Event: AAGIAC 2005
Student: Sarah Al-Muzaini
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
1) Political Structure:
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is a communist state with a unitary government. Meaning, China’s government is based on a single component which is communism. Communism is a form of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and the government strives to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people. China is currently lead by President Hu Jintao and Vice President Zeng Qinghong as of 15th March, 2003. The elections for President and Vice President in China are held every five years. When elected, the President nominates a person as head of government, President Hu Jintao nominated Premier Wen Jiabao on March 16th, 2003. There are four Vice Premiers in China, who are: Vice Premiers Huang Ju, Wu Yi, Zeng Peiyan, and Hui Liangyu all of which were nominated on the 17th of March, 2003. China’s legislative branch is composed of the unicameral National People’s Congress which includes 2,985 members elected to serve for five years. The final decision of laws in China is up to the National People’s Congress.
The People’s Republic of China’s constitution states that there are six components that make up the country’s state organs. The principle organs of state power are the President, the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the National People’s Congress (NPC), the Supreme People’s Court and the procurator-general of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate. Five of the six organs are formed by the National People's Congress, and are responsible to the NPC and the Congressional Standing Committee. China is a large country in area and strength. Therefore, China must maintain stability and can only do so by continuing to strike between the right balance linking permanence and long-term stability, and the capacity for change and adaptation to our intricate and ever-changing world. Thus, China plans on expanding its policies to benefit the people, the country itself, and the international community in a manner that will consist of compromise and much more.
Only a little smaller than the US and with an area of 9,596,960 sq. km, China is the fourth largest country in the world, BUT MOST OF IT IS WASTELAND (unlike the USA)! Since China is a large country, it is only expected that it contains diverse and great geographical features. It is bordered on the north by the Mongolian Republic and Russia; on the north-east by Russia and North Korea; on the east by the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea; on the south by the South China Sea, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), India, Bhutan, and Nepal; on the west by Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan; and on the north-west by Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
As for its features, China includes more than 3,400 offshore islands. In addition, mountains occupy about 43 per cent of China’s land surface; mountainous plateaus account for another 26 per cent; and basins, predominantly hilly and located mainly in arid regions, cover approximately 19 per cent of the area. Only 12 per cent of the total area may be classed as flatlands. China enjoys the luxury of great rivers (Huang He, Xi Yang etc.), where many early civilizations existed thousands of years ago. These rivers have allowed China to prosper agriculturally, initiate trade, and commence transportation to and from China.
3) Natural Resources
Over 80% of China’s land is wasteland. China’s vast area with diverse climates, elevations, and numerous geographical features provides numerous natural resources such as coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, and hydropower (worlds largest). Unfortunately, these resources are not sufficient to meet the needs of 1.2 billion people.
As for agriculture, it plays an significant role in China’s resources since about 85% of the planted area of China's land is for food crops; these food crops being rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oil seed, pork and fish. China has trade agreements with the following countries, United States (MFN), Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Singapore, and Taiwan. Import partners on the other hand are, Japan, Gulf Council Countries, Taiwan, South Korea, United States, Germany, Hong Kong, Russia and Malaysia. The only problem that China badly suffers from is resource insufficiency. This problem is causing China to import some vitally needed mineral resources such as oil and copper and consequently China spends a lot of money annually on these resources. These mineral resources are extremely essential in China, especially for the production of certain goods. China will have to spend even more money in the near future for importing these minerals if this problem is not solved.
4) Cultural Factors
China is the home of over 1,273,111,290 setting a record for the country with the highest population. Due to having more than one-fifth of the world’s population, there are numerous minorities living amongst each other including ethnic, religious and literacy diversities. The country of China has over 55 different ethnic groups; the largest group is the Hans which make up 92% of the population. Since the Hans consists of 92% of China’s population, while the other 55 ethnic groups cover three-fifths of the country’s area. The government takes care for the standard of living and most importantly is caring for literacy. Unfortunately, the problem is that most of the economies of the other ethnic minorities and races are not as developed as the Han. Therefore the Chinese government created numerous policies and laws to assist them in strengthening their economies. Given that there are over 55 different ethnic groups in China that have no conflicts with each other, a climate of parity and tranquillity exists in China.
