Saudi missiles fall under the category of conventional weapons and do not have nuclear, biological or chemical capabilities. Furthermore, Saudi missiles are currently non-proliferating. Saudi Arabia currently has two missile launch sites, one at Al- Sulail 500 km south of Riyadh, the other at Al- Joffer, 100 km south of Riyadh. Each site is equipped with four to six concrete launch pads and stores approximately 60 Chinese CSS-2 ballistic missiles, with an estimated range of 2,500 km and a conventional payload of 2,000 kg. Saudi Arabia has pledged that these missiles will not be armed with unconventional warheads, nor will they be used in a first-strike mode.
The quality of the Saudi Army, relative to the other armies of the Arab World, is somewhat LOW, and is OVERSHADOWED by Egypt and pre-1990 Iraq. The Saudi Army however could have not easily defeated Iraq or Iran. Saudi Arabia also cannot stop an American invasion, however this would likely provoke the Arab World and lead to a full scale Arab-American War. The Saudi Army has been plagued by tribalism and is considered well-armed, and moderately sized, but relatively weak by regional standards.
The War on Terror (Khaled):
Since September 11th Saudi-American relations have been strained, since 15 of the suicide bombers were Saudi citizens. In the beginning the U.S media and many U.S officials claimed that Saudi Arabia was uncooperative in the war on terrorism while Saudi Arabia was stating that the War on Terror is being undermined by what Prince Abdullah called the "indefensible" US. position on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Yet the United States has commended Saudi Arabia for their role in the war on terror. Operation Iraqi Freedom demonstrated US.-Saudi cooperation for Saudi allowed US troops into Saudi Arabia and in August 2003 the US withdrew its troops stationed in Saudi Arabia, it was extremely important for the US troops to be withdrawn since they caused great unease in the region, being so close to the holy city of Mecca, and in the people. Saudi Arabia played a big role in the origins of terrorism because the Islamic groups in Saudi Arabia linked Jihad (struggle) a sacred religious act to terrorism.
The War on Terror changed drastically to Saudi Arabia after May 12th 2003. On May 12, suicide bombers killed 35 people, including nine Americans, in attacks at three housing compounds in Riyadh. After that day counterterrorism cooperation between Saudi Arabia and the United States increased significantly. Saudi Arabia's change in policy is also due to the fact that in 2003, while many of the targets of terrorist attacks were Western or non-Muslim, the majority of the victims of terrorist attacks were Muslim such as attacks in Morocco, Indonesia, Turkey and of course Saudi Arabia. Then came the terrible Ramadan bombings of November 8th where terrorists attacked another compound, housing foreign workers from mainly Arab countries. At least 18 people, including 5 children died in this attack, and more than 100 were injured. These attacks only increased Saudi Arabia's support of the United States on the War on Terror.
After these bombings Saudi Arabia's government began a series of crackdowns on militants in Jeddah, Mecca, and Riyadh. And in December, Saudi newspapers took the unusual step of publishing a list of 26 terrorism suspects, including Al-Qaeda's alleged leader in the country. The newspapers included the offer of a reward for the capture of the suspects. The Saudi government also increased security in all housing compounds and airports on December 3rd. Now Saudi Arabia is an important partner in the campaign against terrorism, providing assistance in the military, diplomatic, and financial arenas. President George Bush and the US government have been praising Saudi Arabia on its efforts against Terror.
Economy (Nasser Al-Aujan):
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing nation, relaying mostly on oil for revenue. Other sources of income for the kingdom include agricultural products and industrial and petrochemical products. 7 million person make up the Saudi labor force and 25% of the population is unemployed. The Saudi GDP consists of $268.9 billion with a 1% annual growth rate, which makes the per capita $11,400. The GDP composes agriculture 5.2%, industry 51.2% and services 43.6%. The inflation rate in Saudi Arabia is 1%.
The Saudi economy is oil-based, since oil plays a major role. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has the greatest oil reserve in the world, with 26% of proven reserves, which equals to 261.7 billion barrel. The kingdom also is the greatest oil exporter, exporting 7.26 million barrel daily. The kingdom produces 8.711 million barrel daily, and consumes 1.452 million barrel daily. The kingdom produces also natural gas, it produces 53.69 billion cum and consumes it all without exporting any, and with reserves that equal to 6.339 trillion cu m.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia produces agricultural products such as wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs and milk. The kingdom produce such industries as crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics. The Saudi exports equal to $71 billion, exporting petroleum and petroleum products to US (18.6%), Japan (15.6%), South Korea (10.1%), Singapore (5.1%) and China (4.6%). The Saudi imports equal to $39.5 billion, importing machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles from US (11.2%), Japan (8.8%), Germany (7.6%), UK (4.9%), France (4.9%) and Italy (4.1%).
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has an external debt that equals to $25.9 billion. The kingdom donates economic aid and pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon; since 2000, Saudi Arabia has committed $307 million for assistance to the Palestinians; pledged $240 million to development in Afghanistan. The Saudi population also donate great amounts of money to help the needy. The Saudi Riyal (SAR) is the official currency used in Saudi Arabia. The exchange rate is one US dollar ($) equals to 3.75 SAR.
The current population growth rate is greater than the GDP growth rate, where the population growth equals to 3.27% (2003 est.), and the GDP growth rate equals to 1% (2003 est.). The current Saudi revenues equal to $46 billion, and the expenditures equal to $56.5 billion, making Saudi have a budget deficit of $10.5 billion.
The Saudi Rentier State (Saud):
A rentier state is a country that depends on external aid (or oil revenues) rather than on the production of goods and services by its citizens, it also is usually a state with no indigenous natural resources/agricultural base that could sustain state formation. Another feature of rentier states is that usually they have a small amount of their land arable, such as in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Afghanistan, and Iran, where there is a large amount of land, but only a fraction of it is populated, and the rest left alone, mainly it is this because there is no water and it is a desert wasteland, which is why there is little other than the oil revenues if any for use as economic resources. This comes on two levels, countries that rely on external aid, and countries that rely on oil revenues. Countries that rely on external aid are called weak rentier states, since they rely on external aid, it is controlled not by them, but by another person, essentially that person is controlling their country, a bad policy to adapt. It gives the country little allowance to expand since they are under the control and completely rely on that aid to survive, if cut this country will collapse.
The countries that rely on oil revenues are called strong rentier states, they generally are more in control and much more powerful than ‘weak rentier states’, countries like this are more developed and have more prosperous people, moreover have the highest standards of living in the world. Although it is very good now, it will hurt in the long run since there is no person controlling their aid; their aid which is oil revenues will eventually run out once the oil run out from under the ground, and thus the countries are left between a rock and a hard place. Either NOT use what is available now, oil, and try to work something ells and fail since the land is terrible and the weather is harsh without the expansion and development of the first world, or use up what is available now and suffer in the long run when it runs out.
Saudi Arabia is a strong rentier state that relies on oil. Since it is a monarchy and one family is in control of the government, the closer you are to them the better off you are, as a secondary effect of this it has caused laziness and lack of respect for authority and the felling of being ‘above the law’ in many people. Oil is sold and revenues given to the government basically since the government owns the oil companies that operate the oil drilling and handling throughout the process. The government takes part of the oil revenues and uses them for expenses that are needed in the country, reserves some for the ‘fund for future generations’, and the rest is used for wages, salaries and other expenses geared towards the citizens of the country. No taxes are present in Saudi Arabia because the taxes placed on the people are taken from the oil revenues.
So far along with no taxes on the people, just money taken from the oil revenues, Saudi Arabia is a very easy place to live in as a Saudi citizen. Not only that, but what makes life even easier in Saudi Arabia is the ability to obtain extra money from the oil revenues. All that one has to do is be a friend or a close relative of the ruling family, or even better one of them, then through these friends and their high governmental status and ability to assign people for jobs as they please, one is able to get a much higher wage than normal, or a job he is not qualified for merely because of the higher pay. The government also creates fodder jobs, jobs that do nothing, or over employ at jobs in order to ensure everyone a job. This can be though of as an unemployment benefit since everyone can get a job, and they literally don’t do anything since there are 20 others doing the same job, yet it only takes 4 to complete the job well. So in turn the money is initially spread over the population close to evenly depending of the kind of job they get, and how close you are to the royal family gets you a higher wage. Because of this system, money is easily available to the people and can therefore afford more things, more cars, more houses, and more children. Sadly the oil will run out, and it will become a crisis, but for now there is sufficient money for everyone.
Views on World Problems (Amna):
Saudi Arabia, being a Muslim Country, relies on the principles of Islam when deciding what action should be taken or how they should react to certain issues. Saudi’s main goal is to maintain its security and position in the Arab peninsula, and to also promote peace between Islamic governments. Saudi Arabia is one of the largest aid giving countries in the world, and that is why countries try their best to keep in good relations with Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia is involved in many international and Arab based organizations, such as: the GCC, OPEC, ABEDA, Interpol, IOC, ISO, G-77, G-19, AL, PCA, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, OIC, and many more.
Concerning the Palestinian-Israeli issue, Saudi Arabia is definitely on Palestine’s side and supports all peace negotiations concerning this issue. Saudi Arabia was on Kuwait’s side during the 1990 Gulf War and hosted over 400,000 Kuwaiti refugees in its soil. Saudi Arabia has continuously donated and supported Palestine by sending various types of aid including humanitarian aid and funds to spend on what Palestine believes necessary.
The relationship between Saudi Arabia and the countries that supported Saddam during the Gulf War (Yemen, Jordan, Sudan) was severely damaged, and Saudi decreased trade and support to those countries, but these relations are gradually getting better. Saudi’s relationship with most other Arab countries such as Egypt and Syria is a very good relationship and a quite strong one. However, Egypt has traditionally been a rival for leadership of the Arab world; it's a right versus left rivalry.
Regarding the Iraqi issue, Saudi Arabia is definitely against the brutal and inhumane actions of the former dictator Saddam Hussein, but still believes that the US could have pondered more thoroughly and could have come up with a more peaceful and less violent way of freeing Iraq from their dreadful leader. Saudi Arabia is happy that the Iraqis are finally free of the dictator and are now able to start a new, democratic life.
Saudi’s relations with the US continue to be in a good basis, although the US believes that Saudi Arabia is a terrorist country and therefore funds terrorists. Many freedom fighters are considered terrorists to the US and therefore a true definition of terrorism should be set in order for the US to call Saudi Arabia a terrorist funding country.
History (Hamad S.):
Saudi refers to the Al Saud family, the royal house of Saudi Arabia, whose eponym is Saud bin Muhammad bin Mughrin. Saud himself was not a significant figure, but his son, Muhammad bin Saud (literally, Muhammad, the son of Saud), conquered most of the Arabian Peninsula in the early eighteenth century. In almost two centuries since then, Muhammad bin Saud's family has grown tremendously and, in 1992, the ruling house of Saudi Arabia had more than 4,000 male members. Arabia-or the Arabian Peninsula-refers to a geographic region whose name is related to the language of the majority of its inhabitants.
Before the era of the Muslim conquests, there were Arabic speaking people that lived in the north of the Arabian Peninsula between the Sassanid and Byzantine empires. As a result of the Muslim conquests, however, people of the peninsula spread out over the wider region that today is known as the "Arab world" and the Arabic language became the region's dominant language. However, Saudi Arabia is much older than the current Saudi House and was not always limited in its influence to its current geographical location.
The geographic location of Saudi Arabia allowed it to have an easy access for neighboring countries which resulted in the formation of very strong trade links between them. The increased trade links between the Arabian Peninsula produced two important results. One was the rise of cities that could service the trains of camels moving across the desert. The most prosperous of these were Petra in Jordan and Palmyra in Syria. The most important of these was Mecca in which it owed its prosperity to certain shrines in the area visited by Arabs from all over the peninsula. The second result was the contact between the Arabian Peninsula and the outside world.
In the sixth century, shortly before the birth of Muhammad, the city of Najran in what is now southwestern Saudi Arabia had a Christian church with a bishop, monks, priests, nuns, and lay clergy, and was ruled by a Jewish king. Jews were an important part not only of the Yemeni population, but also of the oases communities in the region of Medina.
Muhammad bin Saud is the former of Saudi Arabia. He achieved his goal with his Wahhabi army that with time conquered most of Saudi Arabia leaving only little tribes who, by the end, joined bin Saud. To achieve his goal, bin Saud must first conquer the Rashidi clan that had the most of Saudi Arabia at that time. He also must conquer the west coast that was ruled by the Sharif family. The British was all around the Arabian Peninsula at that time, for that caused bin Saud to limit his interests. To be a good leader, one must gain respect, and bin Saud gained respect from the neighboring countries. After conquering the Rashidi clan, bin Saud waited until the British close their relationship with the Sharif family. He was awarded for his patience, and conquered the Sharif family with little opposition. He is a remarkable leader.
