Event: AAGIAC 2005
Student: Mariam Dashti
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2005-2006 Team page
Country Profile France
A. Statistical InformationLocation: Western Europe, Bordering: Germany- North east, Belgium- North, Switzerland- East, Italy- South, east, Spain- South, Mediterranean Sea- South, Bay of Biscay- West, and English Channel- North Area:total: 547,030 sq. km; land: 545,630 sq. km; water: 1,400 sq. km Population: 60,656,178 (July 2005 est.) Age Structure: 0-14 years: 18.4% (male 5,717,761/female 5,440,060) 15-64 years: 65.2% (male 19,784,749/female 19,752,432) 65 years and over: 16.4% (male 4,084,193/female 5,876,983) (2005 est.) Population growth rate: 0.37% (2005 est.) Birth rate: 12.15 births/1,000 population (2005 est.) Death rate: 9.08 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.) Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.26 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.6 years male: 75.96 years female: 83.42 years (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
Religions: Roman Catholic 83%-88% Protestant 2% Jewish 1% Muslim 5%-10% unaffiliated 4%Literacy rates: Age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (1980 est.)
Languages: Official- French Other-Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish
France is a rich developed country that is a key player on the world stage and a country at the political heart of Europe. France has a moderate population and population growth rate. The life expectancy at birth is about 80 and that's very high compared to other countries. The most common religion in France is Roman catholic and the rest are minorities. France's official language is French and 100% of its population speaks French. Other languages are spoken but not as much as French.
GDP: $1.737 trillion (2004 est.) Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorospar, gypsum, timber, fish
Land use: Arable land: 33.53% Permanent crops: 2.07% Other: 64.4% (2001)
Export: $419 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Exports partners: Germany 15%, Spain 9.5%, UK 9.3%, Italy 9%, Belgium 7.2%, US 6.7% (2004)
Imports: $419.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Imports partners: Germany 19.2%, Belgium 9.9%, Italy 8.8%, Spain 7.4%, UK 7%, Netherlands 6.7%, US 5.1% (2004)
External Debt: $NA
Aid Donor/recipient: ODA, $5.4 billion (2002)
Population below poverty line: 6.5% (2000)
Inflation: 2.1% (2004 est.)
Unemployment: 9.9% (2005 est.)
France is in the middle of a transition, from a modern economy that has extensive government ownership and intrusion to an economy that relies more on market mechanisms. It has been gradually relaxing its control over the sectors since the early 1990s. The government is slowly selling off holdings in companies, as well as the insurance, banking and defense industries. As a member of the G8 group of leading industrialized countries, it ranked as the fifth largest economy in the world in 2004, after the US, Japan, Germany and UK. France joined 10 EU members to launch the Euro on January 1,1999, with Euro coins and bank notes completely replacing the French franc in early 2002, which affected its economy and the economy of the other countries that joined. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), France, in 2004, was the world's fifth largest exporter of manufactured goods, and also the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods. France is also the second most productive country in the OCED.
Despite a higher productivity than in the US, France's GDP per capita is significantly lower than the US's GDP per capita. The reason for this is because a much smaller percentage of the French population is working compared to the US, which lowers the GDP per capita of France. In fact, France has one of the lowest percentage of its population at work. In 2003, 41.5% of the French population was working. This is the result of almost thirty years of unemployment in France. The main issue with the French economy is not productivity, it's an issue of structural reforms, in order to increase the size of the working population in the overall population.
France has an important aerospace industry led by Airbus and is the only European power to have its own national spaceport named Center Spatial Guyana's. France is also the most energy independent Western country due to heavy investments in nuclear power, which also makes France the smallest producer of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialized countries in the world. France has combined EU subsidies and modern technology to make itself the leading agricultural producer in Europe.
France's economic policy aims to promote investments and domestic growth in a stable environment. Creating jobs and reducing the high unemployment rate has been a top priority. With those priorities in mind, the government had reduced taxes or contributions and also increased military spending.
C. Recent History:
France went through a lot of challenges in the past to get to this position in the world. Although ultimately France was a victor in both World War I and World War II, France suffered extensive losses in its country, the economic status, population and its status as a dominant nation state. French leaders tie the future of France to the continued development of the European Union (EU). During President Mitt errand's term, he stressed the importance of European alliance and supported the approval of the Maastricht Treaty on European economic and political union, which France's citizens barely approved in September 1992. Jacques Chirac, current president of France, was elected president ending 14 years of Socialist president in May 1995. IN late 1995, France experienced its worst labor unrest in at least a decade, as employees protested government cutbacks. France also attracted international disapproval by conducting a series of nuclear test in the Pacific.
The introduction of the Euro in January 1999, which France and 10 EU members began, affected the economy of the countries that joined and France itself. Then in June 2001, Chirac announced that necessary military services are abolished. That led to the decrease of unemployment rates. In January 2002, the Euro finally replaced the franc that was first made in 1360. That affected the public's decision on re-electing Chirac since he was re-elected president after winning the National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen in the second round of voting. Lionel Jospin, the main left-wing presidential contender, resigned as prime minister and as Socialist Party leader. With the resignation of Jospin, Chirac nominated Jean-Pierre Raffarin, a moderate right-winger, as temporary prime minister. In November 2002, a widespread public sector strikes over government privatization plans that brought the country to a standstill.
In March 2003, a big change on the constitution was made that allowed transference to regions and departments of power over economic development, transport, tourism, culture and further education. It also provided local referenda, to give people more say in local decisions. That year in August, a heat wave struck Paris where temperatures soared above 40C that resulted to the death of 11,000 people. Another public sector strike was organized, in January 2005, where the Trade unions proposed labor, pension and welfare reforms.