As mentioned previously, the remaining 8% is made up of 54 divergent ethnicities and races; among them are Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Yi, Mongolian, Tibetan, Buyi, Korea, and other ethnic minorities. As for the several religions that exist in China, the most commonly spread and known is Atheist. Other religious beliefs include Confucianism, Buddhism, and there is Taoism. The non-atheist religions are Islam 3% and Christianity 1%. Languages in China differ and vary they are starchiness or Mandarin, Yue, Wu, Minnan, Xiang, Gann, and Hakka dialects.
The Chinese government has encouraged Han Chinese to settle in Tibet. This caused incidents of political violence including bombings to targeted people. Fights between Hans and Muslims occurred, causing lots of problem in the Chinese society. But since the end of the Cultural Revolution, mosques have been allowed to reopen and Islamic education permitted because Chinese policy has been to tolerate religious minorities. The Hans claim that most of the terrorist attacks in China come from Muslims. In June 1990, 12 Muslim bombed a bridge in the city of Asku. The Muslims population in China is estimated at more than 48 million (10.5% of the Chinese population).
The Economy of the People's Republic of China is the second largest in the world when measured by purchasing power parity, with a GDP (PPP) of US $7.124 trillion in 2004. In the 1950s, China’s Communist government began bringing a majority of economic activity under state control and determined production, pricing, and distribution of goods and services. This system is known as a planned economy, and is also called a command economy. However in the year 1979, China began executing economic reforms to develop and modernize its market. The reforms have steadily narrowed the government’s control of the economy, allowing some aspects of a market economy and encouraging foreign investment. Despite this reform, China’s command sector is a social security system.
This reform has resulted in economic growth at an average annual rate of 10.2 percent in the 1980s and by 10.3 percent annually in the period of 1990-2000. This was among the highest growth rates in the world. However, the reforms also have caused problems for China’s economic planners. Income gaps have widened, unemployment has increased, and inflation has resulted from the extremely rapid and unbalanced development. In 2000 China’s gross domestic product (GDP) was $1,079.9 billion.
China’s currency is the Yuan, also known as CNY, an international name for its currency is Renminbi (RMB). There are 8.28 CNY per 1 US dollar. China is $149.4 billion in debt (1,237,032,000 CNY). China’s GDP, purchasing power parity, is $5.989 trillion. China’s yearly budget is estimated to about $224.8 billion for revenues, and $267.1 billion for expenditures. Therefore, China depends on what it imports, because it pays more money for imports than exports.
China maintains one of the largest militaries in the world, based on its inventory of major weapon systems. However, the bulk of China's holdings are old in both physical age and technology. Many weapon systems which came into service in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s remain in the inventory today; and all of those systems use 1950s-era technology originally imported from the Soviet Union. While China is modernizing its conventional forces, the new systems are entering are a low rate compared with the overall size of the older forces. As a result over the next decade, as the oldest weapon systems are fully retired, the size of China's conventional forces will shrink dramatically.
The People’s Liberation Army (PLO) forms the Chinese army. There are several military branches, which are the Ground Forces and the Navy. Both branches are broken down into Marines and Naval Aviation, Air Force, Second Artillery Corps (the tactical missile force), People’s Armed Police, which include inside security groups, supposedly minor to Ministry of Public Security. People that are available for the military are over 18 and the military force consists of 366,306,353 persons. For the past decade, China has been strong and stable military-wise and has massive abilities and strength to advance even further.
7) View of World Problems
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China's foreign policy primarily focused on relations with the Soviet Union and other communist countries. China initially was good allies with the USSR, but later on the USSR "betrayed" China, and they both started competing for stronger influence on communist nations. After China was disappointed by the USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan and the USSR’s troops in north China, China sought to create a secure regional and global environment for itself and to foster good relations with countries that could aid its economic development. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991, China also opened diplomatic relations with the republics of the former Soviet Union. China improved its relations with other countries in the next few years and has also made efforts to reduce tensions in Asia. In addition, China is very concerned with the issue of North Korea. China has clearly contributed to stability on the Korean Peninsula, cultivated a more cooperative relationship with members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and participated in the ASEAN Regional Forum. Also, China has improved ties with Russia and they share strong trade relations.