It should be noted that following the discovery of oil and gas, the province became an extremely important area in terms of attracting people to live and engage in economic activities there; especially when it was found that the Eastern province has more than 25% of the world's resources while the reserve of extractable crude oil totals 250 billion barrels.
Unlike Qatar, Wahhabism became an essential part in modern Saudi Arabia. In order for King Abdul Aziz to form an army of Ikhwan, he needed to follow and comprehend their believes for them to follow him. And with time, this need has developed making Wahhabism inescapable by the Royal House. The United States has been Saudi Arabia's staunchest ally throughout the Cold War. It has defended the Saudi regime against the threat of Arab radical nationalism and against its own radical fundamentalist opposition. And above all, of course, against Saddam Hussein, who threatened Saudi Arabia's oil fields after the invasion of Kuwait. It was all part of a deal under which Saudi Arabia, with its huge oil reserves, secured a safe and cheap supply of oil to the West.
The effect of American positioning of troops in Saudi Arabia have caused some riots within the boundaries of Saudi Arabia causing these troops to be isolated from the people. For this cause, Saudi Arabia expects that the number of American troops will be reduced.
The unrest that is seen today is due to the need of reform, for the past attacks have strengthened the need such. Reform will be a difficult balancing act in which the royal family will need to convince the powerful but conservative religious establishment eventually to allow an elected parliament, and to reform an educational curriculum that spawns hatred against the West. It will at the same time have to address the poverty and high unemployment that leave young and angry Saudis prone to joining extremist groups.
GA 1: Disarmament & International Security:
Tracing Illegal Small Arms and Light Weapons (Amna):
Like many other strict Islamic countries, it is "haram" to kill another person (except under specific circumstances) and is considered the greatest sin and results in execution. So most Saudis do not think of using small arms and light weapons to harm others, not only because of their fear from their government’s punishment, but because of their fear from Allah and what they will face in their afterlife. Several Saudi’s keep small weapons in their house for safety but never use it except for self-defense if it is extremely necessary. Nevertheless, there is always a minority of people who do not obey the rules of their government, nor of the Koran.
This minority of terrorists destroys the Saudi reputation and set an image for the foreigners regarding Saudi Arabia as a terrorist kingdom. Small arms and Light weapons are being trafficked illegally in Saudi Arabia and are being left in the wrong hands. Thankfully Saudi Arabia has a small amount of control over few of these terrorist groups but in very sad to say that it doesn’t have control over the most harmful groups. These groups are threatening the Saudi citizens and in some cases are causing chaos in the Saudi land.
Saudi Arabia is strongly with the tracing of illegal small arms and light weapons in order to put a stop to this issue once and for all. Saudi Arabia is truly shocked that a small amount of its Muslim citizens would use these arms in the wrong way and not follow the principles of Islam and Allah. This issue would not be in hand if they were true Muslims, but since this is already happening, these people should be tracked down and face consequences for their illegal actions. Saudi Arabia believes that the Palestinian issue is completely different where the Palestinians need these small arms and light weapons to defend themselves against the brutal an immoral actions shown by the Israeli side of the conflict, that is why Saudi Arabia has and continues to send support and funds in order for the Palestinians to defend themselves, their land, and their religion.
Missile Proliferation (Hamad):
Saudi Arabia has clearly and directly defined its missile capabilities to the international community. "Saudi Arabia is in possession of Surface-to-Air, Air-to-Surface, Surface-to-Surface and Air-to-Air Missiles. All Saudi missiles fall under the category of conventional weapons and do not have nuclear, biological or chemical capabilities. Furthermore, Saudi missiles are currently non-proliferating. Saudi Arabia currently has two missile launch sites, one at Al- Sulail 500 km south of Riyadh, the other at Al- Joffer, 100 km south of Riyadh. Each site is equipped with four to six concrete launch pads and stores approximately 60 Chinese CSS-2 ballistic missiles, with an estimated range of 2,500 km and a conventional payload of 2,000 kg. Saudi Arabia has pledged that these missiles will not be armed with unconventional warheads, nor will they be used in a first-strike mode." [Country Profile; Defense.]
The quote above accurately conveys Saudi Arabia’s missile capabilities, which have been openly declared to the international community. Again, emphasis must be placed on the fact that Saudi missiles are fully conventional and are non-proliferating. This proves that Saudi Arabia is not a cause of the problem at hand.
The problem at hand affects Saudi Arabia, however not in a direct manner. The problem to Saudi Arabia is not the proliferation of nations’ missile capabilities. Saudi Arabia greatly dreads this technology, namely small, personnel-launched shoulder mounted missiles, falling into the hands of terrorists.
The year of 2003 brought two devastating terrorist attacks on the Saudi capital, both in May and October. Using multiple car bombs on residential compounds that housed both Westerners and Locals, Al- Qaeda managed to end the lives many innocent civilians, and bring fear to the eyes of others. Furthermore, the insurgency in Iraq has repeatedly witnessed the use of small missiles and rockets, and most notably the attack on the Al- Rashid Hotel, which targeted US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, and included the launching of ten missiles into the eleventh floor of the hotel.
The Iraqi scenario proves the devastating effect of the proliferation of small missiles and rockets on the region. Furthermore, putting both scenarios together (those of the terrorist attacks on Saudi Arabia and the use of missiles in the insurgency in Iraq) clearly illustrates the reason for Saudi Arabia’s concern of the proliferation of small missiles and rockets.
Furthermore, it is often argued that Saudi Arabia has a role in arming Palestinian suicide bombers. This is partially true in that Palestinians may be receiving funds from independent Islamic charities. However, in the last month alone, the Saudi Government has seized roughly 3,000 donation boxes, and has greatly cracked down on such illegal charities.
GA 2: Special Political and Decolonization:
The Role of Women in Development (Besma):
Islam encourages this role for women in many ways which were ostentatiously shown by God and his Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Islam has given all women’s rights, in which for example, women are in charge of their own wealth. This is why in Saudi Arabia you find businesses owned by women. Mostly in retailing and services, a large part of these cater to women. The women has a great role in the family, and she has rights too. They’re allowed to have their free choice regarding marriage and divorce, and whenever she gets a divorce she has rights from her ex-husband towards her, such as the "nafaqa," which is the money given to her to continue her life. As said in the "Quran," "When you divorce women and they fulfill the term of their "Idda," then retain them in kindness or release them in kindness. But do not retain them to prejudice them or to take undue advantage. Do not take the revelations of God as a laughing matter. Remember God's grace upon you and that which he has revealed upon you of the scripture and of wisdom to exhort your. be pious and know that God is aware of all things. When you divorce women and they fulfill their term do not prevent them from marrying their former husbands, if they agree on equitable terms. That is an admonition for him among you who believes in God and the day of judgment and God knows, but you do not know". (Al-Bagarah, 231). The Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessings upon him), also said, "Heaven is underneath the mothers’ feet." This shows how much God has appreciated women.
Saudi Arabia has actively done something to make this happen in which women and men are separated in the work force with the exception of the medical field where a mixed working environment is acceptable. Slowly this is changing and some private companies and banks are leading the change. The number of working women is increasing rapidly because of economic reasons and the fact that many women want to use their education and training. However, due to constraints in career opportunities most women work in the health and education sectors or run their own commercial businesses. As mentioned earlier, the medical sector is the only sector that allows equal gender participation. Last year 40% of the 1000 medical graduates were women. Female professionals working in the public sector receive the same pay for equal work as their male counterparts. Many women work as volunteers in philanthropic organizations.
The government is currently pushing education to help deal with the problem of unemployment. It wants the country to diversify its economic activity to make it less oil dependent and to reduce the need to employ expatriates (to Saudis the jobs). For example, 90% of doctors in the country are Saudi but 90% of nurses are non nationals. Increasingly Saudi women are considering nursing as a career and many nursing colleges are opening. It is also providing career opportunities for women and helping integrate women into the workplace. One area where training is lacking is in management. Women play a very limited role in the country's politics. The education of women has rapidly progressed and, although they face career challenges which in Europe are found alien, Saudi women are actively striving to play a larger role in the economic and social development of their country.
The Trafficking in Persons (Altaf):
Defining trafficking in persons, according to noted documents done by the UN, is " the transportation, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation." There are people who come from low-income countries to Saudi Arabia in search for employment are thrown into inhumane situations where they face many physical and sexual abuse. Furthermore, their passports have been withheld, their contracts have been altered and they suffer non-payment of salaries of varying durations. Low Penalties for the Traffickers and Lack of a Trafficking Law are just a couple of the problems that are faced by the government.
Saudi Arabia is no different than any other rich country. They are faced with many kinds of human trafficking in the form of domestic workers and cheap labor. It is in the form of force labor, child labor and prostitution.. Women, children and men are lured in by false advertisement where they are promised to have a better wages therefore better lives. Little did they know that when they arrived to their destinations they become victims. Their passports is taken from them and in order to get it back they have to pay a large sum of money, which they cannot afford. These victims are beaten and don’t know who to turn to for help.
Even though the Saudi Arabian government doesn’t completely follow with the minimum standards concerning the elimination of illegal trafficking, it is trying it’s best to produce substantial efforts to do so. However, the areas of prevention and protection, when combating trafficking, are the government’s strengths. The government is taking action by increasing the requirement of trafficking by revising its visa system. Though the UN is trying to decrease the number of illegal trafficking of persons around the world, it’s currently trying to resolve this inhumane issue, such as The Global Program against Trafficking in Human Beings (GPAT). The UN aids Saudi Arabia for trying to resolve this problem, when there are numerous successful attempts of illegal trafficking of persons in Saudi Arabia.
GA 3: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural
International Drug Control (Khaled):
Saudi Arabia is a strict Islamic nation that follows Sharia law. Under that Islamic Legal Code, drug trafficking is a capital crime and enforced on Saudis and non Saudis alike. There appears to be a decline in the executions in the past years. Nevertheless, this issue features regularly in reports of human rights organizations. But regardless of the human rights reports this solution appears to be adequate and efficient in solving the drug problem Saudi Arabia does not suffer from drug problems and Saudi Arabia's drug situation "is not as an alarming level" according to the UNODC (United Nation's Office on Drugs and Crime). Saudi Arabia believes that the Islamic solution can be used globally to combat drugs.
As for addicts, Non-Saudi addicts are jailed and deported. Saudis are usually sent to one of the three drug treatment hospitals in the country. The lead agency in Saudi Arabia for anti drug efforts is the Ministry of the Interior. Saudi Arabia has five drug contact offices in Nigeria, Lebanon, Thailand, UAE and Pakistan. Saudi Arabia has bilateral co-operation agreements with Jordan, Syria, and Turkey and is hosting a US customs advisory team in drug control. In addition, Saudi Arabia is member of the Gulf Co-operation Council, which provides a forum for consultations among its members on drug control matters.
Right of Peoples to Self-Determination (Bader):
Self-determination is defined as "the right to choose own government; the right of a people to determine its own form of government without interference from outside." This problem is present in our world in many regions. It has been in the agenda of the UN for many years. There are many cases that have not yet been solved, such as the Palestinian case and the Kurds and Iraq. Saudi Arabia and many countries neighboring Iraq are all backing up self-determination in Iraq. From the beginning of the Palestinian case Saudi Arabia has aided it and supported it. Saudi Arabia believe that the Palestinians deserve self-determination, since we believe that is only way to solve the issue.
In the point of view of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we believe that self-determination is the best solution to many cases. However self-determination will be given to groups according to their case, because self-determination does not suite each case. Self-determination must be taken into consideration in the Palestinian issue, since their land has been taken from them. Self-determination will not be taken into consideration in the issue of the Shia in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, since they belong to same country. The right of self-determination shall only be given to people who have not been given the deserved political rights and powers.
GA 4: Economic and Financial:
International Financial Institutions (Nasser):
An International Financial Institutions is defined by dictionary.com as "An established organization or foundation involving finance, finances, or financiers involving two or more nations." The International Monetary Fund, IMF, is an example of an international financial institution. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is with these institution and supports them fully. According to the International Monetary Fund, Saudi Arabia is one of the eight permanent members of the IMF Executive Board.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is with the issue because institutions such as the IMF have a good cause and they help disadvantaged member countries. The kingdom, like other Arabian Gulf countries, is known for its generosity, and according to the CIA Factbook it gave other countries more than $647 million as economic aid. The kingdom is also with increasing trade between countries, as proven to us when it backed Kuwait in its motion to create the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981, which is an organization that helped increase trade between the six member countries.
