Country: Argentina

Country: Argentina

Event: AAGIAC 2005

Student: Abdullah Al-Ibrahim

 

 


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The Argentine National Anthem


Argentina


Country Profile:

Political Structure:

Argentina represents one of the models for democracy in South America. Its formal name is Argentine Republic, also called Argentina, and it is the second largest country in South America after Brazil. Its capital and largest city is Buenos Aires. On July 9, 1816, independence was declared. After its independence Argentina experienced a great deal of political conflicts, which were mainly between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. Juan Diaz De Solis was the first to explore Argentina in 1516. Argentina was developing slowly under Spanish colonial rule. Buenos Aires settled in 1580; the cattle industry was extremely successful when it was early in approximately 1600. The British forces that invaded Argentina were overruled in 1806, and after Napoleon conquered Spain (1808), the Argentineans were able to set up their own government in 1810.

The Argentinean Government is a federal union of 23 provinces and a federal capital district, which is the city of Buenos Aires. The constitution spread in 1994 provided for consecutive presidential terms, which had not been allowed previously, but few other changes distinguish it from the 1853 document; in its largely original form, the constitution has sustained Argentina with at least a nominal form of republican, representative, and federal government. An elected president holds the executive office in Argentina and he wields a lot of decision making power. The political party system in Argentina has been volatile, particularly in the 20th century, with numerous parties forming, taking part in elections, and disbanding as new factions evolve. The military plays an important role in Argentinean elections as whoever controls the military usually have the upper hand because the people are afraid of a coup attempt.

 

Geography:

Argentina has a magnificent surface area and is the eighth largest country in the world as it occupies most of the southern portion of South America. Argentina has an area of 1,073,399 square miles. Argentina is basically shaped like an inverted triangle with its base at the top, it is only about 884 miles across at its widest from east to west, but it stretches 2,360 miles from the subtropical north to the sub-Antarctic south. . It is bound by Chile on the south and west, Bolivia and Paraguay on the north, and Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Argentina’s great length embraces regions of striking diversity, including the Andes Mountains; the thorny scrubland and seasonal swamps of the Gran Chaco; the broad, fertile plains of the Pampa; the stark tableland of Patagonia; and an undulating Atlantic coastline of 2,936 miles. Argentina also claims a 49-degree wedge of Antarctica and several islands in the South Atlantic, including the British ruled Falklands. Generally, Argentina has one of the best strategic and tactical geographical locations.

 

Natural Resources:

Because Argentina occupies most of the southern half of the continent east of the Andes Mountains, Argentina’s has an advantage by the abundance of various natural resources. The major natural resources come in the form of underground resources such as lead, zinc and petroleum. Therefore, the industry is well supported by the country's energy resources large availability. Argentina is considered very wealthy in its natural resources, mainly in fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium. Its wide range of agriculture that largely come in sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, and wheat. Agriculture and other natural resources face many natural hazards such as earthquakes (in San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza), and windstorms and heavy flooding (in Pampas and the northeast). Other environmental hazards also affect the natural resources like soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution. Generally, Argentina is considered on of the fortunate nations of South America because of its natural resources.

 

Economy:

Although Argentina has the wide ranges of natural resources, Argentina’s economy is has been in good and bad times. One major factor that contributed to Argentina’s economy is the highly literate population. Nevertheless, over the past decade the country has suffered problems of inflation, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. The economic situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentina’s bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence.

The problem recently got better when the government’s efforts were taken to achieve a "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The GDP is $483.5 billion (2004 est.), and its growth rate is 8.3%. It has a good workforce of 15.04 million (2004 est.). This led to a successful (?) economy. For example, Argentina gained $26.5 billion on exports in year 2000 and its exports mainly involved around edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles, machinery and equipment, chemicals, metal manufactures, and plastics. Argentina trades with all countries around the world. Its main export partners are Brazil (24%), EU (21%), and the US (11%). On the other hand its main import partners are Brazil (21%), EU (28%), and the US (22%) as well.

 

Cultural Factors:

Argentina witnessed a tremendous population increase in the past century. Heavy immigration, particularly from Spain and Italy, has produced in Argentina a people who are almost all of European ancestry. Several native tribes still exist in Argentina and among these are the Diaguita tribes of the Andean Northwest. Its population is estimated to be of 37,384,816. The population growth rate is average at 1.15% (2001 est.). Several native tribes still exist in Argentina and among these are the Diaguita tribes of the Andean Northwest. Because of the immigration, Argentina consists of different ethnic groups, which are: 97% white (mostly Spanish and Italian), and the other 3% were Mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups. This makes Argentina have an enormous amount of whites compared to other South American countries.