At the present time, China marked the importance of relations with Mongolia and they both signed 10 agreements to reaffirm their friendship and pledged to increase ties. In addition, China and Ethiopia share traditional friendship and their relations have witnessed sound progress under the five principles of peaceful co-existence since the two countries established diplomatic ties 35 year ago. The two countries have enhanced political mutual trust, expanded economic cooperation since the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front took power. Regarding other international relations, China is ready to make joint efforts with Croatia to expand and enrich the cooperation between the two armed forces. The two sides have been active to push forward the development of bilateral ties since China and Croatia established diplomatic relations 13 years ago.
China has stood as a leading civilization since the beginning of time till this day. Dynasty after dynasty ruled larger parts of what is now China, from the 2nd millennium BC, and they have greatly influenced today's China in more ways than one. Thus China enjoys the luxury of a rich past that was both prospering and promising. In Beijing, on October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China.
The new government assumed control and quickly installed new political and economic order modeled on the Soviet example. In addition, the new leaders gained popular support by controlling inflation, restoring the economy, and rebuilding many war-damaged industrial plants. The CCP's authority reached into almost every aspect of Chinese life. Large, politically loyal security and military forces, and ranks of party members in labor, women’s, and other mass organizations assured party control. Hua Guofeng reinstated Mao’s death and the government’s fall later that year, in 1977. He started a massive redevelopment of China. The biggest reform was the economic reform, which reintroduced aspects of a free-market economy and encouraged foreign investment. Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the world's SECOND largest GDP.
The conflict regarding Eritrea and Ethiopia has caused unrest in the African region. The war started approximately 30 years ago. The May 1998 - June 2000 war alone resulted in 100,000 deaths and millions of dollars diverted from much needed development into military activities and weapons procurements. However, the major reason for the recent conflict is the fact that Ethiopia no longer has a border along the Red Sea and therefore relies on going through other countries such as Eritrea in order to ship and trade goods along that line. In 1974, the Soviet Union provided $11 billion in arms to Ethiopia. In 1993, the Province of Eritrea became independent from Ethiopia. In 1997, Eritrea issued its own currency, and this disordered trade with Ethiopia. A border commission was established in November 1997 between the two countries, however, these two countries met only once and had made no progress before the conflict became bigger. Eritrea has been receiving at least $300 million a year for its war effort from its Diaspora. Recently the United Nations threatened sanctions on both Ethiopia and Eritrea if they use any military force against each other. Both governments rapidly recruited and rearmed. In fact, Ethiopia doubled the size of its army to 200,000. The UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) has already announced that it is pulling troops from 18 of 40 border posts and warns that it is now unable to properly monitor the border. If the UN does pull out completely, the war could restart. According to the United Nations, $185,993,300 was spent for peacekeeping troops between the two countries. In September 13, 2005 the Security Council adopted Resolution 1622, which calls Ethiopia and Eritrea to resolve peacefully their border dispute. Eritrea committed frequent and serious violations of international law in its treatment of Ethiopian civilians in Eritrea during and following the two-year armed conflict initiated by Eritrea against Ethiopia.
The People’s Republic of China’s position regarding to Eritrea and Ethiopia crisis is neutral. In addition, China has displayed firm support to Africa's fight and its ongoing efforts in eliminating poverty and underdevelopment. Both of which are a few of the many resultants of this conflict. It is clear to China as well as the entire international community that both Eritrea and Ethiopia require food, medical aid, and financial aid that isn’t spent on the military or its weapons. China believes in both nations and strongly supports peaceful negotiations which will surely lead to the conclusion of this conflict. China plans to stand firmly with these countries and will support them so long as they cooperate peacefully and once all involved parties are also willing to approach the table of negotiations. This issue, like many, can be ended simply with constructive discussions which will end the state of turmoil in the African Region.