Agriculture and Rural Economy in the 21st Century (Fahad Al Rushaid):
Thanks to oil the issue of rural economy is not a major concern to Saudi Arabia itself today. Oil along with the other natural resources of Saudi Arabia build a strong and wealthy economy. However Saudi Arabia is a leading country in providing aid to rural economies especially in Islamic countries. The Saudi Development bank had many projects in building infrastructures such as roads schools and mosque in order to help rural economies. Saudi Arabia has also taken into consideration the lack of human and financial aid, which is necessary to build the foundations of strong economy.
Another problem Saudi Arabia sees is a causing rural economy is the lack of access to developed world markets. Now we come to agriculture in the last ten years Saudi Arabia has taken huge steps in developing a good agriculture industry with modern and environmentally friendly ways. Firstly Saudi Arabia is using new techniques in watering in order to save water that is because we are running out of water and because the Islamic religion asks upon the conserving of water. Saudi has also helped a great deal in helping other Islamic nations in using modern technology to conserve water.
United Nations Commission on Human Rights
Afghan refugees in Pakistan (Hamad Al-Sager):
Saudi Arabia is appalled by the vast numbers of Afghan refugees in Pakistan. It asks the United Nation to send further economic and medical aid, because the problem has not yet been resolved. Saudi Arabia would lie to congratulate Pakistan for opening its borders to the Afghan refugees. If it weren’t for them, then the Afghans would probably suffer and die (most of them).
Having a new re-configured government in Afghanistan, it is quite clear that Afghanistan’s prosperity is nearly insured. This is what we came from, and that is what we did. Saudi Arabia proclaims that it has nothing t does with Osama Bin Laden, for he was exiled a long time ago.
Internally displaced persons in Colombia [Ala'a]:
Assisting the estimated two million internally displaced persons (IDPs) is the priority of international humanitarian activities in Colombia. Though one of the major causes of the forced internal displacement is the continuing violent armed conflicts, other social factors also play a key role in the displacement.
The Kingdom of Saudi, being a promoter and firm believer in human rights and humanitarian aids, strongly believes in extend help to the IDPs. We believe that in order to really aid the IDPs, certain practical and necessary steps have to be taken.
Looking at the social factors behind the displacement, we believe that we should work with the Colombian government in building necessary institutions such as schools, health centers, plants and factories and subsidized farming lands that will provide work for a large number of people. Communities have to be built in order for people to feel that they belong to a strong civil society, a feeling that is imperative in stopping migration. Of course, such a project needs funding, and we, at the United Nations, need to budget for it and help the Colombian government in finding innovative ways to raise capital.
Having said that, this project aims at improving the future of Colombians, however, the issue of the IDPs is a present concern that needs to be addressed today. For that, there is little we can do other than send provisions and AIDs, which something that the Kingdom never failed to do.
Policy statements, Saudi Arabia on Bangladesh and Islamic Banking
Saudi Arabia's view on loans and the issue of banks giving out loans is to make it assured that no loans are being made that have interest on them, since it is against the views on beliefs of Islam to do so. Giving loans that have interest on them create some winners, and many losers, which is why it is not allowed. The benefits of having a no-interest loan bank is that it will attract more people to take loans from it, creating competition. This in turn forces the economy to be more efficient, and encourages growth. The idea of creating a system of bank loans that are small for household level needs without collateral is a new idea and has proven to be helpful in countries that have adapted the idea, pulling most of their population above the poverty line.
Spreading the Grameen banks throughout the rest of Bangladesh will help in several ways. It will first expand the economy through development of the investment and consumption in the economy as well as increasing the supply of loanable funds. Furthermore the system of micro loans has proven to be very successful with a high return rate of 98%-99%, significantly higher than regular loans. This tells us that by developing a system of bank loans for the poor that loans out small amounts of money, without interest, will be very successful and ensure a country a step forward to being developed.
Commission on the Statue of Women:
Women’s Rights in Conflict Zones (Ala'a):
Unfortunately, in most conflicts, all human rights and dignities are put aside as all kinds of atrocities are committed. What is even sadder is that innocent women are always the first to pay as rape becomes an act of victory.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country that lives by Shari'a, the Islamic Law, totally and completely refuses such behaviors and acts. Women have nothing to do with armed conflicts and they should be left completely out of harm's way. A women's dignity and pride should never be harmed as that will be an act against all that God has preached. When in conflict, if the enemy surrenders, one then has to treat him humanly and that is how women should be treated as.
In order to ascertain that women are not abused, the Kingdom of Saudi believes the United Nations has to erect women's camps that cater only to women and their children. These camps will be under the UN, thus treated respectfully as a neutral, humanitarian place that no one will benefit in attacking. As we have the Red Cross and the Red Crescent, we should develop an entity that will symbolize the dignity and innocence of Women and children.
The Kingdom of Saudi fully supports women's rights, especially in conflict zones, where their security and safety becomes a humanitarian issue that touches us all.
Trafficking of women (Muneera):
In the western world prejudice against women is increasing as they are subjected to sexual discrimination, while it may only start by a glance it may eventually lead to rape. The Western culture has encouraged degeneracy through many things including pornography and thus their so called liberation of women is only enchaining them in so many other ways such as pressure to have sex appeal and so on. Trafficking is a phenomenon that concerns and affects most countries of the world, and the trafficking of women and children is the new trend of the century, easy cash at no cost.
Fortunately Saudi Arabia does not suffer from trafficking its laws that are sometimes considered harsh and unfair ensure that minimal trafficking and discrimination against women occurs is what the Saudi government (i.e. royal family) would like us to think the truth is trafficking in those of different nationalities such as the Indians or Thai. The women are taken to work in prostitution those exploiting them are NOT Saudi.
In a recent case two Thai women were promised work in a restaurant by a friend whom had immigrated to Saudi Arabia before them she then used them to enlarge her brothel. In the kingdom everything is a secret and so only speculation of trafficking within the country can go on and even that is put to an end. The government does not take the issue seriously because they think it does not really effect the Saudi society therefore it is not really a problem, but it will join all forces to stop the trafficking of women. Furthermore Saudi Arabia’s stance on sex and sexual freedom is as in Islam very firm it is a sin to have sex before marriage, it is also sinning to have sexual thoughts that is why women should cover anything in their bodies that can be sexually enticing and minimal interaction between men and women this ensures that Islamic standards are met and that provocation to sin is not there. A child's first right is to be born within a legitimate marriage. This is his pre-natal right guaranteed in Islam by forbidding and outlawing sexual relationships outside marriage; clause two of the Basic Law of Governance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia states the following,
"The state is determined to strengthen family bonds and to protect the Arabic and Islamic values of the Saudi family, to protect its members, and to provide suitable means for the development of their talents and abilities."
We believe that it is wrong to circumvent religion and sidetrack it in life, to demand total freedom, or to consider the satisfaction of physical needs and desires the measure of progress because that, in our belief, is a way towards chaos that would endanger society's security and safety as well as the moral values that distinguish us from annuals. We see no refuge for humanity from these misfortunes except in the upholding of human values and the heavenly laws that aim to protect man's dignity and legitimate rights and to counter effect the misguided concepts that have led to the degeneracy of women and the disintegration of societies. Indeed, it is only if we uphold God's law that we can achieve our societal commitments and, thus, build a holy society.
According to Islamic Sharia, Law, a child’s life is God's gift and his right to live is God's prerogative that cannot be usurped by abortion. Abortion is premeditated murder, so it cannot be used as a means of birth control or family planning and should not be considered except when a mother's life is in danger.
The female circumcision is widespread in North African countries such as Egypt and Sudan, but is viewed with abhorrence in Saudi Arabia, Gulf States and Syria. In Egypt eight different Islamic scholars have asked for a ban on female circumcision as it is viewed in Islam as unholy and it is a folk tradition.
Committee One: Disarmament and International SecurityTracing Illegal Small Arms and light weapons: (Amna Al-Sager) Delegate: Amna Al Sager Question of: The tracing of illegal small arms and light weapons. Country: Saudi Arabia Commission: General Assembly One (Disarmament)
Draws attention to "the enormous number of illegal small arms and light weapons", as stated by Tom Atinrener from the Society Today magazine, "that are vandalizing, destroying, and killing people in every society and country,"
Alarmed by the fact that, as stated by Dutch Ambassador Marjanne de Kwassteniet, "There are far too many small weapons in the world and light weapons and small arms kill some 500,000 people a year,"
Distressed about the ease of use and worldwide availability of illegal small arms and light weapons, and that, as mentioned by The United Nations Children's Fund at their conference in Vienna on May 2001, "small arms have helped create more than 300,000 child soldiers,"
Quotes The Secretary-General of the United Nations AS saying that "small arms proliferation is not merely a security issue; it is also an issue of human rights and of development; the proliferation of small arms sustains and exacerbates armed conflicts,"
Further Notes that, as stated by the United Press International, Over 95 countries engage in small arms production, and others that produce illicitly, plus the proliferation in the number of companies from 196 in the 1980s to about 600 today and the highly competitive nature of the market "could jeopardize attempts by governments and the international community" to tackle the problem,
Deeply Saddened by the fact that, according to UN estimates, the following war-ravaged nations are estimated to have the following light weapons: Afghanistan 10 million; In West Africa, 7 million small arms in Sierra Leone and Angola, devastated by years of civil war; 2 million are available in war-torn Central Africa,
Astounded by knowing that Argentina's former president, as stated by the United Press International, along with Carlos Menem; the son of former French president Francois Mitterand; and Vladimir Montesinos, the former Peruvian spy chief, are all under investigation for illegal arms trafficking deals,
Shows Admiration toward the UN Buy-Up Program, which has, as stated by the spokesman from the UN administration in eastern Slavonia, "yielded 6,370 rocket or mine launchers, 14,000 grenades and bombs, and 2 million pieces of ammunition"
Shows complete gratitude towards the Metro Group that has, as stated by Geir Moulson Associated Press Writer, "invented RFID chips that broadcast a signal with information about the product, and the data can be fed directly into central computers, helping a company track the movement of goods in the supply chain quickly and precisely,"
Call attention to the fact that many Arab and Islamic countries have participated in workshops, such as the "Small Arms in the Arab Region: National and Regional Measures," to cooperate in tracing and stopping the distribution of small arms and light weapons,
1. Requests the formation of the United Nations Illegal Weapons Organization, (UNIWO), that will: A. Have its head quarters assigned once this resolution passes, B. Have at least one branch in each continent, C. Have enough employees and staff members to accomplish the organizations goals;
2. Affirms that in order for the UNIWO to take action in a country, it must first have the permission of the country’s government, reminding all nations that this organization is working on helping nation and decreasing violence and destruction inside each nation;
3. Resolves that the UNIWO will do the following: A. Research and update an advanced technical tracking device system (such as the Metro Group tracking device system) that is composed of unbreakable codes, known only by the organization, that will be applied to all small arms and light weapons by the producer of the product, B. Change the codes continuously whenever found necessary in order to prevent the breaking of the codes, C. Research and Invent a new tracking device system if the previous one has been tempered with, D. Trace small arms and light weapons that have fallen into illegal hands, by referring to the trafficking system, and confiscate them, E. Form an international database that has the location of all weapons, which can only be accessed by the organization and the police departments of member nations and will be tied into the tracking system, F. Research and Locate all companies or factories that have the sufficient equipment and are capable of manufacturing small arms and light weapons, with the help and cooperation of the different nations, G. Grant manufacturers a maximum number of small arms and light weapons that they can produce, taking into consideration the status of the factory/company, and making sure that they are selling to authorized dealers, H. Accept monthly reports from all companies/factories stating numbers and destinations of the small arms and light weapons, I. Agree to the destination of the shipment and make sure that it is a legal place, J. Follow the shipments through the tracking devices and database and make sure that they arrive in the place assigned with no flaws in the arrangement, K. Command the police departments to confiscate all unlicensed small arms and light weapons in the possession of civilians, with the approval of the country in which the action will be taken, L. Will work in cooperation with the Work Bank and the International Monetary Fund to monitor bank accounts and charity accounts that are under suspicion of sending funds to increase the buying of illegal or illicit small arms and light weapons, and ask the World Bank and Monetary Fund to send all information regarding the buying/selling of small arms and light weapons, M. Investigate and decide if a charity is abusing its rights illegally regarding small arms and light weapons, N. Send the SC a report regarding charity accounts that are suspected of spending their funds on the buying of illegal or illicit small arms and light weapons, O. Send reports to the Security Council regarding bank accounts and charity organizations that are using their account in a suspicious way that is unacceptable, and allow the Security Council to take action;
4. Points out that with the additional tracking device, the price of the small arm or light weapon will increase, therefore increasing the profit received by the manufacturer depending on the demand of the product), and decreasing the number of weapons in local hands, and the reselling of these weapons (this can be incentive fore the country and the producer);
5. Further Resolves that there will be an annual meeting of the heads of each branch at the UNIWO headquarters to do the following, A. Discuss sanctions with the Security Council for specific companies and factories that abuse the right to produce small arms and light weapons, B. Discuss and implement the expanding of the organization (increasing branches, employees…etc.) C. Discuss and attempt to solve any arising issues or problems, D. Discuss and implement ways to decrease the numbers of old small arms and light weapons that are not traced or included in the database or tracking system, such as the United Nations Buy-Up Program;
Commission One: Disarmament The question of: Missile Proliferation MAIN SUBMITTER: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia FORUM: Disarmament and International Security STUDENT: Hamad Al-Essa
Defining missiles in this resolution as "man-portable, shoulder-fired anti-armor missiles" according to the YMUN XXX DISC Guidebook,
Applauding recent US seizures of such missiles illegally in the possession of insurgents in Iraq,
Noting with great concern that one such seizure in September of 2003 yielded "23 SA-7 surface-to-air missiles, 1,000 pounds of plastic explosives, 500 hand grenades, dozens of mortar bombs, hundreds of detonators and a number rocket propelled grenades," according to the Associated Press,
Noting with great regret "this past week, terrorists fired two Qassam rockets, 20 anti-tank missiles, and five mortars at IDF positions and Israeli communities in the Gaza Strip," according to the Israeli Defense Force, January 2004,
Further noting "Between 8 and 10 shoulder-mounted rockets were fired at the 11th floor of the Al- Rashid Hotel housing (US.) Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz," according to the Cable News Network,
Keeping in mind that neither "The Global Control System for the Non-Proliferation of Missiles and Missile Technologies" and "The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation" are capable of addressing the dire situation in Iraq,
1. Calls upon the secretary general to authorize the formation of the Branch of Man-Portable Missile Proliferation (BMP) under the Department of Disarmament Affairs of the Secretariat, whose headquarters will be decided by a vote in the general assembly, and which will be initially composed of a panel of 7 experts chosen by a vote of the general assembly, who will reserve the power to recruit the remainder of the BMP, and further reserve the power of full access to UN peacekeeping troops;
2. Resolves that once the entire BMP is headquartered and manned, the organization will classify countries, based on actual investigation and reports, into the following: A. Class A: Serious illegal man-portable missile proliferation, B. Class B: Intermediate to minor illegal man-portable missile proliferation, C. Class C: No missile proliferation;
3. Further resolves that once the classification list is fully drawn up, a branch of the BMP is to be built in the capital of every Class A nation, after its approval, and will then include BMP team decided by the BMP itself, which will comprehensively implement the following basic procedure: A. A robust search and collect procedure comprised of: I. Offering a period of amnesty with full pardon, II. Offering monetary rewards in exchange for shoulder-mounted missiles or information leading to missile caches, III. Offering a community-based missile collection program which entails increased neighborhood safety patrols, provisions of electricity, help rebuilding schools, roads and shops and employment counseling in exchange for a target number of missiles turned in or information leading to the seizure of a target number of missiles, B. The sustaining of the security of collected missile depots through: I. Assigning specialized UN personnel to guard such depots, II. Training a local force of the population in proper stockpile and security management, C. The destruction of collected missiles through: I. Available UN resources, II. Training a specialized local force in missile destruction;
4. Resolves that once substantial progress is made in Class A countries, similar efforts will then be made in Class B countries;