Although English, Italian, German, and French are spoken widely throughout Argentina, the official language spoken in Argentina is Spanish. Almost more than 90% of the population in Argentina are Roman Catholic, Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other religions (4%). The females in Argentina have a life expectancy rate of 78.82 years. While the males have a life expectancy rate of 71.88 years. Argentina has the cultures of a typical South American country. The average life expectancy of most of the population is about 75.26 years. In 2001 the average birth rate was 18.41 births out of a population of 1000. Meanwhile the death rate was 7.58 deaths out of a population of 1000. In 1995 the literacy rate was 96.2% of the population of Argentina.

 

Defense:

Argentina’s military force is one of the strongest military forces in South America Argentina’s military was able to take power of the country for 7 years (from 1976-1983). This makes the fact that Argentina cannot totally control the military evident. Argentina has a quite large range of military facilities. Its military branches consisted of: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, and National Aeronautical Police Force. A male has to exceed the age of 20 to be allowed to join the military. The manpower that is available to the military of Argentina is 9,404,434 (2001 est.). Military manpower that are fit for military services are males from ages 15 – 49; 7,625,425 (2001 est.). The males that are reaching the military age soon are about 335,085 (2001 est.). Argentina’s military expenditure is an annual estimate of $4.3 billion. Argentina does not really have any defense needs as there is no threatening party that opposes the country.

 

Views on world problems:

Argentina is considered a fairly neutral country that promotes peace. Argentina supports this as it has not been engaged in war since 1982. It proudly supports poor developing nations and regions devastated by natural disasters by giving loans and other aid. Having this position gives Argentina many allies like the US, EU member states and of course fellow South American members like Brazil (here are Argentina’s friends). Most of these partners are also trade partners. Argentina is fairly stable, with its good relation with many independent nations.

 

History:

It’s true when people say that history repeats itself. To begin with, Argentina was founded in 1810 by Spanish separatists after Napoleon conquered Spain. It declared independence on July 9, 1816. Argentina was only engaged in one major war, which was the Falkland Islands War, "the dirty war," against Britain over the Falkland Islands. Argentina lost the Falkland Islands and the war. Peron injected important virtues into the Argentinean political and social systems like redistributing revenues to the workers and industrial sectors, public services were nationalized, and many other important changes were made to improve the country. Argentina has had many leaders assassinated or overthrown by way of military coups and takeovers. The shortest presidential term was served by Gen. Arturo Rawson who resigned after two days in office due to a loss of military support.

Col. Juan Peron was an important figure in Argentina's history. He helped unions win favorable settlements from employers; he pushed through a welfare program that provided vacations, retirement benefits, and severance pay. Peron was elected and supported by his supporters, who called themselves Peronistas, the group supported Perón as its candidate for the presidency. The Peronistas campaigned among members of the working class. He was elected president at which point Argentina declared war on Germany allowing it to enter the United Nations. Peron was overthrown in 1955 in a military coup. Peron had extremely right wing policies for the military that were bordering on radicalism. However, Peron also has left-wing socialism. After Peron's demise a three man military junta ruled the government. After the loss of the Falkland Islands to Britain, Argentina was prosecuted on the grounds of human rights violations. This was caused by the political unrest that was taking place in the country. This was due to the persecutions of many officers in the army on the grounds of incompetence. After this point new economic policies were adopted and the country began to invest in international markets and in the industrial sector in Argentina.

 

 

Policy Statements


The question of the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea,

Africa in general, has suffered from artificial borders drawn by former imperial and colonial rulers. Argentina is deeply concerned to find out that the May 1998-June 2000 war alone resulted in 100,000 deaths and millions of dollars diverted from much needed development into military activities and weapons procurements. The source of the problem is that Ethiopia no longer has a border along the Red Sea and therefore relies on going through other countries such as Eritrea in order to ship and trade goods along that line. During the middle of 1999, both Ethiopia and Eritrea had accepted a peace plan brokered by the Organization for African Unity (OAU) in principle. However, they disagreed on implementation issues and blamed each other for various things, from who started the conflict, to who was not committing to the peace process, thereby making peace harder to come by. At the end of May 2000, Ethiopia claimed to have ended the war with Eritrea. They claimed a victory, while Eritrea claimed a tactical withdrawal. Both sides are meeting again to see if peace can be brokered. 750,000 Eritrean refugees are thought to have fled their homes.