Preambulatory Clauses:Notes chapter VI of the UN Charter, article 33 states that The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice, Defines the Ethiopian conflict as a border dispute between two sovereign UN member nations, which led to a war in 1998, Affirming that, according to BBC, in 1993 when Ethiopia and Eritrea separated, it was a "amicable" or "friendly" separation, Stressing that lasting peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea as well as in the region cannot be achieved without the full demarcation of the border between the parties, Concerned that according to an article from Eritrean News and Views titled "Comparison of Eritrean and Ethiopian Military (Defense) Expenditures: 1993- 1997" on May 2, 1999, that the Eritrean invasion which took place on May 12, 1998, of Ethiopian territory violated international law, Expressing its grave concern at the Ethiopian Government’s failure, to date, to accept without preconditions the implementation of the final and binding decision of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (S/2002/423), According to the map Eritrea-Ethiopia Border from The Hague Commission , Badme Town is located in Eritrea (http://www.shaebia.org/wwwboard/messages/191.html), Further notes that according to UNMEE Map Showing Northern and Southern TSZ Borders (Indicating Location of Badme Town), Badme Town is in Eritrea but Ethiopia is claiming that Badme town was given to it by the April 13, 2002 ruling of the Boundary Commission, Keeping in mind that according to Eritrean claims, Ethiopia provoked the invasion because of a clash on May 6, 1998 between Ethiopian police and Eritrean army units in Badime, Recalling that the US-Rwanda peace plan was developed after three-week diplomatic efforts and consultations with both sides and The OAU has endorsed the US-Rwanda plan as the basis for its efforts in securing peace, and the UN has also backed the plan, Ethiopia has fully accepted the plan while Eritrea has rejected it and the President of Eritrea has stated that his troops would never withdraw from the territories they occupied as recommended in the US-Rwanda peace plan: "not even if the sun doesn't rise," Further recalling that according to www.wikipedia.org, highlights of the agreement include: North Korea agreeing to abandon all nuclear weapons and nuclear programs, the United States and South Korea declaring they have no nuclear weapons on the Korean Peninsula, that the United States has no intention of attacking and/or invading North Korea, that Japan and the United States will work to normalize ties with North Korea, Bringing to mind that according to www.wikipedia.org, Six-party talks is the name given to meetings of the People's Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea, Russia, Japan and the United States, held in order to find a resolution of the crisis over the North Korean nuclear weapons program, Further bringing to mind that according to www.wikipedia.org, On November 12, 2005 a three-day meeting, the first session of the fifth found of the talks, which was held in Beijing began with the agreeing of all present countries to a "commitment for commitment, action for action" principle, Deeply concerned that according to www.globalissues.org, the May 1998 - June 2000 war alone resulted in 100,000 deaths and millions of dollars diverted from much needed development into military activities and weapons procurements, Believing that, according to BBC, the relationship between the two countries later deteriorated and Ethiopia started accusing Eritrea of "invading a piece of land that was under Ethiopian administration," but Eritrea simply replied "land in question was rightfully theirs," Alarmed that food purchases are a serious drain on Eritrea's limited foreign exchange reserves since Eritrea requires 600,000 to one million metric tons of cereal grains annually and in a good year, Eritrea is able to meet nearly one fourth of its food needs only, causing starvation to spread rapidly amongst the people in Eritrea (U.S. Embassy Asmara, Eritrea, March 1998),
1. Demands the formation of a committee under the name CIA-EE (Conflicts In Africa-Eritrea and Ethiopia), A. the following nations will be the respective members of the CIA-EE: The People’s Republic Of China, The United States of America, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Russia and Italy, 2. The committee will hold an immediate meeting in Beijing, China and will include all representatives of the respective members, A. The meeting will reaffirm that the goal of the seven-party talks is the concluding of the Eritrea and Ethiopia conflict in a peaceful manner, B. The seven parties shall undertake to promote economic cooperation in the fields of medical aid, food, trade, and investment, so long as to benefit Eritrea and Ethiopia’s exceedingly damaged economies and its affected citizens, C. All members shall abide by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and recognized norms of international relations in order to end this conflict in a diplomatic manner, 3. Both Eritrea and Ethiopia are to abide by the following conditions, in order to receive any further economic aid: A. Solving the present crisis