5. Calls upon the Security Council to impose BMP measures on countries that do not voluntarily accept intervention.
Committee Two: Special Political and Decolonization: Question of: Trafficking in persons Delegate: Altaf Al-Dukair Delegation: Saudi Arabia Commission: Special political/Decolonization,
Defining trafficking in persons, according to Protocol it has defined trafficking in persons as " the transportation, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation,"
Having received that it was an estimate by the new IOM figures that between 700,000 and 2 million women and children are trafficked across international boarders annually,
According to the IOM statistics the pan-African conference the Nigerian President Obasanjo who reported that that 1,178 Nigerian women and children who were believed to be victims of trafficking,
Bearing in mind that the Ghana Immigration Service (GIS) estimates that 3,582 women were trafficked from 1998 to 2000, and some 535 trafficked women were returned to Ghana in the two years 1999-2000,
Noting that, "According to the Worst Form of Child Labor," Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Kenya, Thailand, India, Greece, the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Horn of Africa are the major countries of the trafficked persons ia and most of them are either prostitutes or maids that face inhumane abuse, while children are forced to beg on the streets and do things that they don't want to do like being a camel jockey and mostly they are beaten and abused,
Taking Note that it is noted in the Holy Qouran that any kind of abuse is "Haram" and that every Muslim should do the right thing by not abusing people or take advantage of them in any way,
Noting Further that the Bible States, Mathew 7:12, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,"
Noting with regret that according to the Worst Form of Child Labor that women, children and men are lured in by false advertisement where they are promised to have a better wages therefore better lives, little did they know that they become victims of sexual and/or physical abuse, their passports are taken from them and in order to get it back they have to pay a large sum of money, which they cannot afford;
Keeping in Mind that the same rights of human beings are all clearly stated in the Holy Qouran, the Holy Bible and the Torah;
Deeply concerned that according to the IOM statistics that in most countries, there are few statistics on the scale of trafficking: the most recent global estimates of the scale of trafficking in women and children were prepared in 1998 by the US Government; it was estimated then that between 700,000 and 2 million women and children are trafficked across international borders annually, although the calculations used to arrive at these figures are unclear,
Believing what LaShawn Jefferson, director of the group's Women's Rights Division said, "Trafficking cannot flourish without the involvement of corrupt police, border guards and state officials,"
Having heard that Marsha, a trafficking survivor "The woman suggested that she could help me to get work somewhere abroad. She told me she had an acquaintance in Germany, a woman who could connect me with a family for whom I could be a housemaid. Upon arrival...she said I owed her that money by providing sexual services to men. I was shocked.",
Fully believing that perhaps US Secretary of State Powell best summed up the report's purpose when he said "it is incomprehensible that trafficking in human beings should be taking place in the 21st century - incomprehensible, but it's true, very true."
Supporting the ILO, United Nations (UN) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, UNICEF, UNODC, GPAT, UNICRI, and many other organizations that are fighting against trafficking,
Noting With Regret that trafficking continues though there is an already existing protocol within the United Nations, that deals with the trafficking of persons and in particular the trafficking of women and children, that all member states have signed, the protocol sets forth three purposes: a. To prevent and combat trafficking in persons, paying particular attention to women and children; b. To protect and assist victims of trafficking, with full respect for their human rights; and c. To promote cooperation among States in order to meet these objectives.
1) Recommends that every country that is affected by trafficking should do the following before allowing the traffickers to enter the boarders: a) Distribution of pamphlets in the immigrant’s own language, b) Distribution of Emergency and the normal contact line of the I.W.C.C (Immigrated worker Crisis Center), c) Briefing about abuse and the dangers that occur, d) Distribution of emergency kit that consists of: i) Rubbing alcohol, ii) Cotton, iii) Disinfecting cream (or spray), iv) Scissors, v) Sterilization equipment, vi) Band aid tape, vii) Ice pack, viii) Instructions of what to do if in injury occurs, ix) Suture kit, x) Burning cream, xi) What to do when they are abducted and abused, etc.;
2) Further recommends that every country that receives Immigrant guest workers should set up an I.W.C.C (Immigrant Worker Crisis Center) that, the United Nations inspectors will monitor, should be staffed with the following: a) Temporary living quarters that the immigrant would stay in for not more than 2 weeks, b) Job placement officers, c) Investigators that investigate any abuse of the trafficker, d) Psychological councilors and doctors, e) Religious guidance for major religions that represents the majority of the immigrant group’s religion, f) The Crisis Center should have the power to terminate labor and transportation contracts, g) Information on their legal rights where: i) Trafficking victims are not to be arrested, ii) Victims will be able to enter witness protection programs, h) Education and training to find respectable jobs and to support themselves;
3) Urges that the people should be aware about trafficked persons and the inhumane abuse that they face and that each of the following should have the contact numbers of the I.W.C.C by: a) Forming Radio and Television talk shows about the abuse that trafficked persons face, b) Creating Flyers and billboards to grab people’s attention to show what traffickers do to trafficked people, c) Creating videos and/or even segments on shows like the Discovery Channel that show the people how trafficked persons are treated and how they are living and barely surviving and shows the actual physical abuse of men, women and children, d) Public speakers that inform the people about trafficked persons and the abuse that they face and how they are being lured into terrifying situations, e) Distributing pictures and facts about trafficked persons, f) Formation of charity and fundraisers to help the organizations that help trafficked persons and bring their traffickers to justice and even distribute donations to the trafficked persons, g) Formation of a webpage where there are information about trafficked persons and a special page for donations where people can contribute, h) Recruiting skilled volunteers to help the organizations and their employees that help the trafficked persons to keep them out of harm’s way;
4) Condemns the fact that traffickers are abducted, cheated on and lied to, thus they face physical and sexual abuse;
5) Calls upon all countries that are affected by trafficking and have been helped by the I.W.C.C and the ILO should do the following: a. Enforce harsher punishments and penalties to the traffickers such as life sentences and/or death b. The judicial system will have to enforce fair trails using the harsher laws, c. United Nations inspectors will monitor trails as to ensure that the judiciary systems are working;
6) Having Resolved that countries will not do the following they will be come subjected to penalization by not: i) Enforcing harsher punishments, ii) Working in accordance with their timetable when able to, iii) Allowing the regional committee to monitor or work, iv) Receiving complaints from the regional committee are identified by the database, b. The countries will be penalized by: i) Cutting off World Bank and International Monetary Fund loans, ii) Publishing of travel advisories, iii) The judicial system will have to enforce fair trails using the harsher laws;
7) Reminds that there is an already existing protocol within the United Nations, that deals with the trafficking of persons and in particular the trafficking of women and children, that all member states have signed, the protocol sets forth three purposes: A. To prevent and combat trafficking in persons, paying particular attention to women and children, ii. To protect and assist victims of trafficking, with full respect for their human rights, iii. To promote cooperation among States in order to meet these objectives;
8) Emphasizes that when a trafficked person is abused they should call the I.W.C.C for help and further information;
9) Encourages countries of they find a trafficked person to either do the following and if they do there will be a reward of what the UN will decide that they best see fit: a) Provide financial compensation bringing the abuser to justice and to request transportation to the abused person to their country, b) Contact the I.W.C.C, c) Contact the police;
10) Calls upon all affected countries to allow the placement of appointed-UN observers, such as the ILO, on the boarders where they will: a) report back to the ILO headquarters if or when they find any trafficked persons or traffickers, b) Supervise the boarders, subways, underground transportation, airports, seaports and other public places, c) Supervise the travel agencies and other agencies to ensure the people that they are not going to be abused, lied to or to be victims of trafficking;
11) Resolves that every country that is affected by trafficking should conducted undercover operations to investigate the activities of the traffickers and that they should also be observing where the trafficked persons that are currently working and to make sure that they are not abused in any way;
12) Resolves that when the steps of the I.W.C.C are going to be taken into action it will reduce and make the trafficked persons life easier and less painful, thus they will be given their rights just as God intended;
13) Further resolves that every country should set a limit or boundaries that limits the number of traffickers that could enter the country;
14) Encourages the governments to enforce fair and specific laws under which trafficker would be effectively brought to justice;
15) Supports the ILO, United Nations (UN) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, UNICEF, UNODC, GPAT, UNICRI, and many other organizations that are fighting against trafficking;
16) Congratulates the countries that are taking steps to prevent illegal trafficking and that have enforced laws that penalize the traffickers;
17) Expresses it hope that all nations would cooperate in resolving this ongoing problem, and making sure that their work programs also concentrate on eliminating trafficking.