Argentina as one of the neutral countries sees this problem as one of the issues that hold back the advance to promote world peace. As there is a peace plan, Argentina sees it necessary to stick to this plan. So first, a sub organization of the UN will be responsible to solve this conflict. First it will hold regular meetings on monthly basis with a group of representatives from each government (including the President). In addition, Argentina sees it necessary agree on creating a new agreement by neutral party, other than the OAU. Knowing that every agreement on this issue is made by non-neutral organizations or countries. The 2 sides will have peace talk to make it possible for both sides to adhere to the peace plan agreed upon. They can change what the plan states later on if both sides agree. This may also mean that they might come with another plan, and this is if and only if both sides agree. Not only this, but the organization will get UN peacekeeping troops to make sure both sides are implementing the plan. This is the plan Argentina sees as neutral and effective.

 

 

Resolution

Country: Argentina

Forum: SC
Student: Abdullah Al-Ibrahim

Defining a conflict as, according to www.dictionary.com, "a state of open, often prolonged fighting; a battle or war,"

Defining a border as, according to www.dictionary.com, the line or frontier area separating political divisions or geographic regions; a boundary,

Having studied that, according to http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa/EthiopiaEritrea.asp, Africa in general, has suffered from artificial borders drawn by former imperial and colonial rulers,

Having studied that there has been 30 years of war and conflict as Eritrea attempted to gain independence,

Noting with regret observers and analysts, according to http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa/EthiopiaEritrea.asp, are increasingly concerned at the destabilizing effects of the Ethiopia-Eritrea war on the wider Horn of Africa region,

Noting with hope that, according to http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa/EthiopiaEritrea.asp, inn an April 1993 internationally monitored referendum, where 98.5% of the registered voters voted, and 99.8% of these voted for independence, although the borders were not defined clearly,

Noting with deep regret that just as the 2 countries seem to get along, war again resulted over what the BBC mention as a minor border dispute in May 1998, and over differences on ethnicity and economic progress approaches,

Having studied that, according to http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa/EthiopiaEritrea.asp, the May 1998 - June 2000 war alone resulted in 100,000 deaths and millions of dollars diverted from much needed development into military activities and weapons procurements,

Alarmed By the fact that, according to http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Africa/EthiopiaEritrea.asp, both Ethiopia and Eritrea had accepted a peace plan brokered by the Organization for African Unity (OAU) in principle, however, they disagreed on implementation issues and blamed each other for various things, from who started the conflict, to who was not committing to the peace process, thereby making peace harder to come by,

1. Demands the creation of a peace treaty in the UN called Ethiopia and Eritrea Conflict (EEC) and this would take place by having a meeting that :
A. Consists of:
i. groups of representatives from both countries (Ethiopia and Eritrea) each consisting of the president of the state,
ii. A representative of each SC nation,
iii. Advisors with expertise in related fields employed by the UN and observers from any interested nation that should include Switzerland and Egypt,
B. Hold one opening meeting in which the Ethiopian and Eritrean sides will come to a peaceful solution in the form of a treaty or/and peace plan and both will sign in the presence of the SC member nations,
C. Create:
i. incentives for both countries to cooperate, reach and adhere to the plan agreed upon, incentives may include:
1. Various types of aid (economic and medical aid),
2. Increase IMF loans,
ii. Consequences like imposing sanctions incase any country refuse to cooperate or implicate the plan agreed upon,
D. Hold monthly meetings and:
i. Discuss and negotiate the issue between Eritrea and Ethiopia peacefully,
ii. Edit the original peace plan originally agreed upon by the Ethiopian and Eritrean sides,
iii. Hold emergency meetings in case of an emergency,
iv. Discuss any development in the conflict between the 2 sides,
E. Call UN peacekeeping troops and monitors to make sure that both Eritrea and Ethiopia are implementing the plan agreed upon and there are no violations to the plan,

 

 

Opening Speech


Honorable chairs and fellow delegates,

Hola!

A warm, welcoming greeting comes to you from the land of the most amazing culture. The Land where the natural wonders attract people from all corners of the world. Where you can always hear the clatter of seashells in our many beaches. From the northern deserts to the southern Andean Cordillera, from Iguazu Falls to the magnificent desolation of Patagonia, Argentina welcomes you all.

Argentina stands here today in the UN SC to present to the delegation the solution Argentina proposes to solve the issue, in addition to agreeing or disagreeing on solutions proposed by you 14 nations. This is a very serious issue that Argentina believes should be solved as soon as possible to avoid any further lives lost. Argentina is looking for the neutral and effective solutions to solve the problem. May every person on the face of earth enjoy world peace.

Gracias Por Todo,

Thanks to all.

 

 

Statement of the Delegate


It was one of the most memorable debates I ever went through. I have to admit that I laughed more than any other event. I represented Argentina in the AAG event. Although Argentina isn’t that active and important in the SC, I managed to pass a clause regarding the issue of the Kenyan and Ethiopian. All in all, it was defiantly the most comic MUN event ever! Although I was assigned a neutral country, I managed to get in an exciting debate.