France has always been at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the energy on monetary union to advance the creation of a more unified and capable political, defense, and security equipment, however, its population voted against the agreement of the European constitutional Treaty in May 2005. That resulted to a political shake-up, that included the resignation of Prime Minister Raffarin.
Another one-day national strike was organized in October 2005. The protests at welfare reforms, low pay and privatization plans caused a wide widespread disruption. On October 25 2005, rioting actions are spread and violence is something common in the suburb of Argenteuil. The rioting is escalation and spreading to other cities. The government has introduced emergency measures in order to restore order once again.
Question of:Eritrea and Ethiopia border dispute
The Ethiopia-Eritrea Border War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea. From 1962 until 1991, Eritrea had fought a long war of independence against Ethiopia, leading to a peaceful separation in 1993. the border between the two countries was not clear, and several adjacent areas were under dispute. After the independence, the two neighbors began disagreeing over currency and trade issues, and both claimed that several border regions including Badme, were their own. On May 6, 1998, fighting began between Eritrean and Ethiopian troops over the Badme region. Ethiopia and Eritrea declared total war. By late June 1998, both sides agreed to stop air raids, however, in October they renewed their mobilization efforts, moving soldiers and arms to the border. They began hostilities in February 1999 when Ethiopia took Badme from Eritrea.
In June 2000, after two years of fighting in a border dispute, Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a cessation of hostilities agreement following proximity talks led by Algeria and the Organization of African Unity. In July, the Security Council set up UNMEE to maintain liaison with the parties and establish a mechanism for verifying the cease-fire. In September 2000, the Council authorized deployment within UNMEE of up to 4,200 military personnel to monitor the cessation of hostilities and to help ensure the observance of security commitments. A 25-kilometer-wide Temporary Security Zone was established within Eritrea, patrolled by United Nations peacekeeping forces from over 60 countries UNMEE. In April 2002, the Boundary Commission established under the Algiers Agreement drew a boundary that provided some territory to each side, but awarded Badme to Eritrea. Ethiopia rejected that decision initially, but in November 2004, said that it accepted the ruling "in principle." Nonetheless, Ethiopia has begun remobilizing troops along the border, and as of 2005, there is new fear that the two countries could return to war. The governments of both countries are widely accused of using the conflict as a basis for suppressing internal dissent.
The UNMEE is one of many attempts of the UN to mobilize and solve this issue. The UNMEE which stands for the United Nation Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, is a peacekeeping mission that was sent in June 2000 by the Security Council in order to bring peace between the two countries. Several resolutions were written and passed in the Security Council. Some examples are: S/RES/1434, passed on 6 September 2002 which was a decision to extend the mandate of UNMEE until March 15,2003. S/RES/1586, passed on 14 March 2005, which was a decision to extend the mandate of UNMEE until September 15,2005 and called both countries to refrain from any threat of use of force against each other. A commission by the name of Eritrea-Ethiopia Border commission is a commission that has an influence towards this issue. It is also a commission under the United Nations. More than one treaty was made for this issue there is the 1908 treaty which concerns both countries and gives them neutral decisions and states that peace actions are the only actions that both countries can take, and other treaties like 1900 and 1902. Even the OAU, Organization of African Unity, is involved in the issue because both Eritrea and Ethiopia in Africa.
France takes this is issue seriously because it affects international security and peace. The people of Eritrea and Ethiopia have been denied peace for more than three decades. This has had a devastating effect on their economies. The people deserve peace, development, and human rights. Such things can be given only by the respect for the rule of law, the sovereignty and territorial honesty established by decisions made on these bases. This issue is a violation of the basic principles of international rule of law, sanctity of legal agreements, as well as respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states. France is a neutral country that wants peace. With this issue not solved, France will not reach it's ultimate goal for the world which is international security and peace.
France believes that peace ways is the answer and even though peace methods have been taken and not much difference have happened to the issue. This is what other countries think but in France's point of view is that peace actions have accomplished many opportunities to solve the problem for it has stopped the war between them and both countries are now willing to negotiate further on this issue. France thinks that both countries must allow UNMEE to investigate and carry out the tasks without any problems or difficulties. The reason is that if the UNMEE can figure out what is the most dangers that lead to this problem then they can illuminate it. This will create a safer border between the two countries.
1. Urges both countries to allow UNMEE investigators to carry out the tasks without any problems or difficulties and the tasks are to: A. monitor the cessation of hostilities, B. monitor the redeployment of Ethiopian forces C. ensure the observance of the security commitments agreed to by the two parties which are: i. to maintain Eritrean forces at a distance of 25 km (artillery range) from positions to which the Ethiopian forces are to post, ii. to refer to the zone of separation as the "temporary security zone", D. monitor the temporary security zone;
2. Calls upon both Ethiopia and Eritrea to continue to assume their responsibilities and fulfill their commitments under the Algiers Agreement which are to: A. terminate hostilities permanently and agree to refrain from the threat or use of force, B. respect and fully implement the provisions of an agreement on cessation of hostilities signed on June, 2000, C. release and repatriate all prisoners of war and all other persons detained, D. provide humane treatment to each other's nationals and persons of each other's national origin within their respective territories;
3. Expresses its concern at the ongoing food insecurity in Ethiopia and Eritrea and its potential to create greater instability and calls on Member States to continue to provide generous support for both humanitarian and development activities to improve food security in Ethiopia and Eritrea;