Committee Two: Special Political and Decolonization:
Country: Saudi Arabia Issue: The Role of Women in Development (Besma) Student: Basma Behbehani
Defines the role of women in development as the position of a woman in the progress of the country,
Bearing in mind the massive ignorance of women in Saudi Arabia and other countries such as Pakistan,
Having considered that women are well educated however their certificate is reserved at home,
Viewing with appreciation the new rules launched supporting the role of women and the new news satellite television which was delivered by a female presenter, Nahed Taher,
Deeply concerned that women’s role in development and rights would not be enhanced in which men believe they’re not supposed to be equal in rights "Rules and regulations need changing to enhance the role of women," said Nahed Taher, "the participation of women in national life would be, "complimentary to the role of the men,"
Taking in consideration that women are greatly separated from men in work and rights,
1. Calls upon all female delegates to rise high demanding for their rights in social and economical development;
2. Declares the formation of Women Role Association (WRA) which will fight for women’s rights and their role on development;
3. Resolves that this organization will: a) have a general assembly consisting of both men and women to discuss the role of women, b) have it’s headquarters in Saudi Arabia, c) hold meetings every three months and have an emergency meeting whenever the President finds it’s important to do so, d) the president will be assigned by voting;
4. Further resolves that this organization will upon being established will: a) define the role of women in development b) create committees in each involved nation which are in charged of creating new businesses owned by women ;
5. Affirms that WRA will: a) enhance the status of working women in the urban as well as rural areas through recognition of their economic role, b) enhance the consciousness level and self-awareness amongst women in general and working women in particular, c) encourage women to take up job to raise the socioeconomic standard of self, family and nation, d) undertake socio-cultural studies which determine and define the role of women in development, e) highlight the economic role of women relating to their participation in household work, farm activities, wages and employment in the country;
6. Notes that WRA will promote and carry out training programs which: a) prepare women for non-traditional occupations which expand their job opportunities in: i) human resource development ii) environment iii) income generation skills b) teach teachers;
7. States that WRA will: a) enhance women’s role in politics in which it has been limited b) advocate women against man’s cruel intentions towards her
8. Insures the support for women to increase their education and launch their rights and roles;
9. Urges all nations to advocate women’s role in development;
10. Emphasizes all nations to send WRA experts who talk about women’s role in development.
Committee Three: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural
Delegation: Saudi Arabia. Issue: The right of peoples to self-determination. Student: Bader Al Mailem
Defining the right of self-determination as the process by which a group of people, usually possessing a certain degree of national consciousness, form their own state and choose their own government,
Noting with deep regret the need to solve this problem, since it has been in the agendas of the United Nations,
Deeply concerned with groups that suffer from this, such as Palestinians, Kurds, people in Kashmir, and many more,
Keeping in mind that this issue is still taking the United Nations attention as a result of violent revolution and/or extreme suffering of a group (many cases are still not solved, Palestine…),
Considering the Palestinian issue a priority since it is one of the oldest issues (the problem was first submitted to the United Nations by Great Britain in 1947),
Bearing in mind UN Security Council Resolution 242, which passed in November 1967 in the rouse of the Arab-Israeli War of June of that year, has become the internationally accepted basis for peacemaking in the Middle East,
Realizing the dangerous effects this issue will have in this world, if this is not solved as soon as possible and solved in the right manner,
Aware of the fact that Iraq just came out of war, therefore the issue of the Kurds should be dealt with before things get out of hand,
Believing that solving this issue will benefit the world as a whole since this has decreased the rate of development of the world,
Notes around April 5 1999, 15,000 Turkish troops and 2000 government (village guards) entered 15 kilometers into Iraq to hunt down fighters of the militant Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). The invaders linked up with troops of the conservative Kurdistan Democratic Party, which rules Iraqi Kurdistan at the order of Washington. Ankara claimed it killed 44 PKK "terrorists" for the loss of 10 soldiers,
Knowing that the Kurds are a large and distinct ethnic minority in the Middle East, numbering some 25 to 30 million people in an area which spans in the modern day Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, and the war between them and turkey rose in the 90s; Between 1984 and 1991, an estimate of 2,500 people had been killed; after four years, that number rose to 20,000, 3,000 villages have been destroyed by the military in an effort to rout out PKK sympathizers, creating more than 2 million refugees,
1. Urges all nations having groups to respect them and give them their rights, this will lead in them having: A. No terrorist attacks, if any, B. No riots , if any, C. Peace will be sustained;
2. Resolves that a new sub-organization is to be formed, called The Right Of Peoples Self-Determination Organization, the organization shall have its headquarters in Geneva, and the organization will perform the following things: A. The organization will first monitor and study (includes gathering data on the case) any case handed to them by the UN or from the group itself (if they didn’t report the abuse directly to the UN), B. Then reports shall be written describing the case and the seriousness of it, C.The reports will later be studied by other experts, D. The experts will later find a solution, E. Then ambassadors from the ROPSDO will meet with that certain country and discuss the solutions: i. Where an advocate from each side will be present, F. They will make sure that the solution doesn’t lead to higher degree of autonomy, unless both sides agree to do so, G. Other reports concerning unfair or hostile treatment will be sent to the UN, and they will be in charge of it, H. And any country that does not allow the ROPSDO to enter or does not work with ROPSDO they shall be punished: i. They shall be fined by the UN, ii. They shall be forced to comply, if necessary using all means necessary, iii. The SC council shall handle any other punishment;
3. Further resolves that another sub organization is to be formed, called The United Nations New States Development Organization, they will be in charge of: A. Aiding the group in their development using money taken from donations, B. Solving any problems that occur in development, C. Shall be responsible for forming a treaty between the group and the country they live in, D. Aiding the group to develop their on constitution, E. They shall monitor the group for a certain period of time until they find their situation to be stable, F. They shall have peace keepers in the country to prevent any thing bad to happen,
4. Requests all countries to take full responsibility of groups with in;
5. States that after a group gets what is necessary from the country they belong to and will be treated like the others, and will still work for the country and will have to pay taxes, if any;
6. Asks all neutral nations to aid in negotiations concerning this issue.
Commission: DecolonizationDelegation: Saudi Arabia. Issue: International Drug Control. Student: Khaled Al-Rubei
Defining narcotics as a drug that dulls the senses and induces sleep;
Deeply disturbed at the negligence of certain nations with dealing with the issue of decreasing demand of narcotics so lightly,
Alarmed by the fact that Afghanistan is still one of the world's major sources of illicit opium and that the cultivation of opium poppy -used to make heroin-expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002,
Noting that Afghanistan is responsible for 75 per cent of the world's opium,
According to the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report there is a lack of centralized coordination of drug control efforts,
Pointing out that significant drug production is limited to a few nations for example Afghanistan and Myanmar together account for about 90 per cent of global illicit opium production and Colombia alone is responsible for two-thirds of global coca leaf production,
Congratulating the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) for the publication of the World Drug Report 2000,
Saddened by the abandonment of the Poppy Crop Reduction Project in Afghanistan in 1994,
1. Resolves the formation of a committee within the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) which will be named the International Narcotics Investigative Committee (INIC) the will: A. Consist of representatives from all UN member states; B. Tackle the issues of: i. Drug trafficking; ii. Finding alternative resources for drug exporting nations; C. Set an international judicial code that deals with drug traffickers and users;
2. Resolves that the INIC will deal with the issues of drug trafficking and finding alternative resources for drug exporting nations with the cooperation of Interpol (specifically the Criminal Organizations and Drug Sub-Directorate within the Criminal Intelligence Directorate of the General Secretariat of ICPO-Interpol) through: A. The collection of information by: i. Creating a "blacklist" of nations who’s drugs exports cause a significant threat to the world; ii. Setting a standard which specifies which nations should be on the "blacklist" depending on how much of a nations GDP comes from drug exports; iii. Creating annual world drug reports similar to the World Drug Report that the ODCCP created in 2000; B. Using the information gathered by: i. Creating High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA’s); ii. Sending all HIDTA’s and blacklisted nations to all policing agencies and international agencies in the world; iii. Holding multilateral meetings between blacklisted nations and all nations bordering them which will deal with: 1. Effective measures to increase border patrols; 2. Effective measures to increase cooperation between neighboring nations; 3. Finding alternative resources for blacklisted nations with the help of neighboring countries;
3. Urges all international drug policing agencies and state-run policing agencies to increase and emphasize their efforts in HIDTA’s and blacklisted nations;
4. Recommends that certain incentives be given to nations that neighbor blacklisted nations and are cooperating fully with the INIC and are increasing border patrol;
5. Resolves the reimplementation of the United Nations International Drug Control Program’s (UNDCP) Poppy Crop Reduction Program in Afghanistan which will unlike the original program will involve the assistance of Afghani farms and villages that stop growing poppy by all the incentives in the original program: A. Introducing alternatives to poppy based cropping systems; B. Road improvement; C. Food protection; D. Improvement of veterinary and animal husbandry services; E. Electrical assurance; F. Establishing schools and hospitals;
6. Further recommends that the judicial code set by the committee include punishments that will be a deterrent to future drug traffickers;
7. Advises the INIC to propose programs similar to the Poppy Reduction Program to blacklisted nations.
Committee Four: Economic and FinancialDelegate: Naser Al-Aujan Delegation: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Forum: General Assembly Four- Economic Issue: International Financial Institutions: What Should Be Done?
Defining International Financial Institutions as "An established organization or foundation involving finance, finances, or financiers involving two or more nations,"
Noting that ribba is forbidden according to the Islamic religion, and The Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) bans ribba,
Taking into consideration that usury is forbidden in the Christian religion and it is sinful to involve oneself is usury,
Regretting that most of the loans given by the International Monetary Fund is given with interest, which is considered as ribba,
Aware of that ribba is forbidden as the Malaysian Ambassador to Russia Mr. Dato Kamarudin Mustafa said, "traditional Western-type banking has got ribba – the interest, which goes against the Muslim law – Sharia."
Bearing in mind that Islam clearly bans Ribba as Dr. Monzer Kahf, an Islamic Economist & Financial Expert, said,
Recognizing that ribba and interest on loans forbidden as quoted from Abdullahi A. An-Na'im in a conference on Religion and the Universality of Human Rights in the Centrum Voor Islam In Europa (C.I.E.), "religious condemnation of ribba (usury) is understood to mean that the payment of any interest on loans is totally prohibited,"
Noting With Great Satisfaction that according to the Malaysian Ambassador to Russia Mr. Dato Kamarudin Mustafa that the top banks in Malaysia are Islamic and, surprising as it might seem, among many people who make use of Islamic banks there are quite a few non-Muslims, and they find it exceptionally reliable – especially in the time of crisis,
Applauding the Islamic Banking System, for it does not take any interest on loans and does not give interest on deposits, they distribute their profits among the shareholders and depositors, and buy the object in which someone takes a loan for and resell it at a higher price paid in monthly installments,
1. Resolvedthe creation of the Dhow Bank (DB), owned equally by both the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates;
2. Further Resolved that the Dhow Bank (DB) will have a board of directors consisting of sixteen board members, changed every two years, as follows: A. Five will be appointed by the IMF, B. Five appointed by the WB, C. Five elected by the depositors of the bank, D. One advisory person knowledgeable in the Islamic Sharia;
3. Affirms that the Dhow Bank will have 14 branches, excluding the headquarters, as follows: A. Africa: 1. One in North Africa, 2. One in Central Africa, 3. One in Southern Africa, B. Asia: 1. One in the Middle East, 2. One in Central Asia, 3. One in Southeast Asia, C. Europe: 1. Two in Western Europe, 2. One in Eastern Europe, D. America: 1. Two in North America, 2. One in South America, E. Oceania: 1. One in Australia, F. The board of directors will later on decide the exact location of each branch;
4. Decides that the Dhow Bank will give interest-free loan to nations that need the money for economic growth through: A. Giving nations with negative GDP growth, B. Receiving monthly reports from the nation about how the money is being spend, and if the money is used for economic growth, C. Sending inspectors without prior knowledge to nations to inspect if the loan is used for economic growth;
5. Further Decides that the Dhow Bank will give loans to individuals and companies in conjunction with the principles of Islamic finance, through: A. Buying the object in which the loan is needed for, B. Adding 3% on the price of the object bought and reselling it to the individual, C. The individual repaying the loan in equal monthly installments, D. The loan should be repaid during ten years;
6. Notes that the Dhow Bank will give no interest to any depositors;
7. Further Notes that every US dollar deposited in the Dhow Bank will be considered as one share;
8. Emphasizes that 17.5% of the yearly profits will go to the IMF, 17.5% of the profits will go to the WB, and 65% of the profits will be distributed to the depositors equally based on the number of shares they hold.