and any other dispute, between both countries, shall be through peaceful and legal means which are in accordance with the principles enshrined in the Charter of the Organization of African Unity, B. Both countries shall reject the use of force as a means of imposing solutions to disputes, C. Both countries shall respect the borders existing at independence as stated in Resolution AHG/Res. 16(1) adopted by the OAU Summit in Cairo in 1964 and, in this regard, determine them on the basis of pertinent colonial Treaties and applicable international law, making use, to that end, of technical means to demarcate the borders and, in the case of controversy, resort to the appropriate mechanism of arbitration, D. Both parties shall commit themselves to an immediate cessation of hostilities, 4. In order to defuse tension and build confidence, the two Parties commit themselves to put an immediate end to any action and any form of expression likely to perpetrate or exacerbate the climate of hostility and tension between them thereby jeopardizing the efforts aimed at finding a peaceful solution to the conflict, A. In order to create conditions conducive to a comprehensive and lasting settlement of the conflict through the delimitation and demarcation of the border, the armed forces presently in Badme Town and its environs, should be redeployed to the positions they held before 6 May 1998 as a mark of goodwill and consideration for our continental Organization, it being understood that this redeployment will not prejudge the final status of the area concerned, which will be determined at the end of the seven party talks including all members of the CIA-EE; B. All members shall contribute to the ending of this conflict through peaceful negotiations as soon as possible.
Honorable Chairs, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests, it is extremely apparent that the conflict regarding Eritrea and Ethiopia has caused unrest in the African region. The issue has resulted in more than 20 years of armed conflict, the spread of starvation, thousands of deaths at the least, and human rights violations.
Both Eritrea and Ethiopia have received financial aid from various countries. It saddens China that this money has been spent unwisely.
Regardless, China believes in both nations and strongly supports peaceful negotiations which will surely lead to the conclusion of this conflict. China plans to stand firmly with these countries and will support them so long as they cooperate peacefully and once all involved parties are also willing to approach the table of negotiations. This issue, like many, can be ended with constructive discussions which will end the state of turmoil in the African Region. After all, this idea is similar to the successful six party talks which include highlights such as: North Korea agreeing to abandon all nuclear weapons and nuclear programs, the United States and South Korea declaring they have no nuclear weapons on the Korean Peninsula, that the United States has no intention of attacking and/or invading North Korea, that Japan and the United States will work to normalize ties with North Korea.
In addition, China feels that there is no need to involve any more countries or troops. The sending of troops will only make this problem a lot more intiricate. This is especially true since this issue can be solved through peaceful negotiations. After all, the Confucious once wisely stated "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."
During the AAG Security Council Conference, the issue on the agenda was the Eritrea – Ethiopia conflict. The session started with both the delegates of Russia and Eritrea arguing about evidence regarding the issue. The Chair brushed this matter aside before tensions rose and problems developed. In addition, the USA began by blaming numerous countries, including China, for adding to this already intricate conflict and delaying probable solutions through numerous actions. After a series of brawls and accusations between China and USA, the council concluded that the USA was just as guilty as any other country if not much more, and China is in fact innocent from USA’s accusations.
The first clause presented in order to solve the issue, was by the Russian delegate. The clause called for negotiations between the involved parties (Eritrea, Ethiopia, and the 5 permanent members). This clause was very similar to the one to be presented by China, thus China stood by the clause and supported it as it passed with a majority vote. The crisis situation involved China’s safety, which was being threatened by a sovereign dictatorship group located in newly independent California. Given that, China and Russia submitted a joint clause that allowed their intervention into the USA, and to send troops to get rid of this group, and re-establish California as a state in the USA. A final clause regarding the Eritrea – Ethiopia conflict was presented as a "friendly clause" by Eritrea. This clause passed and became part of the two-clause resolution, which will end this conflict. The forum was able to solve both the issue of Eritrea and Ethiopia, and the crisis situation with minutes to spare until the conclusion of the AAG conference.