Commission Four: Economic Delegate: Fahed Al-Rushaid Delegation: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Forum: General Assembly Four – Economic Issue: International Financial Institutions: The Rural Economy in the 21st Century
Definingagriculture as the science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming,
Defining rural Economies as economies that relate or depend on agriculture,
Bearing in mind that rural communities are often among the poorest populations of the developing world,
Deeply concerned about the environmental impacts that arise from agriculture in rural economies,
Noting that as the population is rapidly increasing in the twenty-first century more efficient ways of agriculture should be in use,
Applauding the efforts of the Johannesburg earth summit towards trying to help rural economies,
Acknowledging that the issue of agriculture and rural economies concerns all nations whose populations are growing in a rapid rate,
Noting with deep regret that the current rate of development in the agriculture field is not enough to secure enough food for the rapidly growing human populations,
Believing that assisting the development of rural economies will benefit the world as a whole including those nations that do not depend on agriculture,
1. Encourages all nations and United Nations organizations such as the IMF (International Financial Institutions), UNDESA(United Nations Department of Economic and Social affairs), and The WB(World Bank) to use the laws of the Islamic Sharia in funding which include not taking Riba or not collecting interest out of loans, given to Nations of rural economies.
2. Urges nations that had successful macroeconomic policies that help in the development of rural economies to share these policies with all rural nations and with the UNDESA and the FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization).
3. Asks all nations to eliminate the use of agricultural methods that have environmental impacts such as the overuse of pesticides in order to achieve a cleaner and less polluted earth, even if the use of such methods was in the name of achieving maximum agricultural productivity.
4. Suggests that rural nations enforce stricter regulations towards waste disposal and emissions that contaminate rural lands and watersheds.
5. Urges international support for the development program adopted by the Johannesburg earth summit 2002 which includes and supports: A. The use of integrated land management and water-use plans, B. The sustainable and efficient use of land and other natural resources, C. Increasing public sector finance for sustainable agriculture, D. Enhancing access to existing markets and development of new markets for value-added agricultural products, E. The enhancing participation of women in sustainable agriculture and food security, F. Traditional and indigenous agricultural systems.
United Nations Commission on Human RightsCommission: UNCHR Country: Saudi Arabia Topic: Gujarat Riots Student: Hamad Al-Sager
Noting that according to CIA’s world fact book, Indian Muslims are an Indian minority,
Proclaiming that according to the Human Rights Watch, Gujarat Officials took part in the riots against Muslims,
Further Noting that according to Martin Regg Cohn, Gujarat state is the testing ground for fundamentalists' `Hindutva' strategy of demonizing Muslims to solidify power,
Condemning the Indian government for having done little or nothing to stop the atrocities in the Gujarat State,
Recalling that according to the Yale MUN briefing book, efforts were made to include Muslims in the national movement following independence from Britain, in which they proved unsuccessful,
Regretting that according to Dahyabhai Patel, the total death toll may reach to up to 5000 Muslims,
Emphasizing that according to the Yale MUN briefing book, no evidence has been accredited to prove that the birthplace of the Hindu God, Ram, was situated under the Babri Mosque which was destroyed by violence,
1. Calls for the international Court of Justice to hold a trial that will include all those responsible for the Gujarat Riots A) A representative for the BHP activists, B) A representative for the Muslims, C) A representative for the police Officers, D) A representative for the Indian Government;
2. Requests that Aid must be delivered to those who suffered from the Gujarat violence: A) All afflicted Muslims must receive aid, B) Aid includes medical, educational, physiological, and nutritional, etc… essentials, C) Support Services should also include aid for sexual violence survivors, D) The United Nations will be responsible for this request;
3. Calls for the establishment of a non discriminatory mechanism that will monitor the return of Muslims to their neighborhood without enduring anymore violence with having UN peacekeeping forces to be responsible for this mechanism;
4. Further Calls for the Indian Government to include Muslims in their parliament seeing that Muslims are not a minority;
5. Proclaims that a mosque should be built to replace the one that has been destroyed back in 1992 and the Gujarat Officials will be held responsible for the bill: A) It will be built in the same place the Babri mosque was built in, B) The new mosque will have Peacekeeping forces to guard the mosque at all times C) The mosque will be called the Babri Mosque;
6. Urges the Indian government to give Muslims their rights as a minority in the Indian Nation.
World Bank Loan ProposalWorld Bank Loan Proposal Bangladesh Saud AlSubaie Developing the Economic and Banking Sector of Bangladesh
Bangladesh has been a country plagued with poverty since it has existed, with a population 138,448,210 of which a third to half of them live on only one meal a day along with high rates of malnutrition, and 35.6% of the population living under the poverty line, POVERTY definitely has been an issue that is important to Bangladesh. Poverty has caused other problems in Bangladesh as well such as a large number of child labor, depression, poverty driven suicides, and a corrupt government. Poverty causes children to leave school and work at home or at factories for money, forcing them to loose out on an education, later on giving them misjudgment on which government representatives to vote for, only 43.1% of the population is literate and can read and write. This proposal aims for a reform in the Bangladeshi economy and a cure for poverty though micro loans on a macroeconomic level.
Bangladesh has had recession over recession exerted upon it over many years since its break away from West Pakistan. Currently Bangladesh suffers from a high unemployment rate, 40% including underemployment, and a very low GDP. Not everyone in Bangladesh even has the money to buy the food they need to live, or even run a business with a chance of hope. Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation.
Although half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. Although Bangladesh has the labor force to pull its economy out of the current state, there are just no jobs available for them to work at, this causes them to have a very low price demanded for wages, and since the supply is not covered, the shortage is made up for by seeking work elsewhere outside the country working as very little skilled or even unskilled workers.
Bangladesh has a very large EXPATRIATE labor force maintained mainly in the Gulf region and Malaysia. With the meager money they make they send back home to feed the mouths of their family in hopes of survival without avail. The shortage of money in the country has caused them to have a great inefficiency in allocating their natural resources leaving several industries desolate and unused. The poverty and unavailability of money has caused the people in Bangladesh to be unable to afford any products being attempted to be sold in the market. Whether they have been imported from foreign countries, of which Japan, India, and the United States are major partners, or if they have been made locally through the businesses that have been able to produce them, no one will buy anything because they cannot afford them.
Furthermore the poverty causes a high rate of illiteracy which ENCOURAGES bad political leaders which in turn causes more poverty, and the chain of poverty keeps going on and on without an end. The government has been guilty of spending the country’s money on unneeded resources such as aircrafts and not taking opportunities that would help the country when they arise such as exporting natural gas, harming its people severely. In the past there have been attempts of developing Bangladesh and decreasing poverty through large loans and aid but they have failed because of the severe poverty, illiteracy caused by poverty, even with loans and grants that rank among the highest within developing and poor nations, 35.6% of the population remains under the poverty line.
The development of a Grameen System Bank will aid housewives, farm workers, skilled trade workers, and business owners the most. It has been found that even though most of the borrowers from the Grameen system bank are women, the number of men that do borrow do it in larger amounts and more frequently. For trade workers they will be able to afford the raw materials for their work, giving them a profit. For farm workers they will be able to afford farming equipment and materials to make their harvest. Housesives will be able to put their children in school and feed them more than one meal a day. To small businessmen this is the investment and capital they need to get a start in life. In general, an end to poverty in Bangladesh.
With over 80% of the population being muslim, and the remainder 20% having close to Islaminc beliefes, having a bank that adopts a no-interest loan policy will definetly encourage loans and investmenti n Bangladesh. The current Grameen bank devotes move (over 70%) to rural area citizens, which shows hwo much potential this poject of expantion would have if adopted. Islam’s long history of anti-interest loan policy has been because of its tendancy to create little winners, and many loosers. Interest is believed to be against Islam’s rules throughout many institutions, it has also been said by the prophet that it is not good to deal with interest.
III. Specifics and Implementation:
A. Economic development through banking and micro loans
To be able to aid the poor and cure the poverty in Bangladesh, thus expanding then economy, one or more of the four parts of GDP, consumption, government spending, investment, and net exports, must be expanded. Consumption is based on the how much people spend money and consume products, resources, or services. Government spending is what the government spends money on for they country. Investment is economic investment of people in companies and others. Net exports are the difference between exports and imports, positive if the country exports more than imports and vice versa. This plan aims to aid the economy through expanding consumption and investment as well as increasing loanable funs which increases investment as a secondary effect. Currently the people Bangladesh suffer from poverty and lack of money to spend for necessities.
This will be done by building banks with the recent system of micro loans. These banks will give out loans of $1-$100 or even less, because the POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS will not NEED larger sums of money over $100 in Bangladesh at its current state. These loans will be granted without collateral. Furthermore there will be no interest on the loans, other than the administrative cost and the national inflation rate.
These loans are aimed mainly for poor people that are unable to afford the raw materials to operate their trade, farmers that can’t pay for the equipment they need to farm, house wives that need the money for home materials and food. It may seem like a small amount of money that could never pull a country out of poverty, but in a country like Bangladesh where people couldn’t imagine even having food or afford a business this means profit for a farmer, and life for a child to a mother that made the small loan. People will make these small loans that they will use to spend on food and resources needed to maintain their small businesses increasing consumption, some will use it to invest in markets increasing investment. Not only will investment increase from the people, but other companies will invest in the banks increasing investment. Furthermore what increases investment as well are the increases in overall supply of loanable funds, decreasing overall interest rates, attracting people to invest more. The money supply in the country will increase because of the newly available loans being made further lowering the interest rates, applying Monetary Keynesian policy.
The loans are intended to be on a household and minor business level to aid what represents the majority of the population of Bangladesh and nearly all the people that suffer from poverty. Banks that function in a similar way to the system described have proven to be extremely successful at helping the economy and aiding people that suffer from poverty. It has also been proven that repayment rate of these small sized funds is higher then that of ones of larger amounts, an average of 98%-99%. This would not only help people getting loans from the bank, but it would help the people that are being employed at the banks by making jobs available to them and giving them a wage, effectively decreasing unemployment.
One of the Banks that functions in this manner is the Grameen Bank which is also located in Bangladesh, which provides credit for even the poorest of the poor in rural areas in Bangladesh. The intentions of this bank are not only to provide loans as credit for household and minor business intentions, but the bank also provides larger loans intended for people wishing to build houses, and has till now aided people in building over 300 homes with the loans. This system of loans is very simple and helps countries which suffer from poverty greatly, through small time credit funds and light restrictions it enables many people to afford the necessities they need to live in Bangladesh.
Currently the Grameen Bank which has developed the so said system, named after it, the Grameen Bank system, covers only 25% of Bangladesh with 1,115 banks in Bangladesh, of which these banks also employ a total of 12,567 staff members there. What is required is to fund for enough banks to satisfy the rest of Bangladesh that is yet in need of this system of banks.
People will be propelled towards this system of loans because of less cost on their side to return it, why pay back $110 when you can pay back $100 which is as much as you borrowed, esspecialy in a empovrished country like Bangladesh.
IV. Objectives and Allocation:A. Grameen Bank system expansion $134.25 million dollars, 10 years. Number derived from The Grameen Bank which functions as a similar bank system that covers 25% of Bangladesh, it allots for 1,115 banks that employ 12,567 staff members, and costs $44.75 million dollars in 1998. To satisfy the rest of Bangladesh we multiply the cost, number of banks, and number of employees by 3 to find how much the project will cost, how many banks are needed to be built, and how many staff members are needed to be employed. We arrive at the said amount of $134.25 million, for 3,345 banks, employing 37,701 staff members. The banks will be distributed on the basis of priority for regions with more people under poverty line. This will be done through a report made by the goverment giving statistics of regions and the rate of poverty. i. Phase A: $30 million dollars, 2 years. The time and money in this phase is for the government to submit its report, and for the plans for the banks to be planned out and made. This will ensure efficient allocation of the banks where they are needed and that the remainder of the area of Bangladesh is satisfied. ii. Phase B: $104.25 million dollars, 8 years. This phase includes the construction of the banks and the accumulation of the funds needed to be repaid off the profit made. The remainder of the money loaned shall go to the costs of construction and other expenditures. The banks constructed will cover the remainder 75% of Bangladesh that needs banks with this system of credit.
V. Maturation and Interest Rates:
The total cost of the Grameen System Banking expansion will be $134.25 million. This money is to be distributed from IDA funds as interest-free grants, with an initial grace period of 10 years. The money should be paid off over 40 years. The total amount due for repayment would be $100 million, due 2044.Year Event 2004 I. Phase A starts. 2006 I. Phase A ends. II. Phase B starts. 2014 I. Phase B ends. II. Repayment of loan starts. 2044 I. All repayments of loan due.
VI. Bibliography:A. The World Bank http:www.worldbank.org B. from the Economist, the 4th of September, 1999, Issue 8135, p24, paragraph 1. C. Economist, the 17th of July, 1999. Issue 8128, p38, paragraph 1. D. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Fact Book. http://www.cia.gov E. The Gremeen Bank http://www.grameen-info.org/ F. IPS news reports, Title: BANGLADESH-CHILDREN: Poverty Turns Millions Into Workers. G. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) cited at http://tveducation.tripod.com/ H. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Sept./Oct. 1998, p.20-21, Title: Sanctions: Lift 'Em I. IPS news reports, Title: BANGLADESH-CHILDREN: Poverty Turns Millions Into Workers
Commission on the Status of WomenCommittee: Women’s Rights. Delegation: Saudi Arabia. Delegate: Muneera Al- Nibari. Issue: Trafficking of Women.
Approves of THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (UDHR) that is a common standard set for all peoples and all nations, to the extent of every individual and every organ of society, this Declaration shall attempt to teach and educate, to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by advancing actions shall secure the universal identification of humans, among the peoples of Member States themselves and the territories under their control,
Bearing in Mind that according to the Central Intelligence Agency as many as 2 million women and children are bought and sold each year,
Fully Alarmed that according to the Washington Bureau as the sex trade has gone global, it also has gone digital, transformed by computers and the Internet, international crime syndicates are able to earn huge returns while facing little risk of being caught or punished, while the police and prosecutors, are going after prostitutes who are victims rather than the traffickers who supply the illicit raw materials - sex objects - to make the industry hum,
Noting With Regret that according to a study by The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine many governments across Europe are failing to address the severe and long-lasting physical and mental health problems suffered by women who have been trafficked,
Affirming that according to UNAIDS: Women and AIDs, prostitutes in particular are a bridge between the HIV-infected "underworld" and the "general population",
Deeply concerned that according to the Scope of the Problem: Statistics and Cases 2003 women from Senegal are trafficked to The Gambia to work as domestic servants and most end up being poorly treated or sexually abused, the same epidemic is happening throughout the world to trafficked persons,
Noting With Regret that the above things happened despite the fact that there is an already existing protocol within the United Nations, that deals with the trafficking of persons and in particular the trafficking of women and children, that all member states have signed,
Sadly Notes that according to The Illegal Economy and Public Policy in Thailand, Thailand's economy has come to depend on prostitution,
Supports the Global Program Against Trafficking of Human Beings (GPAT), launched in March 1999 by the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODCCP), to better enable governments and the international community to respond to the worldwide problems of human smuggling and trafficking,
Keeping in Mind that sexual promiscuity is clearly frowned upon in Islam, Christianity and Judaism it is also considered a sin by some,
Aware that Interpol derives its actions from such conventions as the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the additional Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons,
1) Urges all member states to broaden teaching about trafficking and prostitution and their effects throughout member countries by: A. Having teachings about the corruption of trafficking and prostitution incorporated into the schools syllabuses, Campaigns and awareness programs in places open to the public, enhancing awareness through media programs like: I. Television commercials and infomercials, II. Radio advertisements, III. Posters and pamphlets given out in public places,
2) Declares the formation of a sub-organization known as the United Nations Against Trafficking in Women that would deal with all aspects of trafficking in women, under the current Global Program against Trafficking in Human Beings (GPAT): A. The Committee will be composed of the Group 1 countries as explained below, B. Members from The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund, and Interpol;
3) Notes that the UNAT will: A. Have its headquarters in Geneva, B. Have branches in each continent the number of branches is to be decided in accordance with the percentage of Group 3 countries in the continent, C. Have a head of office for each branch assigned by the Secretary-General, D. Hold meetings every 6 months and have an emergency meetings at the request of the President of The Committee, E. Have the seat of committee President assigned in rotation as to ensure fairness and unbiased, F. Will review the status and situations of group one, two, and three countries on the following schedule (note obviously the groups threes would be reviewed much more often), G. Will in conjunction with Interpol: I. Work to find trafficking groups and individuals, II. Work to create a trafficking database;
4) Proclaims that the UNAT will have a system of dealing with countries upon their efforts and programs aimed at combating trafficking, they will be classified into 3 groupings countries will be put into every group as the Secretary General and the committee: A. Groups 1 are the countries that are in full compliance with UN. efforts and policies to combat trafficking, B. Group 2 need only improvements in their anti-trafficking methods to combat trafficking. C. Group 3 are countries, which are not in compliance with the provisions of the GPAT,
5) Affirms that the UNAT will upon being established: A. Will publish the current definition of trafficking as a clause in the United Nations Charter, B. Will promote or demote countries into other groups depending on efforts, C. Discuss enhancing international border control capabilities, D. Recommend a revision of the visa systems of Group 3 countries,
6. Stipulates that anti-trafficking proposals will be accepted by all group 3 countries that accept a United Nations monitor that verifies that they do the following: A. Enforce harsher punishments such as life sentences and death to those traffickers, B. That trafficked persons be treated as victims through laws and the judiciary systems, C. The judicial system will have to enforce fair trails using the harsher laws,
7. Further Resolves that the UNAT along with the countries economic specialists, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Bank (WB) will help the Group 3 countries by: Giving grants and loans in accordance with the anti-trafficking proposal, A. Which will include: I. Why the money is needed, II. A detailed breakdown of how the money will be spent, III. A timetable for the project, B. There will be a committee within the country to follow-up on the project, C. The proposal will be reviewed by the committee that will deal with it as it sees fit, D. Call for additional police troops formed by the member countries police assistance if the country's anti-trafficking proposal asks for it, E. Creating shelters that will provide the following: I. Medical and physiological assistance II. Information on legal rights: a. Trafficking victims are not to be arrested, b. Victims will be able to enter witness protection programs, III. Education and training to find jobs and self support, IV. Religious teachings about the moral and ethical values of sexual promiscuity, F. United Nations inspectors will monitor the countries projects and shelters as to ensure that they function well,
8) Has Resolved that countries may be penalized if uncooperative: A. Countries may become subject to penalization if: I. Not enforcing harsher punishments, II. Not working in accordance with their timetable when able to, III. Not allowing the regional committee to monitor or work, IV. Complaints from the regional committee are identified by the database, B. Penalization includes: 1. Getting cut off World Bank and International Monetary Fund loans, 2. Publishing of travel advisories, 3. Cutting off AIDS and HIV help programs, 4. Recommending to the SC to have United Nations Sanctions.
Committee One: Disarmament and International Security
Bism Allah al Rahman Al Raheem,
Islam, a word never truly understood. A word consisting of only five letters, but vast in meaning. The word Islam is derived from the word Salaam, which means Peace. Therefore, Muslims believe in peace, which is the complete opposite of terrorism.
Nations all around the world have been continuously trying to accuse Islam and specifically Saudi Arabia of being the soil from which all terrorists are born. Deeming that it is where people are being forced to kill, slaughter, and destroy.
Honorable delegates, AS AMBASSADOR OF S. ARABIA, I MUST EMPHASIZE, that is absolutely the opposite of what Saudi Arabia and Islam stand for. Islam requires every Muslim to be a decent, kind human being. Islam gives all Muslims the right to do as they wish, as long as they do not disturb others.
As stated by the holy Quran, "al rooh lil rooh" which means, a soul for a soul. Islam believes that a person who kills another should be killed. That is why Saudi Arabia is here today to try and solve the issue of Illegal Small Arms and Light Weapons. All these weapons do is cause chaos and turmoil within the Saudi borders, and is against the Islamic religion.
Honorable Delegates, Most distinguished chair, Saudi Arabia stands before you today hoping, with the help and blessing of Allah, to solve this problem and all other arising issues to make this world a better place for our descendants to live in.
Al Salaam alaikom wa rahmat Allah wa barakatoho,
In the name of Allah, the most merciful, the most gracious:
Honorable chairman, ladies and gentlemen of the assembly, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would like to welcome you to our meeting this afternoon. Regarding the highly urgent question of missile proliferation, allow me, as the representative of Saudi Arabia, to begin with these few words:
Defined by the YMUN-XXX guidebook, missiles included in this question range from "man-portable, shoulder-fired anti-armor missiles with ranges of a few hundred meters, to missiles weighing some 100,000 kilograms at launch, capable of carrying multiple nuclear warheads and of ranges in excess of 10,000 kilometers."
When first confronting this issue, massive-scale, state-owned missiles first come to mind, and the situation regarding the Democratic Republic of Korea is of immediate attention to most. Furthermore, through the YMUN-XXX guidebook we have been asked to consider two proposals: The Global Control System for the Non-Proliferation of Missiles and Missile Technologies (1999) and The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (2002). These proposals are excellent in addressing the issue of the proliferation of state-owned massive-scale missiles.
However, they fail to address the most immediate issue to the USA, Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Allow Saudi Arabia to bring to your attention this issue in dire need of attention. This issue, Ladies and gentlemen, is the proliferation of man-portable missiles currently being deployed by the insurgency in Iraq. It is of importance to the US because it is the only direct terrorist threat to American lives. It is of importance to the region because since the fall of the regime in Iraq, Iraq has faced more suicide bombings and terrorist attacks than any other location in the region.
As a consequence, Saudi Arabia has put forth a proposal to deal exclusively with the proliferation of missiles in Iraq. Saudi Arabia strongly urges all nations to endorse this proposal as to bring an end to the missile crises in Iraq, and bring safety and stability to coalition forces, the Iraqi people and the already fragile region.
Committee Two: Special Political and Decolonization:
Altaf Al- Dukair:
In the name of Allah, the most merciful, the most gracious;
Honorable chair, my fellow delegates, most distinguished guests, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would like to welcome you to the Yale Model United Nations 30th annual session 2004. It is an honor to stand before you as the Delegate of Saudi Arabia to discuss with you the issue of trafficking in persons. As discussed in the YMUN-XXX guide book that over 800,000 people are victims of trafficking in persons worldwide. First, poverty is thought to be an underlying condition promoting TIP. Conflict resolution instability and the ensuing lack of government control facilities. Poor governance promotes trafficking. Trafficked persons are more likely to turn to crime upon their return to their home country. It also undermines public health such as AIDS/HIV, which may lead to severer mental health problems among victims. It is in the form of force labor, child labor and prostitution.
Trafficking in persons is one of the greatest human rights challenges of our time. Women, children and men are lured in by false advertisement where they are promised to have a better wages therefore better lives. Little did they know that when they arrived to their destinations, they become victims. Their passports is taken from them and in order to get it back they have to pay a large sum of money, which they cannot afford. These victims are beaten and don’t know who to turn to for help. They have been deprived of their rights and been abused physically and sexually. No country is immune from trafficking. It is time that we come together and put this inhumane issue to a severe halt. My fellow delegates, aren’t you sick and tired of guilty people, such as traffickers to get away with their wrongful doings? Aren’t you sick of hearing that a trafficker who has abused trafficked people and smuggled them illegally go to person for maximum a year and have no sever punishment?
This is a serious issue that needs to be dealt with serious demands! Thus Saudi Arabia has put forth a take-action-resolution that might could not only decrease trafficking, but also hopefully stop it once and for all. As the holy bible says, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." As the Holly Qouran also says to treat others as you want to be treated!
Peace and God’s blessing upon
Bism Ilah il rahman al raheem, al salaam alaikum, may peace spread among you. Bism ilah irahman iraheem
Honorable chair, most distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen, this quote from the Koran, Islam's bible, demonstrates the importance of women in life and how highly His Almighty has advocated women’s role in life.
Woman, female, lady, girl, this delicate flower had been addressed by the one and only, and we, Women, His creation, do not fulfill our mission towards them.
What kind of creators we would be, if we do not accomplish our creator’s fulfillment?
Ladies and gentlemen, Saudi Arabia kindly asks you to search deeply in your hearts looking for the answer.
Ladies and gentlemen, women’s role has been attacked. As a female delegate, Saudi Arabia would like to remind you with God’s words, "al janatu tahta aqdam al umahat," which means, heaven is beneath women’s feet. If women do not achieve their rights and role, heaven would be the last dream God will grant us.
Committee Three: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural
Bism Allah al Rahman Al Raheem
Honorable chairs and fellow delegates, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is honored to be here today. We have seen many things in the world that we don’t like. One of the things that is of concern TO US IS the Right of Peoples to Self-Determination. This is issue has haunted many lives.
"Allah La yansur al qawm al thalimeen" this statement was taken from the Quran Al Kareem. The meaning of this statement is that God will not make triumphant the people who spread hatred in this world. What Saudi Arabia is suggesting is that we should do something about this issue.
First we must separate national situations that need to be solved and issues that shouldn’t. We are proposing that a new organization is to be formed to take care of this issue. The organization will study each issue and will be responsible for finding the reasonable solution. The Palestinians are on example, so are the Kurds in Iraq. Some people have been stripped from their rights and they have been forced to things that they don’t believe in. The rights of speaking their own language and the right to be educated are some examples. The only way this will be solved is that if we worked together and put this problem in the history books and forget about it.
A salaam Aleikum
Bismillah Al-Rahman Alrahiem
In Saudi Arabia we have a saying: "mashan al syaj ala thaher al-ibqara" Which translates to "It is absurd to put a saddle on a cow’s back."
Honorable chair, Fellow delegates,
In dealing with the issue of drugs we unfortunately have always committed this mistake; we create plans and objectives and ask the wrong organizations or "beneficiaries" to carry them out. For example, the Poppy Reduction Project in Afghanistan was supposed to resolve the issue of Poppy cultivation in Afghanistan; the planned budget was 12.5 million dollars. The beneficiaries backing this project provided 3 million dollars, which is not even a third of this budget. How are we expected to implement this program? There must be an organized attempt and before any step be taken, the collection of information is essential to the resolving of the drug issue.
Heroin. One of the most widely spread drugs in the world and 75% of it comes from Afghanistan. Cocaine, another deadly drug. 90% of the world’s cocaine comes from Columbia. What does this information tell us? It tells us that drug production is very limited and can be tackled very easily. What if we had even more information? We would have even more easier ways to deal with this issue. Honorable delegates investigation and the collection of information CANNOT be done at the same time with implementing plans to resolve this issue, this is too much for one organization to handle, so Saudi Arabia proposes the creation of a committee to deal solely with gathering information.
A salaam Aleikum
Committee Four: Economic and Financial
Bism Illah AL-Rahman Al-Raheem
Al-Salam Alikoum Wa Rahmato Alla Waa Barkatouh
In the name of Allah, the most merciful, the most gracious,
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would like to welcome all of the nations present here today to this conference. The land of the two holy mosques wishes that this conference would be a productive one. The KINGDOM of Saud would like to thank all nations for their participation in this conference.
Delegates, the kingdom was targeted by many nations as a land of money laundry and terrorist funding. But, on the contrary, we are people that detest terrorists and their actions. We are a nation that is a target of terrorists, we are victims of their actions, we do not belong to them, and they do not belong to us.
International financial institutions, in the kingdom’s point of view, are institutions with a good goal and good practices. We applaud these institutions, and we encourage them, such institutions as the International Monetary Fund. However, we disagree on one point. We, the kingdom, would like the loans given by these institutions to be interest-free, for this considered as usury. The Islamic religion, as does the Christian religion, forbid these kinds of practices.
All of the banks in the kingdom have interest-free loans, for they follow the Islamic system of banking. We encourage nations to adopt this banking system, for it has been proven that this system is AS GOOD AS IF NOT better and more reliable than the current western system. Many non-Muslims prefer the Islamic banking system.
Thank You, Shoukran,
Waa Al-Salaam Alikoum Wa Rahmato Alla Waa Barkatouh
Bism Ellah Erahman erheem
Good Morning honorable chair fellow delegates and most distinguished chair/
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would first like to start by welcoming all countries present here today. Further on ladies and gentlemen we came here today to discuss some of the most important economic issues that arise in the world today. The Kingdom believes that some of the key issues we are to discuss today can be solved if we take into consideration the economic laws of the Islamic sharia. The Kingdom asks of all United Nations organizations that give funds to poor countries such as the IMF and the World Bank to not collect interest out of these lawns since that interferes with laws of the Islamic Sharia and also negatively affects the country that took the loan. In addition the Islamic Sharia also has its word to say for the issue of rural economies and agriculture. Islam always encourages agriculture and encourages rural economies to use recent ways that would further expand agriculture.
We elsalam Eleikum We Rehmet Allah We Berekatuhu.
United Nations Commission on Human Rights
In the name of Allah, the most merciful, the most gracious:
Honorable Chair, Fellow Delegates,
Saudi Arabia is honored to be participating in this wonderful conference. Allow me to begin with the question of the Gujarat Riots. How many people have died in these horrible riots !? And for what did they die for!
Is it just because of them being Muslims, or just being in the same religion as those who supposedly built a mosque sixteen centuries ago in the Birthplace of Ram. By the way, there are no textual evidence that has been found to prove that the Birthplace of Ram was truly situated in the site of the sixteenth century.
Honorable delegates, I believe that we are all here to help make the world a better place, for it is now our job to save those innocent Muslims whom have suffered many pain from Hindu activists. All Muslims have aright to live as peaceful, YET those Hindu activists HAD no mercy on them. Saudi Arabia urges all countries to stop these ever going massacre
Allah, the most merciful, once said:
"The lightning all but snatches away their sight; every time the light (Helps) them, they walk therein, and when the darkness grows on them, they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could take away their faculty of hearing and seeing; for Allah hath power over all things."
In the name of Allah, may peace be upon all of you.
Bism Allah al Rahman Al Raheem,
Good morning/evening ladies and gentlemen, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia holds this session in high regard and wishes everyone a productive one. As for the issue of loan to a developing country we would like to emphasize the view of Islam on loans that have interest on them.
It is clearly stated that Islam is against them. The Prophet Mohammad said "A Muslim has no ground on another Muslim’s blood, money, and honor."(here) It is unfair for Islamic believers to have the ideologies of interest loans enforced upon them.
We find that no-interest loans suit the economy. With the lower interests even non Islamic believers would be attracted to them, allowing the persons giving the loan more market competition. Furthermore the issue of poverty in South-Asian countries is crippling the economy and bringing the people down to their knees. A system where banks give out micro loans without interest would help these countries and we hope, shall bring them a set closer to being called fully developed, in an Islamic enlightened path, this program will be the seed in the frontier of aiding developing Islamic or Islamic-minority countries.
Al Salam alaikom wa rahmat Allah wa barakatoho,
Commission on the Status of Women
In the name of God the most merciful the most gracious. Al-Salaam Alaikoom, may peace be upon you, honorable delegates and most distinguished chair.
It seems that after the September 11th attacks Islam has become a misinterpreted religion in it’s association with terrorism and what is perceived to be women’s rights violations. Islam on the contrary is very opposed to terrorism. It is the religion of peace, but because of a few radical extremists actions it has come to be thought of by many as a pro-terrorist religion.
Furthermore what most around the world don’t understand is that if we the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia don’t follow certain reforms thought to lead to the "liberation" of women doesn’t mean that we are violating women’s rights. Gender equality is backed by Islam. As it says in the Koran:
"I shall not lose sight of any of you who labors in my way, be it man or woman; each of you is equal to the other."
We as the Kingdom that houses the two holiest sites in Islam believe that the Islamic law is the law that should govern a state, this law that doesn’t belittle women as some think, but holds them at high esteem; it is truly the law of a peaceful religion. Ladies and Gentlemen we are here today to discuss issues that are of importance to women around the world such as women’s rights in conflict zones and the trafficking of women. Saudi Arabia wants women to live in a world free of discrimination, and in the western world prejudice against women is increasing as they are subjected to sexual discrimination; while it may only start by a glance it may eventually lead to rape.
The Western culture has encouraged degeneracy through many things including pornography and thus their so called liberation of women is only enchaining them in so many other ways such as pressure to have sex appeal and so on. The trafficking of women is the new trend of the century, it is a phenomenon that concerns and affects most countries of the world. Today we will take action by uniting to stop trafficking and start executing consequences.
Bismallah Salaam Aleikum
Committee One: Disarmament and International Security
As the Ambassador of Saudi Arabia much effort was put into the preparation for this event from my side. Nevertheless, this event was a fairly successfull one for Saudi Arabia in the disarmament committee. Despite the many obstacles, Saudi Arabia successfully passed a resolution regarding the tracing of illicit small arms and light weapons, and debated a another resolution regarding missile proliferation, but wasn't voted on as a result of lack of time. In the Disarmament committe the delegates of Saudi Arabia performed amazingly and received an award for outstanding delegates. This is the first American style MUN confrence BBS has paticipated in, but still, as usual, the delegates presented theirselves, their school, and their country in the best way possible.
Unfortunately, Yale-MUN was not exactly what I'd imagined. I entered the event with a good resolution, but the chairs spent a lot of time on the first resolution and resisted all of my attempts to try to get him to close debate. Therefore, I spent most of my time making speeches and packing notes to assist Amna on her resolution. The event ended with our assembly still making preparatory speeches despite the fact Saudi Arabia already had a finished resolution on the topic of small missile-launched weapons. While Saudia Arabia acquitted itself well, since we won an award, the pace of the event was frustrating. Though we put in an excellent performance, had we had a chance to debate our resolution, I think we could've won the best delegation award.
Committee Two: Special Political and Decolonization:
Altaf Al- Dukair:
Altaf: I was chosen in the top 12 students to go to Yale University where I was the delegate of Saudi Arabia, I was the main submitter for my resolution that got debated and I was also a main co- submitter for another resolution that got debated and passed. I was recognized at Yale and received a verbal commendation for my performance in YMUN and received and award at school.
In our assembly, I came prepared to do my utmost to pass a resolution on the subject of the role of women in development. In Saudi Arabia, as I emphasized, women have a very strong role in development. In fact, though these roles are separate, women in Saudi Arabia are an important part of the economy. Since our topic was second, unfortunately, I spent a lot of my time waiting. I also missed most of one day. However, on the second day, I made several speeches on the issue of women in development. My chair congratulated me on the quality and forcefulness of my speech. Eventually, we did get the signatures necessary for my resolution to be debated, but by this time, the event was over. End the end, Altaf and I together received an honorable mention for the best delegate awards in our assembly.
Committee Three: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural
I came to this event with an excellent resolution on the issue of national sovereignty. It would've helped nations deal with a problem that could lead to widespread civil disorder and death. Unfortunately, no one ever debated it, and the event ended with the chairs telling me that I didn't give it to them on time. In the event, though, I did make several speeches and I faithfully assisted Khaled in his lobbying and merging efforts which, eventually, led to his passing a resolution.
It took me almost two days to really adjust to the manner in which Yale ran this event. I entered this event with a very good resolution, but I met with all kinds of resistance in trying to get the chairs to debate it. Eventually, though, I managed to pass my resolution after persuading many delegates of the importance of drug control. The resolution easily passed as I had secured most of the delegates of its importance. Eventually, along with my partner Bader, I received an outstanding delegation honorable mention.
Committee Four: Economic and Financial
As the senior member in committee number four, I played a decisive role in the affairs of the commission. Most importantly, I introduced the resolution on Islamic finance which, had it passed, would have led to a resolution in finance for the IMF and WB, allowing these bodies not only to reach out to millions of Moslems, but also to engage in financial activities of mutual benefit. Unfortunately, I could not convince enough delegates. Some seemed not to understand that "change" could mean not just solving one problem but a whole host of problems including some not imagined. Our resolution failed by five votes. Still, Saudi Arabia made many speeches.
The Yale MUN event was agreat experience for me personaly and for my fellow calssmates. First of all we got a feeling of one of the best American universities and secondly and more importantly I got to experience an MUN event and compete with American students. The event unfortunately lacked two very important factors diplomacy and order. In addition there were many students that did not study nor represent their country in the best ways and took the event as a chance to make friend or skip school. On the other hand there were some students that studied their issues very thourouly and did a good job in representing their countries. This event was fourtanately a great success for myself and Nasser in the Ecofin because we passed my resolution and and strongly influeced the delegate's thoughts and even their personal thoughts quoting the American student representing Egypt "I will surely consider investing my money in islamic finance!"
United Nations Commission on Human Rights
It was a great honor for me to be participating in YMUN XXX. Truly, it was one of my most challenging events in my entire MUN career. It was not only challenging because of the new set of rules, or being in committee all by myself, but for being with other first English speaking students, and very good ones too. I did not give up and ended up with having debated a resolution and getting a verbal commendation. I would like to thank all of those who made this experience possible. I would especially like to thank Dr. Dan. Thank You
Saudi Arabia turned in an outstanding performance in the World Bank Committee. I feel I was one of only 3-4 really strong delegates and, sure enough, I received an honorable mention for the outstanding delegation award. I was personally responsible for failing a couple of loan proposals that would have wasted the World Bank's money. As for my loan proposal, it passed with almost unanimous approval by the body. I believe that my own AP economics knowledge made a very important contribution to this session.
Commission on the Status of Women
It was a considerable challenge representing Saudi Arabia in a committee on the status of women. I was forced to defend not only the role of women in Islam, but specifically that in my own country. I found myself actually saying that women should stay at home and were unsuited to certain roles in society. I was in the very center of debate in all respects and in a circle of women, I was one of the bright lights. I passed my resolution, which will help women in trouble. Two other resolutions passed our commission, and, in each case, the other women turned to me for my opinions and, due to my SC experience, I was able to write resolutions as I went. Passing three resolutions is significant, and probably why I was awarded with honorable mention for the outstanding delegate award.